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Post 201 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:21:38

Skipper Critical after Pirate Shooting; Trinidad Ham Provides New Details

ViVi-Maj Miren talks about the pirate attack that left her husband hospitalized with a gunshot wound. [Photo by Trinidad Express Newspapers.]

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 26, 2001--The Swedish skipper of a sailboat, who was shot after pirates boarded his vessel March 20 off the coast of Venezuela, remains
hospitalized in Trinidad. The victim has been identified as Bo Altheden, SM7XBH, of Bjärred, Sweden. Hams on the Maritime Mobile Service Net assisted Altheden
and his wife, ViVi-Maj Miren, when Miren put out a call for help on 20 meters after her husband was shot once in the abdomen.

One of the hams who assisted in coordinating the rescue, Eric Mackie, 9Z4CP, of Trinidad, met late last week with Miren aboard the couple's vessel in Trinidad
and was able to learn additional details about what happened. According to what Miren told Mackie, the couple was en route to Trinidad and Tobago and having
lunch around 12:30 PM Atlantic Standard Time when their 44-foot-ketch Lorna was approached by six men in a fishing boat. "The vessel approached from behind,
pulled alongside and Bo went out on deck to see what they wanted," Mackie related. "They asked for cigarettes, and Bo said they did not smoke."

Sensing trouble, Altheden started back toward the helm with the intention of pulling away from the other vessel--which Mackie described as a "pirogue"--a
common fishing boat. But as he turned away, the intruders shot him in the right lower back.

Eric Mackie, 9Z4CP. [Photo by Trinidad Express Newspapers.]

Mackie says Miren told him that the bullet wound caused considerable internal damage and bleeding. Although Altheden made it to the helm on his own, Miren
had to help him into the vessel's salon, where he collapsed just inside. At that point, the pirates boarded the Lorna and helped themselves to what was
on board.

According to Mackie, the pirates' booty amounted to less than $20 in cash, Miren's watch, binoculars, a Walkman, snorkeling gear, some alcohol and a few
other items. Miren, in the meantime, was attending to her husband, who was conscious but not in good shape at that point. While the pirates destroyed the
two VHF radios onboard before they left, they missed the HF radio--an SGC SG-2020--which, Mackie said, was right in plain sight.

The pirates gone, Miren set off an EPIRB and unsuccessfully tried calling for help using a hand-held VHF. "When that didn't work, she went to the HF radio,"
Mackie said. She tried 2182 kHz without success too. Eventually, she landed on 20 meters and found the net on 14.300 MHz.

Mackie, who is a TV weather presenter in Trinidad, said he got involved while monitoring the Maritime Mobile Service Net. As he was preparing his evening
forecast, he heard a male voice call "break, break break" on frequency. "Propagation conditions at that time were absolutely terrible, and the net control
station did not hear the call," he said. Neither did anyone else, and some of those on frequency later said that they were worried Miren's call would be

Mackie said he broke the net to alert others to the call, which also was picked up by Dale Voss, KO4V, in the US Virgin Islands. The net control was having
trouble hearing Mackie and the distress call, however. This was at approximately 3:10 PM AST--nearly three hours after the shooting.

"I took control and asked Dale to relay what information he had, and while this was happening, the hams in the US started zeroing in on Trinidad," he said.
Mackie said he was able to learn in the meantime that the Lorna had been attacked by pirates, and he was able to contact the Trinidad and Tobago Coast
Guard and advise them of the situation. "I was able to give them most of the required information at that point, and they soon came up on the net frequency
and were able to speak with the S/Y Lorna directly," he said. "ViVi had also asked that I contact The Swedish Lion, some friends of theirs who were at
the Coral Cove Marina here, which I did and asked them to prepare to assist."

The Lorna at anchor in Europe. Mackie obtained this photograph from ViVi-Maj Miren, the wife of the wounded skipper.

Mackie said he had to bow out and head for work for a couple of hours and got Khaz Baksh, 9Z4AF, and Tony Lee Mack, 9Y4AL, to stand by on frequency while
he was away. By the time he got back, he said, word had spread fast and "every ham in Trinidad was tuned to 14.300!"

As it worked out, vessels from the Venezuelan Navy and the Trinidadian Coast Guard arrived on scene at approximately the same time. While a medical team
from Trinidad was able to board the Lorna to attend Altheden, it was decided to wait until the vessel was in calmer waters before attempting to transfer
him to the Coast Guard vessel.

Mackie says Bo Altheden now is in St Clair Medical Center, a private hospital set up to deal with trauma cases. According to Mackie, Altheden remains in
critical but stable condition.

"On a personal note, I found that the cooperation of the three countries and the amateur operators was instrumental in the successful conclusion of this
rescue," Mackie said, "This is not the first time that I have handled emergency situations, and there are few things that give me more of a sense of fulfillment
than to be able to help someone in need."

The shooting in the Caribbean Sea occurred some 3200 km to the east-southeast of a similar pirate attack nearly one year ago. In that incident, March 28,
2000, armed marauders shot young Willem van Tuijl from the Netherlands, who was sailing with his parents at the time.

Post 202 of 367

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285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:22:49

Hollingsworth Heaps Praise on Official Observers

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 28, 2001--FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth this week offered high praise for the work of the volunteer
ARRL Amateur Auxiliary's corps of Official Observers. Long a strong supporter of the OOs, Hollingsworth's most recent burst of appreciation was inspired
by investigative footwork done by an OO team that's assisting the FCC in an enforcement inquiry.

"It makes me realize that if it weren't for the OOs over the past 10 years, Amateur Radio would probably have imploded long ago and disintegrated from its
own chaos," Hollingsworth said. "We really thank them very much for their work here."

The Amateur Auxiliary is composed of approximately 700 ARRL Official Observer volunteer appointees across the US. The program was developed as a result
of a formal agreement between the FCC and the ARRL.

OOs function as helpers and advisors, not enforcers. They monitor the bands and notify amateurs of technical and operating discrepancies as a service. In
cases involving serious rule violations such as malicious interference, however, they are trained and certified to gather and forward evidence that can
be used by the FCC in enforcement actions. All OOs must pass a comprehensive examination before they can be certified as members of the Amateur Auxiliary.

In recent months, Hollingsworth's office has been attempting to make greater use of the Amateur Auxiliary in tackling enforcement issues. He says the Official
Observer program offers a way for amateurs to solve their own problems internally, without bringing in the FCC, but he notes that OOs often can provide
valuable local perspective during enforcement inquiries.

"It's this type of devotion of personal time to Amateur Radio and to helping us that gives me enough adrenaline to last for months," Hollingsworth said.

The bottom line, according to Hollingsworth, is protecting the future of Amateur Radio for those who enjoy it. "Radio spectrum has extremely high visibility,
and every time an operator gets on and degrades the bands, that operator is not only making Amateur Radio less enjoyable but endangering it as well."

For more information on the Amateur Auxiliary program, visit the ARRL
Web site.

Post 203 of 367

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285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:23:38

Drifting Off Thule

By Frank Wolfe, NM7R
March 28, 2001

Few hams who travel on business have a mobile platform anything like this one. For that matter, few hams travel in these "circles."

It's been a hectic workday. My office has, uncommonly, been the center of attention, and the day began before six. It's now after nine in the evening, and
things are finally beginning to calm down. With my desk cleared of work, I am ready to shut things down.

Dominating the small office is a Mackay MRU-35, High Frequency Single Sideband transmitter. It will run 1500 W PEP output on any HF frequency and is the
workhorse for communications from my tiny office. My hand hesitates on the power switch, and withdraws. Instead, I tune the receiver to 14.300 MHz and
listen for the Maritime Mobile Net. Sure enough, the net is in operation and coming in strong.

I tune up the MRU-35, keeping the throttle backed down to about 1300 W. When the net control asks for check-ins, I throw in "November Mike Seven Romeo."
He responds: "The Seven Romeo, fill in your call sign and call your traffic." Before I can even make a call, a familiar voice chimes in: "W2ABM copies
you. '303 and up, I'll call you, Frank." "Ok, Roy, 14.303 and up; I'll listen for your call. Thanks Net," I answer.

The ship anchored in Thule harbor after discharging her cargo. In the background are the storage tanks we came to fill, and to the right are buildings of
the Thule US Air Force Base.

The MRU-35 was not designed with sliding up and down the band in mind, and for a minute or so I am quite busy rolling digital frequency selector switches
up and down, listening for Roy's voice calling me. After finding him with the receiver, I have to move the transmitter to the same frequency. Most commercial
radio work is handled on split frequencies, so the equipment is designed with transmitter and receiver as separate units.

"Good evening, Roy. You're coming in loud and clear. How me?"

"I've found you with the beam, and you're doing fine here in Elmira, New York," he responds.

Roy knows I want a phone patch home, and I pass him the number. While he places the collect call, I muse over the scores of phone patches he has run for
me from all over the world. I hope he knows the warm regard in which those he has helped over the years hold him.

My reverie is broken by those wonderful words: "OK, Frank, your wife is on the line; go ahead."

A view from the ham shack--and fog. Ship safety depends upon radar to avoid icebergs in the sometimes dense fog. Note the ice "growler" to the left of the

We exchange the usual banter, catching up. Much of what we say is unnecessary, but it's so good just to hear her voice. Knowing that all is going well at
home is a relief for any traveler, and I've been away for three months. All too soon we terminate the patch. Like all good things in life, the gracious
assistance of a good natured fellow Amateur must be taken in moderation. Trying to hold our patches to three minutes is tough, but we usually manage five
or six.

Afterwards, Roy chats for minute, and then he's back off to the Net to help some other soul.

"Kay Five See Eye Zed, near San Francisco." A strong signal cutting through the warble and hiss is my introduction to Jim, in Fremont, California. Having
been born and raised in the Bay Area, I know where Fremont is and, as it turns out, Jim spent time near here in the 1950s. It's truly a small world.

At 73° North Latitude, I am well above the Arctic Circle, and it's daylight all the time. The North Magnetic Pole is actually to the west, causing interesting
radio effects, including warbling, hiss and an intermittent echo effect.

It's nice to meet Jim, and we both share our past experiences. His kilowatt and seven elements make the trip nicely.

View larger image

One of the two radar screens showing icebergs in Thule harbor. The large area of green at lower right is land. The peninsula directly to the right of the
ship is the Thule harbor area. All the little specks on the screen are large icebergs that must be avoided.

Clearing with Jim brings several calls, and I chat with K7VNW, Bob, in Richland, Washington. My home is now in Washington State, although a long way from
Richland. He asks about my day, and I fill in some of the details. Up before 6 AM to catch the first of several radio-facsimile broadcasts, I'd already
put in an hour and a half before going down to breakfast. These important charts, mapping weather and ice floe conditions, are spread out now on every
horizontal surface in the room. In the afternoon, I managed to catch a few ice charts directly from "Can-Ice Three", the Canadian ice patrol aircraft.
The charts are pieced together to form a mosaic. Captain Rick Beede, and Ice Pilot Ed Paeffle, have been in the office all day, poring over the latest
charts as they roll off the printer.

You see, my office is the radio shack of a 600-foot tanker ship, carrying ten million gallons of jet fuel to re-supply the US Air Force base in Thule, Greenland.
We are working our way north up Baffin Bay with an icebreaker escort that is helping to clear a path through the worst of the ice. The weather is a critical
factor on such a voyage, and the ice conditions even more so. With the ebb and flow of daily message traffic and staying in contact with various ships,
aircraft, and of course, Thule Air Base--on various HF SSB and teletype circuits--it's been a full day.

Juggling transmission times so as not to interfere with chart reception, while meeting schedules and monitoring four or five receivers all day, has worn
me out. The Merchant Marine; it's not an adventure, it's just a job.

Signals on 20 meters are beginning to fade as I sign with John, N3MSE, in Butler, Pennsylvania, but there is time for one more contact before closing down
and heading for the bunk. I go back to Les, KB2WZY, Long Island, New York. Les is running 100 W into a vertical, but his signal is the loudest on the frequency.
He says he's been a ham for only five months but admits to having been a Novice 25 years ago. Those were the days when you had a year to upgrade or lose
your license. Welcome back, Les, to the World's Greatest Hobby!

Sailing north up Baffin Bay along the Labrador coast, one finally reaches the edge of the ice. From here the 'bergs are a constant companion, becoming thicker
until the solid sea ice sheet--breaking up in summer--is encountered.

Twenty five years sounds like a long time, but I've been a ham for 20, and it seems like only yesterday. I've used my amateur privileges to communicate
with home and to meet lots of interesting people. My present career and many of my most cherished friendships have grown out of Amateur Radio. If there
is one thing I've learned about this hobby, it is this: Amateur Radio isn't about equipment or contest points or certificates or even rare DX. Amateur
Radio is about people.

Amazing, how chatting on the radio for a few minutes can relieve the exhaustion of a long day, isn't it? Another early morning is just around the corner.
Time to pull the big switch.

Editor's note: Frank Wolfe, NM7R, is a Merchant Marine Radio Officer/Electronics Technician and holds a Second Class Commercial Radiotelegraph (T2) certificate,
General Commercial Radiotelephone License, and a GMDSS Operator and Maintainer License. He has a BS from Oregon State University and worked for several
electronics companies in Silicon Valley during the 1970s. When not at sea, Wolfe lives in southwestern Washington, where he is active with the Sunset Empire
Amateur Radio Club. A ham since 1979, Wolfe teaches license classes, serves as a VE and provides technical support for the area repeaters. He's also a
private pilot and enjoys operating 2-meter FM while flying all over the Pacific Northwest in his Piper Cherokee.

Post 204 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:24:47

Amateur Antenna Bill Fails in Arkansas

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 29, 2001--An effort to secure passage of an Amateur Radio antenna bill in the state of Arkansas has failed for the current legislative
session. House Bill 2314 was introduced in the Arkansas General Assembly earlier this month by Rep Dean Elliott and was referred to the Arkansas House
City, County and Local Affairs Committee. But Arkansas Section Manager-elect Bob Ideker, WB5VUH, says the bill died in committee.

"I'm disappointed but not defeated," Ideker said in a letter to Arkansas ARRL members. "I think it would have helped all of us in the long run, and I was
certainly encouraged by the League to try." Ideker says lessons learned this time around should help in future efforts to get Arkansas' lawmakers to approve
amateur antenna legislation next year.

Ideker says he thinks this year's effort needed "more emphasis by statewide representation of hams along with the support by those state agencies that know
of our service to them and communities during disasters."

Ideker and Delta Division Director Rick Roderick, K5UR, were among those who attended the committee hearing earlier this month. Ideker credited Elliott,
the bill's sponsor, with doing "a great job" of explaining the bill's importance on the future of antenna restrictions in municipalities. Ideker also testified
and answered questions.

Ideker said a representative of the Arkansas Municipal League spoke against the bill at the hearing. He also said some committee members felt that given
the federal limited preemption known as PRB-1, the state should not need to do anything further.

The bill was turned down on a voice vote, Ideker said, so it was impossible to get an idea of just how much support the measure had or did not have on the

Ideker expressed his appreciation to all who helped support the bill.

In addition to calling on communities to "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio antennas in line with PRB-1, the bill called for a graduated schedule of
minimum regulatory height limits depending on population density. HB 2314 stipulated that municipalities may not restrict ham antennas less than 200 feet
in areas with a population density of 120 people or fewer per square mile; less than 75 feet and on a lot smaller than an acre in areas with a population
density of more than 120 people per square mile; or less than 140 feet and on a lot one acre or larger in areas with a population density of more than
120 people per square mile.

In line with PRB-1 wording, the bill would not have restricted communities from imposing requirements to meet "clearly defined objectives relating to screening,
placement, aesthetics, and health and safety factors."

Post 205 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:25:28

FCC Proposes Lower Amateur Radio Vanity Fee

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 30, 2001--The FCC is proposing to lower the fee to obtain or renew an Amateur Radio vanity call sign from $14 to $12. The new fee, if
approved, likely would go into effect sometime in September.

The proposed lower fee was contained in an FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the Assessment and Collection of Regulatory Fees for FY 2001 (MD Docket
No. 01-76), released March 29. The FCC said it estimates 8000 applicants will apply for vanity call signs in the current fiscal year.

Applicants for Amateur Radio vanity call signs will continue to pay the $14 fee for the 10-year license term until the FY 2001 fee schedule becomes effective.
The effective date for the new FCC fee schedule will be announced later this year in a Report and Order or by a Public Notice published in the Federal

Comments in the fee proceeding are due by April 27; reply comments must be received by May 7, 2001. Comments may be filed using the Commission's Electronic
Comment Filing System (ECFS) or by filing paper copies. Comments filed through the ECFS can be sent as an electronic file via the FCC
Web site.
Generally, only one copy of an electronic submission must be filed.

To receive filing instructions for e-mail comments, commenters should send an e-mail to
and include the words "get form <your e-mail address>" in the body of the message. A sample form and directions will be sent in reply.

Post 206 of 367

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285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:28:44

FCC Issues $17,000 Fine for Unlicensed Operation on Ham Bands

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 30, 2001--The FCC has proposed levying a $17,000 fine on an East Palo Alto, California, man for transmitting without a license on amateur
frequencies and for transmitting a false distress signal. The FCC issued a Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture March 19 in the case of Joshie Yasin
Nakamura Sr, who also is known as "Mervyn Ehambrave" and sometimes as "Marvin E. Barnes."

As Ehambrave, Nakamura was among those receiving an FCC Warning Notice in March 1999 for allegedly operating without a license on the K7IJ repeater system
in the San Francisco Bay area. At the time, the FCC shut down the repeater system for more than two months, saying that the repeater's owner and control
operator did not have proper control of the system and that the control operator was permitting unlicensed individuals to transmit via the machines.

The huge fine the FCC is proposing stems from complaints about Nakamura to the FCC dating back to late January through March of last year. The Commission
says it heard from several Amateur Radio licensees and from members of the ARRL Amateur Auxiliary asserting that an unlicensed station was operating on
several amateur frequencies without a license. Reports alleged that the operator was "causing interference by jamming and playing music," the FCC said
in its NAL.

In March 2000, agents from the FCC's San Francisco Field Office observed unidentified radio transmissions on 445.175 MHz and the international "SOS" distress
signal being transmitted in Morse code. The agents tracked the signal to Nakamura's residence in East Palo Alto. During an inspection, agents found Nakamura
was "operating the station without authorization from the Commission and Mr. Nakamura was not in distress," the FCC said. He was issued a Notice of Unlicensed
Radio Operation at that time, the FCC said.

The FCC said it continued to get complaints last summer from Amateur Radio operators, including an ARRL Official Observer, about an unlicensed station on
several amateur frequencies, including 146.63 MHz, allegedly causing interference and playing music. Last September, FCC agents observed transmissions
on the 2-meter frequency and again tracked them to Nakamura's residence. Another inspection revealed that Nakamura was operating without authorization.
He again was presented with a Notice of Unlicensed Radio Operation, the FCC said.

The FCC determined that its guidelines call for a $10,000 fine for unlicensed operation and another $7000 forfeiture for causing malicious interference.
The FCC gave Nakamura 30 days to pay up or to seek reduction or cancellation of the proposed fine.

The K7IJ repeater case also involved assistance from the Amateur Auxiliary. The FCC permitted the K7IJ repeater system to resume operation in May 1999 after
FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth struck an agreement with the owner and the control operator that involved close monitoring
by the FCC and strict adherence to FCC rules and regulations.

Post 207 of 367

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285 posts
Tuesday, 27-May-2008 18:31:52

Attaining a 6 to 9 dB Noise Improvement in Coaxial Cable

By Richard Mollentine, WA0KKC
April 1, 2001

Noise can be the bane of Amateur Radio communication. Here's a unique--and chillingly deceptive--theory of noise reduction that doesn't involve DSP or other

The National Oceanic Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration predicts the effect of solar interruptions and disruptions of Earth's magnetic field.
These interruptions can cause aurora--also known as the northern lights--to reach into mid-latitudes of the southern United States. It has been determined,
however, that radio reception at the North and South poles is relatively free of noise, despite the magnetic pole attraction.

Polar Tests and Noise

After extensive tests at the North and South Poles where temperatures sometimes go to 80º to 100º below zero and colder, observers noticed there was no
static or noise--regardless of operating frequency--from LF to SHF. In essence, the radio frequencies traveled alone, more or less leaving the majority
of the noise behind.

There are generally two varieties of static or noise: manmade noise and natural noise. Manmade noise comes from electric motors, generators, transformers,
car ignition and items of that nature, whereas lightning, thunder, rain, snow, etc generate natural noise. Generally speaking, manmade noise and natural
noise are of different magnitude, on different frequencies and appear differently on an oscilloscope. Some noise is in the audio frequency range while
other noise is in the radio frequency range; other noise is a combination of RF and AF over a broad frequency range, so it's hard to pin down a broad spectrum
of noise or static.

Studies have revealed that electrons or ions travel less rapidly when wire or coax is bitterly cold as opposed to when the coax is warm or hot--in essence,
slowing down or trapping noise and static. However, it was also determined that RF energy is unencumbered by the bitter cold. Thus, the solution to reducing
static or noise is to chill the coax. To elaborate further, due to the skin effect, RF travels across the surface of a transmission line at one speed while
audio noise does not necessarily travel at the same speed. Thus, it is possible to separate the RF from the audio or noise, just as sine wave potentials
are dissimilar.

The Big Chill

It is well known that a toroid ring of super-conductive material can circulate an electric current within it for more than 1000 years, as long as the material
remains cold enough. In those experiments liquid nitrogen was used. It has a temperature of 77º K or --320º F. To start the current flow, simply pass a
magnet through the center hole.

Absolute zero in thermodynamics is a temperature theoretically equal to --273.18º C or --459.72º F. That is the hypothetical point at which a substance
would have no molecular motion or heat. Obviously that cannot be physically achieved. However, we can come relatively close to that. "Dry ice"--frozen
carbon dioxide--is nonflammable and has a temperature of --78.5º C or --109.3º F. It appears to be the ideal substance for a practical application of our

The above information is touched upon ever so lightly in Dr Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity in his 1922 and later theses. Most scholars accept these
as basically correct.


There are several ways to physically chill coaxial cable. Running a portion through a deep-freeze unit--similar to a residential food freezer--is one possibility.
The refrigerator compartment itself would not be cold enough--that section runs at approximately 35º F--whereas the deep-freeze section runs at approximately
0º F. Unfortunately, it was determined that even 0º F was not sufficiently cold to suppress the noise level.

A remote-mounted dry ice static-remover device.

The actual dry ice static-remover device is a metal box with coaxial cable running through it and having appropriate connections at each end. Theoretically,
it would be better if the coax were coiled up inside the box, thereby exposing as much coax as possible to the cooling effect of the dry ice. However,
it must be noted that in coiling a wire of this nature it could act as a balun or a high-pass or low-pass filter, or perhaps as some type of tuned circuit.
Additional coax also can contribute additional RF signal loss. Therefore, I believe the best approach is to simply run the coax straight through the metal
box with as little coiling as practical.

The dry ice static-remover device does not have to be at the operating table near the radios; indeed, it can be anywhere along the coaxial cable--out in
the garage or another area of the house, whatever is convenient. It can be almost any size, but the bigger the box, the more dry ice you can store.

A static-remover device buried in deep freezer. This is probably the most effective application.

The box could be stored in an insulated cooler. However, it would be better if one had an unused deep-freeze unit or refrigerator around the house that
could be used instead. One could punch a hole in the unit for the coax entrance and another hole for the exit of the coax and then put the dry ice static-remover
box inside the freezer section. [It should be noted that an active, working refrigerator with food in it should not be used for this purpose.]

A dry ice static-remover, using refrigerator to cool coax.

In the unlikely event that your spouse might not be too pleased with the idea of punching two holes in the side of an unused refrigerator or deep freeze,
it would be acceptable to place the dry ice in the bottom of a regular picnic cooler. Fill the remainder of the cooler with conventional ice cubes. This
arrangement will keep the coax cold for three to four days depending upon how much dry ice was purchased.

View larger image

CO2 Technical Data.

Dry ice can be purchased at numerous retail outlets, including supermarkets and stores of that nature. Thirteen to twenty pounds of dry ice will last between
40 to 60 hours, depending upon whether you have elected to use an insulated container or the unused section of a refrigerator or deep-freeze unit. This
is sufficient for an average contest weekend.

Results of Empirical Testing and Practical Application

Early tests indicate a 6 to 9 dB decrease in noise and static; while at the same time radio-frequency signals go through virtually unencumbered! None of
the above should be misconstrued as having to do with cold fusion, as that is another subject entirely.

A typical noise pattern.

There are numerous modern, up-to-date noise killers on the market. Among these are the digital-signal processing (DSP) technology units. They prove that
it is possible to extract noise out of a signal by filtering, while leaving a signal of considerably greater clarity. It has been determined, however,
that the dry ice static-remover, used either in conjunction with DSP, or by itself, does have some very good noise-canceling potential, including elimination
or attenuation of random noise, as well as reduction of heterodynes.

In the appendix of The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs is a chart showing the relationship between noise figures and noise temperatures. That chart is
of considerable value in this specific subject and should be noted.

In the interest of experimentation, if one were interested, one could wire switches to bypass the dry ice static-remover. Switch from by-pass to static-remover
and see that the noise and static are substantially attenuated, while RF runs virtually undisturbed through the static machine.

Editor's note: Richard Mollentine, WA0KKC, is an ARRL member from Overland Park, Kansas. He holds a General class ticket.

Post 208 of 367

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Wednesday, 28-May-2008 7:34:27

Information Society and Media Directorate-General
Electronic Communications Policy
Radio Spectrum Policy
Brussels, 07 October 2005
Working Document
Subject: ETSI Report to RSC#13
This is a Committee working document, which does not necessarily reflect the official
position of the Commission. No inferences should be drawn from this document as to
the precise form or content of future measures to be submitted by the Commission.
The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any
information or data referred to in this document.
Commission Européenne, B-1049 Bruxelles/Europese Commissie, B-1049 Brussel - Belgium - Office: BU33 7/09.
Telephone: direct line (+32-2)296.12.67., switchboard 299.11.11. Fax: +
e-mail :
Radio Spectrum Committee
13th meeting
Brussels, 5 October 2005
Radio Competence Centre
Report from ETSI
1 Issues directly affecting RSCOM work items
1.1 Automotive Radar •
24 GHz anti-collision systems EN 302 288 v. 1.1.1 (2005-01) is now awaiting citation in the Official Journal in order for
users to claim presumption of conformity with the R&TTE Directive. No listing has been
published in the OJ since 30 March 2005.
Version 1.1.1 allows manual de-activation to protect Radio Astronomy sites. A new version is
under development under EC/EFTA mandate M/363 to develop a new version (v. 1.2.1)
including inter alia automatic deactivation based on geographical location information. Work
is underway in Technical Committee ERM TG31B to develop this revised standard. This
work is based on information recently received from CEPT on the geographical regions where
automatic switch off is required. This will allow the development of new version of this
Harmonised Standard to continue.
The revised Harmonized Standard is scheduled to be presented for approval at TC ERM in
November 2005 for a combined Public Enqury and Vote prodecure. If successful, it is
expected to be adopted in April 2006.
The System Reference Document for this application, TR 101 982 v 1.2.1, is published since
July 2002.

79 GHz anti-collision systems Harmonised Standard EN 302 264 had been held in order to give priority to the 24 GHz
Harmonised Standard EN 302 288. A draft is being circulated within TC ERM TG31B, with
a view to presenting a draft for approval to TC ERM for Public Enquiry in March 2006.
According to this schedule, the Harmonized Standard would be published in January 2007.

77 GHz automatic cruise control systems EN 301 091-2 v 1.2.1 (2004-01) is awaiting citation on the Official Journal.
1.2 Ultra Wide Band Global Radio Standards Collaboration Ultra Wide Band was discussed as a high-interest area in the Global Radio Standards Collaboration
(Sophia Antipolis, 28 August to 2 September 2005), which adopted a resolution on Global UWB
Standardization (see annex A). UWB was adopted as a new High Interest Area in GRSC, with ETSI
being appointed as prime PSO.
UWB for Communications purposes (EC/EFTA mandate M/329)
System Reference Document, TR 101 994-1 (2004-01), has been contributed to CEPT TG3 which is
co-ordinating spectrum sharing studies.
The draft Harmonised Standard for this application, EN 302 065, is under development in ETSI ERM
TG31A. However, this schedule is dependent on successful conclusion of work on regulatory aspects
in CEPT.
ETSI ERM TG31A has restarted a process to review and characterise different technologies for UWB,
and have identified three technology classes that have significantly different interference-potential.
TG31A has reviewed its work programme and has agreed six new work items for ERM approval in
November 2005. These work items include, 'Harmonised Standards' for UWB Technologies, TR on
'Test Methodologies', TRs on Technical Characteristics of UWB, and a Study on Bandsharing and
Mitigation techniques.
UWB for Ground-probing / wall-probing radar (EC/EFTA mandate
The System Reference Document for GPR, TR 101 994-2 was published on 8 November 2004.
The Harmonised Standard, EN 302 066 and the EMC Standard, EN 301 489-32, completed National
Vote on 26 August 2005, and were published by ETSI on 5 September. The Standard is awaiting
citation in the Official Journal, which will allow the presumption of conformity with the R&TTE
Tank-Level Probing Radar (TLPR)
The ETSI System Reference Document, TR 102 347 v 1.1.2 (2005-01) has been submitted to CEPT.
The draft Harmonised Standard, EN 302 272 v 1.1.1 is on Public Enquiry, scheduled to complete on 28
October 2005. It is expected to be published in June 2006.
Location application for emergency services (LAES)
ETSI has published a System Reference Document (TR 102 496 (2005-06)) which defines the
requirements for radio frequency usage for a short range location application to be used by authorities
(e.g. search & rescue, fire workers, police, civil protection authorities) in disaster situations. A
Technical Specification is under development, and a work item for a Harmonized Standard is expected
to be proposed shortly. UWB Sensors
ETSI is continuing to work on System Reference Documents (TR 102 495, 3 parts) and Harmonized
Standards for UWB sensors covering building analysis, object classification and location tracking.
This technical work is concentrated ETSI TC ERM, TG31C.
1.3 Radio LAN 5 GHz
EN 301 893 v 1.3.1, the Harmonised Standard for 5 GHz Radio LANs, was published in 4 August
2005 and is awaiting citation in the Official Journal.
ETSI BRAN is working on a revised version, expected to become version 1.4.1, which will cover high
throughput 5GHz RLAN technologies. This would allow the use of techniques such as Channel
Bonding (e.g. using 40 MHz channels), and the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology
based on guidance from JPT5G and confirmed by WGFM. ETSI BRAN will reconsider the method of
measurement for spurious emissions in the development of this new Harmonized Standard..
2,45 GHz
EN 300 328 v 1.6.1 was published on 9 November 2004 and cited in the OJEU on 30 March 2005.
Work has started within ETSI ERM TG11 to revise this standard to revise the method of measurement
for peak power as the current method is not adequate for some wide band modulation schemes. Other
test methods will also be reviewed to accommodate high throughput technologies such as MIMO,
channel bonding, etc.. The new version (expected to be v 1.7.1) is scheduled to be submitted to the
Technical Committee ERM on June 2006, and to be published in December 2006.
ETSI ERM TG11 is also developing a test report template for testing against EN 300 328.
1.4 Short Range Devices Generic SRDs
The National Vote in a revised version of EN 300 330 (Harmonised standard for generic short-range
devices operating below 25 MHz) was interrupted at the request of CEPT/ECC who had expressed
concerns over magnetic field limits. This matter will be discussed at the forthcoming meeting of TC
A revised draft on EN 300 220 (Harmonised Standard for generic harmonised standards operating in
the range 25 MHz to 1 GHz) has completed its Public Enquiry on 5th August, and is expectedto be
presented to TC ERM for approval for National Vote in November 2005. Publication is anticipated in
February 2006.
Euroloop / Eurobalise (EC/EFTA mandate M/364)
ETSI have started work to include the current technical requirements for Eurobalise and Euroloop
(currently embedded in CEPT/ECC Recommendation 70-03) in a new Harmonized Standard for this
application. It is expected that this standard will need to be revised shortly afterwards to include new
spectrum masks, which are currently the subject of compatibility studies in CEPT/ECC SRDMG.
Low Power FM Transmitters
ETSI is revising EN 300 357 (cordless audio devices) to cover short-range devices operating in the FM
Broadcast band. The standard specifies a power level of 50 nW, as proposed by CEPT/ECC WG SE
Report 73. This standard will complete Public Enquiry on 30 December 2005, and is scheduled to be
published in June 2006.
1.5 Intelligent Transport Systems ETSI has published a System Reference Document, TR 102 492-1, on pan-European harmonized
communications equipment operating in the 5 GHz frequency range and intended for critical roadsafety
applications. A Harmonized Standard is under praparation in ETSI ERM TG37.
Other issues of interest to RSCOM
Harmonised Standards under the R&TTE Directive
In response to a number of comments on Harmonised Standards which were received via TCAM &
RTTE ADCO, ETSI OCG RTTED has conducted a review of the guidance material used with ETSI to
prepare Harmonized Standards under the R&TTE Directive. The revised Guide EG 201 399 has be
approved by an ad-hoc group of TC ERM, and is awaiting formal adoption by a 60-day vote of ETSI
members. This revised guidance is intended to align the ETSI standards with the understanding of the
Directive developed in TCAM, and lead to a simplified structure of Harmonized Standards and a
greater coherence in the specification of technical requirements by different technical committees.
ETSI has initiated a second phase of the Specialist Task Force to review existing Harmonized
Standards. The STF will advise the responsible Technical Bodies of the necessary corrective action to
bring existing Standards into line with the new guidance. This phase of the STF is expected to start in
October 2005 and complete at the latest in March 2006.
Harmonized Standards published since RSCOM#12
Table with 5 columns and 5 rowsEN 302 017 1.1.1 2005-09 Transmitting equipment for the amplitude-modulated broadcast
radio service EN 302 291 1.1.1 2005-07 Close Range Inductive Data Communication equipment
operating in the 13,56MHz ISM band EN 302 066 1.1.1 2005-09 UWB for purposes other than communications EN 301 893 1.3.1 2005-08 BRAN: 5 GHz high performance RLAN EN 301 459 1.3.1 2005-09 SES: Satellite Interactive Terminals (SIT) and Satellite User
Terminals (SUT) transmitting towards satellites in geostationary
orbit in the 29,5 GHz to 30,0 GHz frequency bands Table endHarmonized Standards in public approval
Table with 3 columns and 5 rowsEN 302 018 v
1.2.1 (2 parts) FM sound broadcast
transmitters on PE until 7/10/2005 EN 301 357-2
v 1.3.1 Short Range Devices
in the FM Broadcast
bands On PE until 30/12/2005 EN 300 220 v
1.4.1 (2 parts) Generic SRDs (25
MHz to 1 GHz) Completed PE 5/8/2005
Expected for Vote 18/11/2005 EN 300 330 v
1.4.1 (2 parts) Generic SRDs (below
25 MHz) Vote stopped by ERM Chairman
ERM#27, 18/11/2005: Review EN 302 372
v 1.1.1 (2
parts) Tank Level Probing
Radar (TLPR) On PE until 28/10/2005 Table endTable with 3 columns and 12 rowsEN 301 449 v
1.1.1 CDMA base station
equipment Completed PE 9/9/2005
Expected for Vote 18/11/2005 EN 302 426 v
1.1.1 CDMA repeater
equipment On PE until 28/10/2005 EN 301 526 v
1.1.1 CDMA mobile station
equipment Completed PE on 16/9/2005
Expected for Vote 17/3/2006 EN 302 502 v
5,8 GHz fixed
broadband data
transmitting systems On PE until 23/12/2005 EN 301 428 v
Very Small Aperture
Terminal (VSAT);
transmit/receive or
receive-only satellite
earth stations
operating in the
11/12/14 GHz
frequency bands On PE until 2/12/2005 EN 301 443 v
Very Small Aperture
Terminal (VSAT);
receive-only satellite
earth stations
operating in the 4
GHz and 6 GHz
frequency bands On PE until 18/11/2005 EN 301 360 v
Satellite Interactive
Terminals (SIT) and
Satellite User
Terminals (SUT)
transmitting towards
satellites in the 27,5
GHz to 29,5 GHz
frequency bands On PE until 18/11/2005 EN 302 340 v
satellite Earth
Stations on board
Vessels (ESVs)
operating in the
11/12/14 GHz
frequency bands
allocated to the Fixed
Satellite Service
(FSS) On PE until 30/9/2005 EN 302 326-2 Digital Multipoint Completed PE 1/7/2005 v 1.1.1
2 Radio Equipment Expected for V: 14/10/2005 EN 302 326-3 Multipoint Radio Completed PE 1/7/2005 v 1.1.1
3 Antennas Expected for V: 14/10/2005 Table endElectromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Modifications to EMC standards have been caused by the adoption of the Automotive EMC Directive
2004/104/EC (mandate M/358). Of the modified standards, EN 301 489-1 (General EMC
requirements for radio equipment), is published and awaiting citation in the OJEU. EN 301 489-7
(Specific EMC requirements for GSM terminals) and EN 301 489-24 (Specific EMC requirements for
IMT-2000 UTRA terminals) are scheduled to complete the combined Public Enquiry and Vote
procedure on 28 October 2005, and are expected to be published in November 2005.
ETSI published a Guide to the revised automotive EMC Directive, EG 202 414 (2005-06), during this
The following other EMC standards are currently on public approval process (mandate M/284):
EN 301 843-6 v 1.1.1, Satellite equipment on board ships, to complete Public Enquiry,
4/11/2005 o
EN 301 489-11 v 1.3.1, EMC for digital sound broadcast transmitters, Completed Public
Enquiry on 9/9/2005 EMC Harmonized Standards published since RSCOM#12
Table with 5 columns and 5 rowsEN 301 489-1 1.6.1 2005-09 General EMC for radio EN 301 48925
2.3.1 2005-07 EMC for IMT-2000 CDMA Multi-carrier Mobile Stations EN 301 48926
2.3.1 2005-07 EMC for IMT-2000 CDMA Multi-carrier Base Stations EN 301 48931
1.1.1 2005-09 EMC for inductive loop ULP-AMI, 9 to 315 kHz EN 301 48932
1.1.1 2005-09 EMC for Ground & Wall Probing Radar Table endETSI/CENELEC Joint Working Group on EMC of conducted
telecommunications networks
The Joint Working Group continues to work on mandate M/313 on EMC requirements for conducted
transmission networks. Following the publication of Commission Recommendation 2005/292/EC on
the introduction of power line telecommunication, the JWG have decided to concentrate on the
development of the Harmonised Standard originally requested under mandate M/313.
The draft Harmonised Standard EN 302 282 is due to complete Public Enquiry on 18 November 2005.
A joint meeting with CENELEC to resolve Public Enquiry comments has been arranged on 21 and 22
February 2006. The standard is scheduled to be published in June 2006.
Radio Spectrum Matters
ERM has published System Reference Documents for the following applications, with a view to
initiating the frequency allocation process in CEPT:
Table with 5 columns and 5 rowsTR 102 433 1.1.1 2005-06 System Reference Document for Digital Private Mobile Radio TR 102 434 1.1.1 2005-06 System Reference Document for ULP-AMI with duty cycle of equal or less than
0,01% TR 102 491 1.1.1 2005-06 System Reference Document for TETRA TEDS TR 102 492-1 1.1.1 2005-06 SRDoc for RTTT protected pan-European 5 GHz equipment for critical road
safety applications TR 102 496 1.1.1 2005-06 System Reference Document for short range location application for emergency
services (EMTEL) Table endRadio measurements
ETSI has published the following document:
Table with 5 columns and 1 rowEG 202 373 1.1.1 2005-08 Guide to on-site methods of measurement of Radiated RF fields Table endThis has been contributed to CENELEC for consideration in its drafting of Harmonized Standards for
the assessent of radio sites to limit human exposure to electromanetic fields.
Aeronautical equipment
Cellphones on aircraft
ETSI MSG are working with CEPT SE7 on specifications to allow the use of cell phones on aircraft,
using a Network Control Unit on board to prevent the hand-held causing interference withteh ground
Application of the R&TTE Directive to ground-based aeronautical equipment
Following advice from the Commission Legal Services that ground-based aeronautical equipment is
covered by the R&TTE Directive, ETSI is investigating Harmonized Standards for such equipment.
Annex A: Resolution GSC-10/11 (GRSC) Global
UWB Standardization
The 10th Global Standards Collaboration meeting (Sophia-Antipolis, 2005)
that UWB services could assist in the social and economic development on a Global basis using
Personal Area Networks;
that UWB services can help to provide local, very high speed, broadband links for use in the
personal space including government, education, and individuals in the global community to
develop the delivery of combined audio/visual services alongside normal Wide Area Networks;
that there is increasing demand for personal broadband services on a Global basis providing full
cross/border/regional mobility and compatibility for end users;
that there are challenges in delivering broadband services to intelligent user terminals for real
time multimedia services;
that standardization of UWB systems is currently taking place in Participating Standards
Organizations (PSOs);
that well-accepted standards have the potential to increase product availability and to support a
diverse range of applications which can benefit the delivery of broadband multimedia services
in the personal space;
that through the emergence and evolution of technology, the delivery of real-time multimedia
services is now a real possibility in a cost effective way;
that standards should facilitate the free circulation on a global basis, in a license exempt
that telecommunications needs may vary considerably between end users in their own personal
that the telecommunication requirements of developed and developing countries are similar but
the implementation challenges may be vastly different;
that there has been no major deployment of UWB services to date;
that various countries and regions are establishing UWB deployment programs, including realtime
multimedia applications, in recognition that UWB has the potential to enhance the quality
of life of the general public, also giving access to services to the physically impaired that
otherwise would not be available from previous broadband services in the personal space (e.g.,
strengthening economy, improving health care, creating new learning opportunities);
that the World Summit on Information Society (Geneva, December 2003) adopted a plan of
action calling on countries to develop and strengthen national, regional and international
broadband network infrastructure, including delivery by satellite and other systems, to help in
providing the capacity to match the needs of countries and their citizens and for the delivery of
new Information and Communication Technology based services.
to facilitate a strong and effective global radio standards collaboration on UWB standardization
in a technology neutral environment;
to encourage PSOs and other standards bodies to develop globally compatible UWB standards
to support delivery of real-time multimedia services in the personal space;
Table with 2 columns and 10 rows3) to encourage PSOs to take into account, in the development of UWB standards, the need for
cost-effective solutions with supporting simplified measurement and regulatory procedures for
placing UWB solutions on the Global markets; 4) to encourage PSOs to develop innovative solutions that would support the use of low power
UWB short range devices to achieve reliable delivery of broadband services in the personal
space; and 5) to encourage standards development in UWB hybrid fixed and mobile broadband wireless
personal access, recognizing the technology solutions available or under development. 6) communicate effectively with Regional and International Regulatory Administrations having
regard to the efficient use of spectrum and regulations that protects existing allocated services. Table endAnnex B: List of GSC#10 Resolutions
Table with 2 columns and 16 rowsResolution GSC-10/01: (Joint) Mapping Standards for “Systems Beyond IMT 2000” Resolution GSC-10/02: (Joint) Emergency Communications Resolution GSC-10/03: (Joint) Broadband Services in Rural and Remote Areas Resolution GSC-10/04: (Joint) Open Standards Resolution GSC-10/05: (GRSC) Facilitating Liaison in Relation to Measurement
Methodologies for Assessing Human Exposure to RF Energy Resolution GSC-10/06: (GRSC) Global Radio Standards Collaboration on Wireless Access
Systems including Radio Local Area Network and Ad Hoc
Networking, particularly for systems providing broadband wireless
access Resolution GSC-10/07: (GRSC) Supporting Automotive Crash Notification (“ACN”) by
Public Wireless Communications Networks Resolution GSC-10/08 (GRSC) Radio Microphones and Cordless Audio Standardization Resolution GSC-10/09 (GRSC) RFID Systems, Services and Networking Resolution GSC-10/10 (GRSC) Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) Resolution GSC-10/11 (GRSC) Global UWB Standardization Resolution GSC-10/12 (GTSC) Next Generation Networks (NGN) Resolution GSC-10/13 (GTSC) Cybersecurity Resolution GSC-10/14 (GTSC) Home Networking Resolution GSC-10/15 (IPR WG) Intellectual Property Rights Policies Resolution GSC-10/16 (UWG) User Interest Working Group Table end

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WHEREAS, the Federal Communications Commission of the United States of America (“FCC”) has issued
and Order declaring a limited preemption over local regulation of amateur radio antenna facilities (known
as “FCC Order PRB-1”) appearing at 101 FCC 2d 952; 50 Fed. Reg. At 38813-38816 (1985)), the policy of
which limited preemption is to require that amateur radio communications be reasonably accommodated by
local regulation and to preempt local land use regulations which unduly restrict effective amateur radio
communications beyond the minimal practical regulation appropriate to accomplish the local authority’s
legitimate purpose and
WHEREAS, in compliance with FCC Order PRB-1 the Township Council intends for the provisions of this
Ordinance to accommodate reasonably such amateur radio communication as may be within the
jurisdiction of the Township, and that to that end, to authorize the Planning Board of the Township to
conduct reviews and impose such specific conditions on construction as the Planning Board in its discretion
deems proper under the terms of this Ordinance and the then existing preemption policy of the FCC; and
WHEREAS, the Planning Board shall be both bound and instructed by the promulgated limited preemption
policy of the FCC, including FCC Order PRB-1, and other and future such FCC orders, ruling and
applicable pronouncements of policy; now, therefore:
BE IT ORDAINED, by the Township Council of the Township of Medford in the County of Burlington,
SECTION ONE. The Medford Township Land Development Ordinance, together with all amendments
and supplements thereto, shall be and hereby is amended as follows:
The following definitions are added to Section 203, where appropriate:
Amateur Radio Antenna are the arrangement of wires or metal rods used in the sending and receiving of
electro-magnetic waves.
Amateur Radio Station is a radio station operated in the Amateur Radio Service under license by the
Federal Communications Commission.
Amateur Radio Antenna Support Structure is any structure, mast, pole, tripod or tower utilized for the
purpose of supporting an antenna or antennas for the purpose of transmission or reception of electromagnetic
waves (by Federally licensed amateur radio operators).
The following section shall be created and added to the Land Development Ordinance, at Section 531:
Section 531. Amateur Radio Antennas and Antenna Support Structures.
Antenna support structures of amateur radio operators licensed by the Federal Communications Commission may, as a right, have a height not exceeding one
hundred (100) feet above grade, subject to the provisions of this Section. The height shall be measured vertically and shall include the height to any
building upon which the antenna support structure is mounted. Every antenna and antenna support structure shall be located in conformity with this Section,
as same may be amended and
supplemented, and, in any case, to the rear of the front line (or extended front line) of the main
building on the same lot. In addition, no antenna support structure or antenna shall be located between
any principal building and the street line. Every antenna and antenna support structure shall be set
back at least twenty feet (20’) from side and read property lines. In order to obtain a building permit
for the structure, the applicant shall provide a copy of his or her valid Federal Amateur Radio
Operating License.
Antenna may be located above the antenna support structure as reasonably necessary for effective radio communications.
Where the height of the antenna support structure is to exceed the height otherwise permitted in a district, the Planning Board shall review the site plan,
including detail of proposed structures and such other information as may be submitted by the applicant to the Building Inspector, and may impose reasonable
conditions on the proposed construction necessary to protect public health and safety and to serve the purposes of the Municipal Land Use Law (N.J.S.A.
40:550-1, et seq., as amended and supplemented) and other applicable law including, to the extent permitted by law, the protection and promotion of aesthetic
interests. The Planning Board shall afford the public an opportunity to be heard as part of the review process, upon such notice to be given as the Planning
Board deems appropriate.
Any existing antenna support structures accommodating only amateur radio communication that were previously approved by permit or variance approval is hereby
permitted under this ordinance as a grandfathered use.
Upon the FCC-licensed operator’s cessation of ownership or leasehold rights in the subject antenna support structures, or upon the loss of his or her Federal
amateur radio operator’s license (whichever shall occur earlier), the operator shall forthwith (but in no case later than 30 days after written notice
to the operator and to the owner of record of the subject lot if known, or if not known, then to the assessed owner, sent by certified mail, return receipt
requested) safely remove all antenna support structures at no expense to the Township.
In the event said operator shall fail during said 30-day period to remove the antenna support structures pursuant to subsection 4 above, it shall be the
duty, responsibility and obligation of the owner of the subject lot upon which any or all of such antenna support structures are located, to remove such
structures forthwith at no expense to the Township.
Nothing set forth herein shall exempt or excuse anyone from compliance with requirements of applicable provisions of the Uniform Construction Code, other
codes, all general law, and other Township ordinances.
The following revisions are made to the end of Section 604.A:
…tower or structure, except in the case of amateur radio antenna support structures which may be located
on a lot in accordance with Section 531 of this Ordinance.
SECTION TWO. In all other respects said Medford Township Land Development Ordinance, as amended
and supplemented, shall remain in full force and effect.
SECTION THREE. All other ordinances and parts of ordinances, and resolutions, insofar as they are
inconsistent with any of the terms and provisions of this Ordinance, are hereby repealed to the extent of
such inconsistency only.
SECTION FOUR. If any section, paragraph, sentence, clause, phrase, term, provision or port of this
Ordinance shall be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or inoperative, such
judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its operation
to the section, paragraph, sentence, clause, phrase, term, provision of part thereof directly involved in the
controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.
SECTION FIVE. This Ordinance shall take effect on the earliest date allowed by law following final
passage, adoption and publication, in accordance with the law.

Post 210 of 367

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Federal Communications Commission FCC 99-412
Before the
Federal Communications Commission
Washington, D.C. 20554
In the Matter of ) WT Docket No. 98-143

table with 3 columns and 6 rows
1998 Biennial Regulatory Review -
Amendment of Part 97 of the Commission's
Amateur Service Rules.
table end

Adopted: December 22, 1999 Released: December 30, 1999
By the Commission:
INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...............................................................................1
BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................4
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................7
License Structure........................................................................................................................7
Number of License Classes .............................................................................................9
Telegraphy Examination Requirements.........................................................................22
Written Examinations ...................................................................................................40
Disposition of the Designated Novice Bands.................................................................53
Greater Volunteer Examiner Opportunities ................................................................................57
RACES Station Licenses...........................................................................................................61
Privatization of Certain Enforcement Procedures.......................................................................64
Other Issues..............................................................................................................................67
CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................69
PROCEDURAL MATTERS..................................................................................................................70
ORDERING CLAUSES ........................................................................................................................72

Post 211 of 367

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Wednesday, 28-May-2008 7:39:30

Estonian National Communications Board (ENCB)
Guide for use of radio transmitter by foreign radio amateur during temporary stay in Estonia
A foreign radio amateur, who is the holder of valid CEPT Amateur Radio Licence
(see CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01), is entitled to install and use his amateur radio station during a
temporary stay (up to 3 months) in Estonia without of any extra registration, application or charge. For a
longer continuous duration of stay a licence from Estonian National Communications Board (ENCB) is
required (about application procedure see below).
The licensee shall observe the provisions of CEPT/ERC Recommendation T/R 61-01 and relevant parts
of the Estonian Amateur Radio Regulations (see Annex 1).
Holders of CEPT licence classes authorised to transmit in accordance with national licence classes in
Estonia: CEPT1 = A; CEPT2 = C.
The call sign shall consist of the following parts:
prefix letters «ES» and a digit showing the district* of temporary stay / own home call sign / «M» (mobile)
or «P» (portable).
*) Digits using for formation of call sign in the different administrative districts in Estonia:
1 Tallinn (The Capital City Area);
2 Harjumaa (North Estonia, except Tallinn);
3 Läänemaa, Raplamaa and Järvamaa (Central Estonia);
4 Lääne-Virumaa and Ida-Virumaa (North-East Estonia);
5 Jõgevamaa and Tartumaa (East Estonia);
6 Põlvamaa, Valgamaa and Vörumaa (South-East Estonia);
7 Viljandimaa (South Estonia);
8 Pärnumaa (South-West Estonia);
0 Hiiumaa and Saaremaa (West Estonia).
* * *
For all other cases not mentioned above the amateur radio licence from ENCB is required in order to
install or use an amateur radio station in Estonia.
When applying for amateur radio licence the following documents must be submitted:
Application form (Annex 2);
Copy of Examination Certificate:
The ENCB shall recognise a Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate (HAREC) issued in a foreign country in accordance with CEPT/ERC Recommendation
T/R 61-02;
The ENCB may fully or partly recognise the examination certificates issued by other countries if the requirements for examination certificate meet the requirement
of the amateur radio examination in Estonia.
The application documents shall be addressed to:
Estonian National Communications Board
Ädala 2
Telephone: (+372) 693 1154
Telefax: (+372) 693 1155
The applicant will receive the licence in office of ENCB after the payment of correspondending fee. For
information aboutt payment please contact with administration.
Radio amateur has to use a radio transmitter according to relevant parts of the Estonian Amateur Radio
Regulations. Extract from technical part of the “REGULATIONS CONCERNING AMATEUR RADIO
Permitted frequency bands, modes and power limits in Amateur Radio service in accordance with
national licence classes in Estonia

table with 10 columns and 15 rows
Permitted Amateur Frequency Band Allocations 1) 10)
Permitted modes
Power output limits 2)
Permitted Amateur Frequency Band Allocations 1) 10)
National (ES) Licence Classes
Class A
Class B
Class C
135,7-137,8 kHz
20 dBW 3)
20 dBW 3)
1810-1850 kHz 1850-1955 kHz
30 dBW 20 dBW
20 dBW 20 dBW
3500-3800 kHz 7000-7100 kHz 14000-14350 kHz 4) 18068-18168 kHz 21000-21450 kHz 24890-24990 kHz 28000-29700 kHz
30 dBW 30 dBW 30 dBW 30 dBW 30 dBW 30 dBW 30 dBW
20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW
10100-10150 kHz
30 dBW
20 dBW
50,0-52,0 MHz 5)
20 dBW 6)
20 dBW
10 dBW 7)
144,0-146,0 MHz
20 dBW 8)
20 dBW
10 dBW
432,0-438,0 MHz
20 dBW 9)
20 dBW
10 dBW
1,24–1,30 GHz
20 dBW
20 dBW
10 dBW
2,300-2,450 GHz 5,650-5,850 GHz 10,0-10,50 GHz
20 dBW 20 dBW 20 dBW
10 dBW 10 dBW 10 dBW
24,0-250,0 GHz 10)
Frecuency bands, permitted modes and power output limits in accordance with station licence
Fixed frequency channels 50,0 MHz-10,5 GHz 17) 18)
Beacons and relay stations permitted modes, classes of Emission and e.r.p. limits in accordance with station licence
table end

1) The usage of frequency bands shall be in accordance with recommendations and band plans given for
the Amateur Radio service in IARU Region 1;
2) The max pX (PEP) values will be applied if the carrier is attenuated by least 6 dB;
3) Correspondingly by CEPT Recommendation T/R 62-01 max ERP = 1 W e.r.p. is allowed;
4) In national Class B on the frequency band 14000-14350 kHz only type of emission A1A, F1B ja J2B
are allowed;.
5) In the areas where the reception of TV transmissions on the channels E2 or R1 is regular, the amateur
radio transmissions on the frequency band 50,0-52,0 MHz shall be interrupted during the hours of these
TV broadcasts;
6) In the frequency segment 50,0-50,3 MHz the maximum transmitted power output in
class A1A (pZ) and J3E (pX) = 30 dBW are permitted;
7) In national Class C only frequency segment 50,13-52,00 MHz is allowed;
8) In the frequency segment 144,000-144,400 MHz the maximum transmitted power output in class A1A
(pZ) and J3E (pX) =30 dBW are permitted;
9) In the frequency segment 432,000-432,300 MHz the maximum transmitted power output in class A1A
(pZ) and J3E (pX) = 30 dBW are permitted;
10) Allowed frequency bands and their category of usage in accordance with Estonian national band
11) Only Classes of Emission A1A, A2A,G2A, J2A in accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are
12) Only Classes of Emission A1E, A3E, C3E, F1E, F2E, F3E, G1E, G2E, G3E, H3E, J2E, J3E, R3E in
accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are allowed;
13) Only Classes of Emission A2B, F1B, C1B, G2B, J2B in accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are
14) Only Classes of Emission A1C, A2C, A3C, F1C, F2C, F3C, G1C, G2C, G3C, J2C, J3C
in accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are allowed;
15) Only Classes of Emission A1D, A2D, A7D, B7D, C7D, D7D, F1D, F2D, F7D, G1D, G2D, G7D, J2D,
J7D, K1D, L1D, M1D, P1D, G1D, V7D in accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are allowed;
16) Only Classes of Emission A3F, C3F, C7F, C8F, C9F, 7F, D8F, F3F, G3F, H3F, J3F, K1F, L1F, M1F,
Q1F in accordance with ITU RR Supplement S1 are allowed;
17) Frequency channels for beacons and relay Stations must be coordinated with IARU 1.Region’s
frequency allocation plane;
18) Maximum Effective Radiated Power =20dBW e.r.p. is allowed..
Given names
Date of birth
ID Code
Address in home country
Supplementary information
Type of Radio Amateur Certificate (HAREC,national)
Certificate issuing authority
Certificate number and date of issue
HAREC level/National class of certificate
Call sign in native country
Previous amateur radio licence in Estonia
(No;Yes, date of issue)
Temporary address in Estonia
Period of planned stay in Estonia
Supplementary information

Post 212 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 18:20:01

NOAA Public Alert Radio Program for Schools
Amateur Radio Public Service

ARRL and Citizen Corp are teaming up to assist local school districts (if they need the help) to set up and register their NOAA Weather All Hazard Public
Alert Radio.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Education, and the Department of Homeland Security are partnering to launch
a significant nation-wide project to distribute 80,000 NOAA Public Alert Radios to U.S. public schools throughout the nation. The radios are designed to
signal different types of alerts ranging from weather emergencies to child abductions, and from chemical accidents to acts of terrorism. The radio acts
as a sentry, standing guard 24/7, to sound an alarm when danger threatens.

If you, as Amateur Radio operator, or an Amateur Radio club member, or ARRL Field Organization appointee would like to assist Citizen Corps in this project,
please contact your local Citizen Corps Council to offer assistance. Where there isn't a Council, please contact local emergency management.

Contacts should not be made directly to local schools but, instead, should be made by Citizen Corps and Emergency Management to local school district superintendent's
offices to ensure a coordinated plan. Assistance to schools will be provided at the request of, and in coordination with, the school district.

Citizen Corps

List of 1 items
• To locate your State Citizen Corps Council log onto
list end
List of 1 items
• To locate your local Citizen Corps Council log onto:
list end

Emergency Management

List of 2 items
• To locate state offices and agencies for emergency management, you can log onto:
• To get contact information for local emergency management offices, you can email or call IAEM, The International Association of Emergency Managers, at
info@iaem or 703-538-1795x2 to ask for your local contact or you can click on the link for the state web sites at
list end

The NOAA Web site (
is the primary location for information and updates for Citizen Corps and associated volunteers for this project.

The following links contain background information about the program including a document on frequently asked questions and answers about the program, Citizen
Corps volunteer material for the NOAA Public Alert Radio Program, a copy of the letter that went to the schools along with a descriptive and informational
brochure about the radio distribution program.

If you or your club or ARES group take part in this project with Citizen Corps or your local Emergency Management office, please report this activity to
Steve Ewald, WV1X, (
at ARRL Headquarters and to your ARRL Section Manager.

Thank you very much.

NOAA Frequently Asked Questions
[PDF, 30,161 bytes]
Citizen Corps Volunteer Information
[PDF, 52,914 bytes]
Public Alert Letter for Schools
[PDF, 77,894 bytes]
Public Alert Radio Brochure
[PDF, 606,646 bytes]

Page last modified: 03:01 PM, 11 Oct 2006 ET
Page author:

Post 213 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 18:22:23

Mt. Baker Amateur Radio Club
A Guide For New Amateurs
Field Day – 2003
Amateur Radio
Amateur Radio is a hobby where one person has the means of communicating with others. Many modes are
available to use when communicating with other hams such as, Morse Code (CW), Phone (Voice), Teletype
(RTTY), Slow Scan TV, and now digital. Many hams talk only to other hams near them or those they know.
Some enjoy talking to people all over the world and some enjoy both. Others transmit with low power (QRP).
Many hams enjoy experimenting with electronics. Some may never make a contact with another ham. They
simply enjoy building and testing their electronic projects. There are many, many ways to enjoy our hobby.
In Amateur Radio the definition of an “Elmer” is a person who is willing to help somebody else, a guide or
This help may consists of some or all of the following:
list of 6 items
1. A demonstration of his ham station
2. Introducing literature pertaining to Amateur Radio to an interested person
3. Help a fellow ham choose the proper equipment and explain how it works.
4. Helping an interested person learn Morse Code, amateur electronic theory, and apply for a new license.
5. Assisting with antennas and antenna support construction projects.
6. Teaching new hams how to work DX and what Contesting is all about.
list end
How does a new ham get this help? Maybe you have a friend or neighbor that is a ham. Ask that person the
questions you are thinking about. If not, you might want to turn to the Mt. Baker Amateur Radio Club. There
are many hams (Elmer’s) in the club that are willing to help you out. Club members help each other all the
time with many kinds of projects.
Operating Techniques
There are many ways to use Amateur Radio today. All of the modes require a person to be considerate and
think about all the people that are either listening to you or waiting to use the frequency. Listening 90% of the
time and talking 10% of the time is a good way to start, whether you intend to transmit on a local 2-meter
repeater or HF. When transmitting on the HF bands, one must remember, the whole world might be listening
to what you say. Listen for some time before transmitting. Conditions on the HF bands are considerably
different then on the VHF/UHF bands. You may only be able to hear one side of a conversation on the HF
bands. Ask several times if the frequency is busy before calling “CQ” or calling another ham. Remember,
you might be on the other side sometime, having a conversation with someone when another ham just barges
into your conversation by accident. Be respectful to all others on the bands and treat them the same way you
would like to be treated. Listening and adjusting to the established ways in amateur radio will allow a new
ham to be accepted sooner. Remember, messages of a commercial nature are not allowed on amateur radio.
You may not call a plumber to fix your plumbing or call a radio station to enter their contest using amateur
radio. Do not abuse this rule.
If you want to join a conversation in progress, transmit your call sign between the other stations transmissions.
The station that transmits next should acknowledge you. Don’t use the word “Break” as this word usually
suggests an emergency. All stations should stand by for those that have emergency traffic. This is true
whether on HF, VHF, or UHF.
Here I must insert this comment; if you have upgraded from the 11-meter band, leave the jargon behind. Most
hams find CB lingo distasteful and scowl when it is used. There is no place on the ham bands where this lingo
is acceptable. This jargon identifies you as a neophyte and not ready to identify with the ham community.
Talk as if you are talking on the telephone.
Don’t forget to sign your call every 10 minutes.
Repeaters are devices that enable hams to talk longer distances than they could normally by using two radios
directly. A repeater is usually placed on a mountaintop so it can cover more area. This way a person can talk
to somebody else on the other side of the mountain. Without the repeater they would not be able to
communicate. Many digital modes are available by using a repeater. Of course, repeaters are not always
needed to communicate on 2-meters. Many use simplex (transmit and receive on the same frequency) to talk
with each other everyday. This is a preferred method for most hams when possible. Most hams make contact
on a repeater and then move to a simplex frequency to finish their conversation.
Many new hams start out with a radio that operates on the 2-meter band. They can use a handheld, mobile, or
base station radio to talk to other hams. All of these radios have provisions built in so they will operate on
frequencies corresponding with the repeaters.
Frequencies used by some of the local repeaters
may be listed at the back of this booklet.
Here is an example of repeater frequency and offset:
King Mountain: the repeaters transmit frequency is 147.160 MHz and it listens on 147.760 MHz
Mt. Constitution: the repeaters transmit frequency is 146.740 MHz and it listens on 146.140 MHz
Lookout Mountain: the repeaters transmit frequency is 146.740 MHz and it listens on 146.140 MHz
Sumas Mountain: the repeaters transmit frequency is 145.230 MHz and it listens on 144.630 MHz
As an example for the King Mountain repeater, you would set the receive frequency of your radio to 147.160
MHz and your transmit frequency to 147.760 MHz, a plus (+) offset. This allows your radio to receive the
transmit frequency of the repeater.
Repeaters are NOT PUBLIC DOMAIN. Repeaters are installed by individuals or a group to support a
particular purpose or activity and for the common interests of their owners. When you operate on them, you
are actually operating through someone else's duly licensed and coordinated station.
Volunteers maintain repeaters and they do not get paid for this job. It would be a nice gesture to say thanks
and tell them you appreciate their efforts. Above all, don’t call one of these members and demand they fix a
repeater that is not working. They more than likely know about the problem anyway.
Digital Radio - Combining Amateur Radio and the Internet
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
There are several Internet based Amateur Radio applications using VoIP. Two of these are the Internet Radio
Linking Project (IRLP), and Echolink. Both of these protocols are supported in Whatcom County, with IRLP
being accessible through the King Mountain repeater (147.160+, 103.5 tone).
In effect, IRLP allows the linking of amateur radio repeaters to the Internet on a worldwide basis. Utilizing a
series of control tones, an Amateur can "bring-up" any one (or more) of the hundreds of other IRLP enabled
repeaters throughout the world. In addition, "reflectors" exist which may be thought of as full-time party lines,
which include many international participants at any particular moment.
As with all Amateur Radio modes, there are both technical and procedural aspects that need to be learned prior
to beginning operations. In addition to the URLs listed below, interested Amateurs are encouraged to join the
monthly MBARC Digital Group meetings, held the third (3rd) Tuesday at 7:00pm at the Ferndale Library. In
addition, control operators are often available for on-the-air help on the King Mountain repeater.
Packet Radio
A system that uses a computer to send out packets of information via Amateur Radio
Local packet radio frequencies may be
listed in the back of this booklet
Amateur radio, through packet radio, offers about the same capability as the Internet. The Amateur Packet
Radio system utilizes a network of amateur radio stations, connected using free radio waves, to transmit and
receive digital information.
This radio network provides:
list of 5 items
1. Packet Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) to store and relay personal messages and bulletins; Keyboard-to-Keyboard connection for direct chat between amateur
2. DX Packet Cluster systems to announce band openings and DX stations heard on HF bands.
3. RACES/ARES/NTS and Emergency Communications for life and safety messages.
4. Networking and computer file transfer.
5. Satellite Communications for worldwide station-to-station links.
list end
Automatic Position Reporting System (APRS™)
APRS™, first introduced by Bob Bruninga, WB4APR, in 1990, is a specialized subset of the packet radio
concept. It has been developed as a tactical tool to allow the tracking and display of position and status
information of both fixed and moving assets. For example, in a civic parade, it can show the position (and
speed) of the LEAD car, the MAYOR'S vehicle, AID and FIRE units, the LAST vehicle, etc. In a Search &
Rescue situation, it can show the INCIDENT COMMAND location, individual SEARCH TEAM positions
and the areas that they have covered, CONTAINMENT points, etc. These locations and status information
then can be transmitted and superimposed on city, street, or topographic maps and displayed on multiple
computer screens.
APRS differs from tradition packet in several important ways:
list of 7 items
1. APRS uses an unconnected (no handshaking) protocol; it is not error-free.
2. APRS activities are primarily local in nature.
3. APRS sometimes uses Digipeaters to augment local coverage.
4. APRS can use the Internet to allow remote viewing of local conditions.
5. APRS traffic is limited to position (GPS), status, and very short messages.
6. APRS has a special category for weather reporting stations.
7. APRS (in the USA) shares one National frequency (144.39 MHz simplex).
list end
While the APRS concepts are beautifully simple, the application of APRS concepts to local situations
can be beautifully complex. That complexity can be fascinating and any licensed Amateur can
For more details about Digital Radio, see the following websites:
The United States has a reciprocal agreement with Canada. This agreement allows us to use our radios in
Canada and Canadians can use their radios in the U.S. When we identify our radio transmissions in British
Columbia, we must sign our call followed by “Portable VE7”.
Tuning your radio
One thing that is very irritating to hams is someone tuning or testing their radio on the air. Using a dummy
load is the proper way to tune up or test your radio or amplifier equipment. When tuning up on the air, your
transmitter emits a tone that can cause interference on the band.
DX’ing and Contesting
The DX bug often bites the new ham quickly while operating on 10 meter CW. Lots of rare and exciting
contacts can be made on this band as well as all the other HF bands. Many contacts can be made with modest
power and humble antennas. Be mindful of changes in propagation and sunspot activity. One day you might
not be able to communicate with fellow hams in the U.S. The next day you will be able to communicate with
hams all over the world. When learned, patients and operating skills are huge advantages and required when
working DX successfully. Spending most of your time listening makes you a successful DX’er. When
listening for a DX station, one should start at one end of the listening range and slowly tune through the range
looking for a DX station. Depending on conditions, this may take a considerable amount of time. Listen for a
signal hiding behind a stronger signal. Many DX stations are not able to afford the expensive equipment we
use. They may be using very low power and small wire antennas. Their reduced signals are often hard to find.
To make it easier for us to hear the DX station, the DX station may work split. This means this person will
transmit on one frequency and listen on several different frequencies. His listen frequencies are those of his
choosing and usually 5 – 10 KHz above his transmit frequency. Listening carefully to what the DX station
says will help you to determine where he is listening. If you call on his frequency and he is working split, you
will cause interference on his transmit frequency. This in turn makes others irritated and then results in ‘on the
air’ conflicts.
Most DX’ers collect cards from the stations they work. This is called QSLing and the cards received from a
DX station will confirm that you have worked that station. Awards are given for working over 100 different
countries. Many other awards are available for those that are interested. DX websites are shown below:
Station - KC7GX
Contesting is the act of making as many contacts with other amateurs as possible during a given period of
time via Amateur Radio. Contesting is the challenge of competing against other amateurs, whether here or all
over the world. There are many kinds of contests from Field Day to the ARRL International DX contest.
Field Day is a competition among amateurs of the U.S. and Canada. It is aimed at sharpening our skills for
operating and setting up equipment in times of need. The MBARC club participates in this contest every year
in late June. Other contests such as CQ Worldwide, ARRL International DX, and CQ WPX contests are
competitions between the world and U.S. hams. Some hams build contest stations where they have many
hams operating during the contest. Some enjoy just contesting from their own station and by themselves.
Some contesters are very serious about their hobby and others just contest to have fun. Points are made, scores
are given, and trophies are won after the contest is over. There are many DX’ers and Contesters in Whatcom
County that are active and available to help those that may be interested. If you are interested, contact the
Mount Baker Amateur Radio Club.
DX & Contesting Terms
Dupe – In contesting; a duplicate contact on the same band
DX – Long Distance
DXCC – The ARRL DX Century Club awards program
Dxpedition – A temporary operation from a location that seldom see Amateur Radio activity
EME – Earth-Moon-Earth or Moonbounce
Meteor Scatter – Communicating by bouncing signals off the ionized trails of meteors
OM – Old Man - referring to a male
Pileup – A chaotic situation that occurs when many stations are calling one station simultaneously
Shack – A room where Amateurs keep their radio equipment
Vertical Antenna – An omni-directional antenna
XYL – Ex Young Lady – refers to a married female
Yagi – A beam or directional antenna, usually rotatable and has multi elements
YL – Young Lady – refers to a Young Lady
73’s – Best Regards
Station - KC7GX
Rag Chewing
Rag Chewing, the art of carrying on an interesting conversation with other hams. This aspect of our hobby has
been honed into a fine art by hams. Most of them probably assemble on 75-meter phone, but they can be
found on most bands. Subjects are limitless, but traditionally hams avoid politics and religion, except those
that are interested in starting conflicts. Many rag-chewers gather in groups (nets), taking turns with their
assertions and opinions. Much can be learned from listening to and taking part in these chats. Opinions on the
quality of various amateur products, methods of antenna construction and performance, new electronic data,
weather info, and DX opportunities can be very useful information. Even DX’ers can be found rag chewing
now and then. Many hams set schedules with each other to rag-chew.
Try to resist the temptation to editorialize. Nothing sounds worse than some blowhard that has all the
answers, regardless of the question.
If you ever become involved in or hear an, ‘on the air’ conflict or argument, keep your comments to yourself.
Making comments, even if you are correct, just drags you into the conflict. There are a few hams that get into
a conflict on purpose and want nothing more than to involve you. This is a game with them, something like
those people that create viruses to be placed on the Internet. Do not insert your opinion about somebody’s bad
conduct. It only adds to the problem. Ignoring them is the best policy. If they don’t have someone to argue
with, the argument is over!
Some new hams slip into their old, comfortable terminology from the CB radio. I have heard other hams
berate someone for using terms such as “standing by on the side” or. “10-4”. Hams do not use the 10-code,
but no one is served by making somebody feel foolish on the air. Hams should lead by example and not by
“dragging others over the coals” on the air.
Listen to other hams on the radio and don‘t be afraid to ask questions. By listening you can avoid conflicts.
Most hams remember all to well what it was like to press that PTT switch for the first time. We are all human.
Emergency Services
Helping others in time of need is one of the most important goals we as amateurs take upon ourselves. The
RACES group (Radio Amateur Communication Emergency Services) and the ARES group (Amateur Radio
Emergency Service) are part of and supported by the Mount Baker Amateur Radio Club in Whatcom County.
Both groups are utilized during times of natural disaster, search & rescue operations, and public activities
(such as parades, bike-a-thons, & Ski-to-Sea). They provide communications in case of emergencies or when
needed. During Ski-to-Sea weekend around 50 amateurs lend their services and equipment to benefit the
participants and the community.
RACES has 2 vans fully equipped with radios so they can provide communications where needed for
emergencies. There is a complete radio room that can be manned and used in time of need. This
room is located at the Search and Rescue Headquarters on the Smith Road. They also have a station
in the Whatcom County Courthouse Emergency Operations Center and at the Red Cross building.
We have placed 2-meter antennas at various strategic locations around the county, thus enabling us to
plug in a radio and be on the air without the time-consuming effort of erecting an antenna. These are
all dedicated to providing communications during emergencies and times of need. MBARC,
RACES, and ARES members are called upon by the County Sheriff and Search & Rescue to assist in
many emergencies and rescue efforts. You do not need to belong to MBARC to join either RACES
or ARES groups. These groups work together with community services such as the Red Cross to
promote a common cause.
This page is provided as a guide.
Please remove this page and provide information specific
to your club and local area.
Direction Finding
Direction finding: the art of locating a radio signal. Different uses for this art are Bunny Hunting (for fun) and
transmitter finding (serious when needed). It has been used to find an errant transmitting device, people
purposely causing interference, searching for downed aircraft and just fun. Interested hams can contact the
MBARC to participate. You will need a special antenna and an attenuator unit. Ask to ride along with
participants during the next Bunny Hunt.
Other Systems
There are many other ways to participate in amateur radio. Radio Teletype, Slow-scan TV, Satellite, and
Moon Bounce are a few that comes to mind.
In Closing
In closing let me say Thank You for reading this guide. We hope you will find it helpful.
If you have just received an amateur radio license, you have made a wonderful choice for a hobby. It is a
hobby you can participate in all the rest of your life. Just ask hams like John (W7KCN), Al (W7EKM), or
Dick (N7RO) and I think they will tell you the same thing. It is the best hobby you can have!
An organization that represents all hams is the American Radio Relay League. Members from all
over the United States support the ARRL. The ARRL helps members with technical information; they
represent all hams in matters brought before the Federal Communication Commission concerning Amateur
Radio and help in many other ways. For more information on the ARRL, check out their website at:
ARRL extends a special thank you to the Mt. Baker Amateur Radio Club for designing this packet
an allowing ARRL Affiliated clubs to use it. This is just another great example of hams helping
hams. Visit their web site at
or write:
Mount Baker Amateur Radio Club
PO Box 981
Bellingham WA 98227-0981
For more information on Amateur Radio Clubs or mentoring mew hams, please contact:
Norm Fusaro, W3IZ
ARRL Affiliated Club an Mentor Program Manager
225 Main St.
Newington, CT 06111
Special thanks to Doyle Bennink, KC7GX, and all those who provided the information contained in this packet. Without
their help there would not have been accurate and up-to-date information.
If you still have questions regarding this hobby or would like to join our club, please contact the MBARC for
help at
or write:
Mount Baker Amateur Radio Club
PO Box 981
Bellingham WA 98227-0981
This page is provided as a guide.
Please remove this page and provide information specific
to your club and local area.
Please provide club meeting and contact information as
well as local repeaters. Don’t forget meeting times and
place as well as directions.
Any other information that a new ham will find useful
should be provided in these last pages.

Post 214 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:38:10

Cold War QRP: A Case of "Discone Fever"?

By H. P. “Pete” Friedrichs, AC7ZL

April 22, 2008

Small signal — BIG antenna.
Cold War QRP 1
The beautiful discone by day.
Cold War QRP 2
The discone’s top hat.
Cold War QRP 3
AC7ZL's cold war station.
Cold War QRP 4
The Titan Missile Museum.
Cold War QRP 5
Instructions for visiting hams.
Cold War QRP 6
You connect to the discone through this junction box.
Cold War QRP 7
The discone at dusk. The antenna wire and support structure are clearly visible.
Cold War QRP 8
The "bird" sleeping in her nest.
Cold War QRP 9
Control panels and the safe containing the launch codes.
Cold War QRP 10
The remainder of the control room.


The control room was a scene of choreographed chaos. Lamps flashed, switches were thrown, checklists were consulted and authentication codes were confirmed.
As the second hand on the wall clock inched forward, the operators, each at their respective stations, turned a key.

A Titan II missile, perched within the adjacent silo, stirred as batteries were energized and relays closed. Inside, pumps and a maze of tubing sprang to
life, bringing hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide into contact. The chemicals spontaneously ignited, a thunderous roar filled the air and angry clouds of
exhaust and steam jetted from the open silo as though from the mouth of a volcano. The missile, serial number 98-31772-5B rose, slowly at first, and then
rapidly gained speed, ascending until it had diminished to a point of light high in the sky. Minutes later, the missile descended, delivering its 9 megaton
nuclear warhead to a hardened target somewhere in the Soviet Union.

Or so it might have been. Luckily, for the sake of all of humanity, cooler heads have prevailed, so the scenario above never actually played out. In fact,
in the early 1980s, President Ronald Reagan ordered the deactivation of the 54 operational Titan missile sites. Eventually, the missiles were removed and
all of the silos were dismantled and destroyed -- except for one.

The Titan Missile Museum

Base 571-7, located about 12 miles south of Tucson, Arizona, has become a National Historic Landmark. Now operated by the nonprofit
Arizona Aerospace Foundation,
the site has been reborn as the
Titan Missile Museum.
There, for the price of a ticket, one can step back into time and experience the front line of the cold war in a very tangible and personal way.

Above ground, there are some interesting exhibits, including various support vehicles, a helicopter and several examples of rocket engines. One can also
examine the 700 ton reinforced concrete silo lid -- now permanently cast in a half-open position.

A Man-made Cavern

Below ground, one can traverse tunnels and various chambers including the command and control room. Huge steel springs suspend these compartments from the
surrounding rock, allowing them to shake and rattle in the event that the site itself became the target of an enemy attack. In the control room, the launch
electronics are still functional. The tail of a punched paper tape dangles casually from its spool in a rack-mounted tape reader. That tape still contains
targeting information. It holds the secret as to where the warhead would have landed and who among our enemies would have suffered complete annihilation.

Nearby is the launch silo, and within it, a Titan II missile. This particular rocket is a training vehicle and has never actually been fueled -- a good
thing as the propellants are both highly toxic and corrosive. Just the same, access holes have been cut into the missile to verify that it is no longer
in launch-capable condition. Needless to say, the reentry vehicle at the top of the rocket is empty. There is no warhead to worry about.

Discone Fever

A visit to the Titan Missile Museum is a worthwhile trip for anyone with an interest in rockets, science or history. Most of the hams I know fall into one
or more of these categories. Yet, there is an additional attraction to anyone interested in radio, in particular those with a valid ham license.

In the early 1960s, as part of the installation of the Base 571-7, the Collins Radio Company erected an absolutely beautiful discone antenna at the missile
site. Discones are broadband antennas -- they are capable of radiating signals over a wide range of frequencies. The lowest usable frequency on a discone
is established by the physical dimensions of the antenna. This particular antenna is something on the order of 80 feet tall, with an enormous crown, which
means it will radiate effectively over a large portion of the HF spectrum.

The Infection

In prior years, I had toured and enjoyed the Titan Missile Museum at least twice. It was only recently, however, that I learned that the general public
can sign up for, and request the use of this antenna. The Green Valley Amateur Radio Club (GVARC) has a
Web page
with comments about the discone and directions for requesting its use. I decided that this was something I had to tinker with. You might say that I had
contracted a case of, well, "discone fever."

Cold War QRP

For this adventure, I brought along my
FT-817. The 817 is a fine multi-mode 5 W transceiver that works well either from an internal battery pack or external power. I opted to run the rig from
a cigarette lighter jack in my vehicle. The Yaesu is a fairly expensive piece of equipment, so to avoid blowing it up in a moment of confusion, I built
a gizmo I call the "Oh-Shoot!" box. (As you may well imagine, the name was inspired by a more descriptive phrase, which is not, however, suitable for use
in good company.) The "Oh-shoot" allows me to connect an external power source to my FT-817. The Oh-shoot is fused, both high-side and ground, has reverse
polarity protection and an overvoltage crowbar. It also has a set of diagnostic LEDs that allow me to verify proper voltage and polarity before the on-switch
is thrown.

With my 817, I normally carry an
LDG-Z100 tuner.
GVARCs Web page says that the discone will tune from 6 to 30 MHz with an SWR less than 2:1, but I figured the tuner would be nice to trim things up as needed.
I have used the Z100 and FT-817 to drive every conceivable makeshift antenna and I've found that I can match to just about anything but a wet noodle.

I enjoy operating CW, but I thought some PSK31 might be fun, too. Thus, I brought my laptop and a
SL1+ PSK interface.

The museum's discone is erected behind a security fence, so you can't actually walk up to it and touch it. Electrical access is provided by a UHF connector
housed inside a metal junction box just to the south of the antenna. As it turns out, someone was courteous enough to include a length of coax to link
the box to my radio gear. I was prepared, however. I brought and used my own cable.

Securing permission to use the antenna is easy. I walked into the museum and asked to use it. I showed my driver's license, a copy of my ham license and
I was asked to sign a guest log. That's it.

Hooking Up

I backed my vehicle up to the junction box, opened my tailgate, hooked up my equipment and set up a lawn chair. I began working stations around 1932 UTC
and finished about 4 hours later. Some of the contacts I made were CW, some were PSK31. In some cases I lost folks in fading or noise, in some cases they
lost me. Nonetheless, I was astounded at how far my tiny signal projected.

From my position in southern Arizona, on the 20 meter band using low power CW, I exchanged information with operators in New York, Pennsylvania, Florida
and Texas. I tried the 40 meter band and was able to contact California. Using low power PSK31 on the 20 meter band, I reached out and "touched" Massachusetts,
California, Washington, Oregon, South Carolina and Kansas. I would love the opportunity to run this antenna at night, or in the future when the solar cycle
has progressed and band conditions have improved.

I am very grateful for having had the opportunity to work with this antenna and experience, on a firsthand basis, one small aspect of our cold war history.
I would urge all of my fellow hams to share in this experience. You can find more information about the
Titan missiles
at Wikipedia and through

Pete Friedrichs, AC7ZL, has held a lifelong interest in science, electronics and radio. He holds a BS in electrical engineering, has authored two books,
including Instruments of Amplification, available from the ARRL bookstore. He received his ham license in 2003 and derives pleasure from working CW and
PSK31, particularly QRP. When he's not at work or tinkering with electronics, he enjoys hiking, writing and playing guitar. He can be reached through his
Web site:

Post 215 of 367

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285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:39:13

Antenna Expert L. B. Cebik, W4RNL (SK)
In 2000, L.B. Cebik, W4RNL (right), visited ARRL Headquarters to discuss the then-new ARRL Certification Program with League Executive Vice President David
Sumner, K1ZZ, and other HQ staff members. [Rick Lindquist, N1RL, Photo]

L. B. Cebik, W4RNL, ARRL Technical Adviser and antenna authority, passed away last week of natural causes. He was 68. An ARRL Life Member, Cebik was known
to many hams for the numerous articles he wrote on antennas and antenna modeling. He had articles published in most of the US ham journals, including
CQ, Communications Quarterly, Ham Radio, 73, QRP Quarterly, Radio-Electronics and QRPp. Larry Wolfgang, WR1B, QEX Editor, called Cebik "probably the most
widely published and often read author of Amateur Radio antenna articles ever to write on the subject."

Cebik lived in Knoxville, Tennessee and wrote more than a dozen books on antennas for both the beginner and the advanced student. Among his books are a
basic tutorial in the use of NEC antenna modeling software and compilations of his many shorter pieces. A teacher for more than 30 years, Cebik was retired,
but served as Professor Emeritus of philosophy at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Cebik served his country in the US Air Force from 1957-1961,
specializing in air traffic control.

One of Cebik's last articles for QST, "A New Spin on the Big Wheel," appeared in the March 2008 issue. The article, co-written with Bob Cerreto, WA1FXT,
looked at a three dipole array for 2 meters. This was a follow-up to their article in the January/February issue of QEX that featured omnidirectional horizontally
polarized antennas. Cebik authored the "Antenna Options" for QEX.

Former ARRL Senior Assistant Technical Editor Dean Straw, N6BV, and editor of
The ARRL Antenna Book,
said, "LB will be greatly missed by the thousands of hams he's helped through his incredibly prolific -- and invariably proficient -- writing about antennas.
LB helped me personally in numerous ways while I worked on antenna matters at the League, always communicating with a gentle, scholarly attitude and a
real eye for detail. I'm in shock at the news of LB's passing. May his soul rest in peace."

Licensed since 1954, Cebik served as Technical Editor for
antenneX Magazine.
According to Jack L. Stone, publisher of antenneX, he had not heard from Cebik for a few days and became worried: "I called the Sheriff in Knoxville to
go check on him since I hadn't heard from him in over 5 days, either e-mail or phone, which is highly unusual. The Sheriff [went to Cebik's house to check
on him and] called back to tell me the sad, devastating news. As his publisher of books, monthly columns, feature articles and software/models for more
than 10 years, we communicated almost daily during that span of time. Not hearing from him for that long was unusual, causing my concern. He was like family
to me and was loved and respected by so many."

Cebik maintained a Web site,,
a virtual treasure trove to anyone interested in antennas. Besides a few notes on the history of radio work and other bits that Cebik called "semi-technical
oddities," the collection contains information of interest to radio amateurs and professionals interested in antennas, antenna modeling and related subjects,
such as antenna tuners and impedance matching. Cebik said that his notes were "geared to helping other radio amateurs and antenna enthusiasts discover
what I have managed to uncover over the years -- and then to go well beyond."

His Web site also contains information on antenna modeling. His book,
Basic Antenna Modeling: A Hands-On Tutorial
for Nittany-Scientific's NEC-Win Plus NEC-2 antenna modeling software, contains models in .NEC format for over 150 exercises. "Since the principles in the
book apply to any modeling software," Cebik said, "I have also created the same exercise models in the EZNEC format. For more advanced modelers using either
NEC-2 or NEC-4, I have prepared an additional volume,
Intermediate Antenna Modeling: A Hands-On Tutorial,
based on Nittany-Scientific's NEC-Win Pro and GNEC. The volume includes hundreds of antenna models used in the text to demonstrate virtually the complete
command set (along with similarities and differences) used by both cores."

ARRL Contributing Editor H. Ward Silver, N0AX, said, "LB typified generosity. He was always developing material that was published widely. Furthermore,
the quality of the articles and concepts was always high, but the writing was such that an audience with a wide range of technical backgrounds could understand
it. His
Web site
is a Solomon's Treasure of solid antenna information -- available to all."

Wolfgang remembered Cebik, saying, "L. B. was an ARRL Technical Advisor, with expertise in antenna modeling and design. I learned that I could count on
L. B. to offer clear, concise comments on any submitted article dealing with antennas. He was always a friendly voice on the other end of my phone line
when I needed to talk to an expert, and I came to expect a quick e-mailed response to any antenna questions that I sent him. L. B. was so much more than
an antenna author, though. He was one of the first ARRL Educational Advisors I ever had the pleasure of working with when I became editor of the ARRL study
materials. He played a key role in helping develop the concept of online courses when ARRL began to study the idea of the
Continuing Education program
; his
Antenna Modeling course
has been one of the most popular offerings in the program. L. B. leaves a legacy of friendly advice and Amateur Radio wisdom. I will miss him as a friend
and as an advisor."
Cebik's niece, Gina Robeson, also of Knoxville, told the ARRL that her uncle "was amazing to me in a different way than hams viewed him. But he was a legend
to me and to the thousands of amateurs whose lives he touched with his work. To me he was my uncle, teacher, friend and confidant. He was a wonderful man,
but his family did not really know about the ham side of him."

Robeson said her family spent each Christmas with Cebik and his wife Jean; Jean passed away in 2002 from cancer. "It was always the greatest fun with all
the food and family getting together. It did not matter if we were getting together as a group or if it was just me and Uncle Roy, he always had the time
to listen and offer advice. He will be sorely missed."

A memorial service for Cebik will be held Sunday, April 27 at 1 PM at Mynatt Funeral Home, 2829 Rennoc Road in Knoxville. Cebik will be cremated and his
ashes scattered in his garden, the same place his wife's ashes were scattered. "They will once more be together," Robeson said.

Post 216 of 367

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285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:39:56

The K7RA Solar Update

This week we had a couple of brief sunspot appearances -- 991 and 992 -- but they were both from Solar Cycle 23 and their emergence was fleeting. On Wednesday,
April 23, the planetary A index rose to 32 due to a solar wind and south-pointing Interplanetary Magnetic Field (

Expect geomagnetic conditions to stabilize this weekend, but to again become active on May 2. Sunspot numbers for April 17-23 were 0, 0, 13, 12, 0, 13 and
13 with a mean of 7.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 69.2, 70.2, 71, 70.8, 70.9, 71.3 and 70.7 with a mean of 70.6. Estimated planetary A indices were 8, 6, 5,
4, 4, 5 and 32 with a mean of 9.1. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 7, 5, 6, 1, 3, 4 and 17, with a mean of 6.1.

Walt Knodle, W7VS, of Bend, Oregon pointed out politely that the line "The only previous Cycle 24 activity was close to the solar equator from
last week's bulletin
was incorrect. He sent a magnetogram
showing that in early January, spot 981 was in fact high latitude.

The Spring/Summer E-layer propagation season is beginning, and Art Jackson, KA5DWI, has an
interesting analysis
that looks quite useful. Also check out his page on
last fall's 10 meter sporadic-E season.

There was a tremendous response this week from readers wanting a copy of Ken Tapping's observations on the current sunspot minimum; more than 300 requests
were received over the weekend. You can still get one e-mailed to you by sending a blank e-mail to
Any e-mail sent to this address will get the same document.

Amateur solar observer Tad Cook, K7RA, of Seattle, Washington, provides this weekly report on solar conditions and propagation. This report also is available
via W1AW every Friday, and an abbreviated version appears in
The ARRL Letter.
for a detailed explanation of the numbers used in this bulletin. An archive of past propagation bulletins can be found
You can find monthly propagation charts between four USA regions and 12 overseas locations
Readers may contact the author via

Post 217 of 367

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285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:41:04

ARRL Lab Test Engineer Leaves HQ Staff
Mike Tracy, KC1SX [S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA, Photo]
Bob Allison, WB1GCM [S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA, Photo]

After more than 17 years at ARRL, Laboratory Test Engineer Mike Tracy, KC1SX, is leaving the HQ Family and moving to New Jersey to take on a position with
Synergy Microwave,
a company owned by Dr Ulrich Rohde, N1UL.

Tracy came to the League in 1991 as the night/weekend operator for W1AW. It wasn't long, Tracy said, before the W1AW Chief Operator recognized his talent
for more technical applications; when a position in the ARRL Lab opened up in 1993, he recommended that Tracy apply. "I did, and was quickly accepted as
the new Technical Information Services Coordinator where I handled many of the technical questions of members and referred others to those more knowledgeable
on particular subjects. I also developed some databases and other resources to help in the process of answering members' questions," Tracy said. In 1997
when the Lab Test Engineer Mike Gruber, W1MG, stepped down, Tracy switched seats yet again, testing Product Review equipment.

ARRL Lab Manager Ed Hare, W1RFI, said, "When Mike came to the ARRL Lab, he was our Technical Information Coordinator where he helped maintain the
TIS Web pages,
as well as helping to field technical questions for members. Over the years, Mike, as Lab Test Engineer, helped modernize the test process through new test
equipment, new test software and new test methods. In between all that, he always found the time somehow to write articles, watch over the technical content
of ARRL's advertising and help other staff more often than his job may have required.

"One of the most pleasant parts of any manager's job is to hear good things about his or her staff. When Mike was in the Lab, my job was pleasant, as staff
often told me about how he had helped them above and beyond the call of duty," Hare said.

"Mike's shoes will be hard to fill," Hare said, "but we have hired Bob Allison, WB1GCM, to do just that." Allison, a ham for almost 35 years, most recently
worked for a Hartford television station, WVIT, NBC 30, for the past 28 years. Over those years, he has done a lot of things at the station, from testing
the television transmitter to day-to-day maintenance of the studio facilities; this, said Hare, "has prepared him to take over this important job in the

Allison, an ARRL member, has served as a
volunteer tour guide
at ARRL, offering members a friendly and informative tour of HQ that they will remember for a long time to come. "Although he is new at being an HQ employee,
we all feel that he has been part of the family for a while," said Hare. Allison and his wife,
Logbook of The World
Specialist Kathy, KA1RWY, reside in Coventry, Connecticut. Allison also enjoys sailing and working on Model A Fords.

Allison said, "I have been active on the air since I was first licensed as WN1TDN in 1974, where I enjoy operating, experimenting and meeting people from
around the world. I can't say what ham band I like best, except all of them. While I enjoy restoring old radios, I very much enjoy the new ones and digital
modes such as PSK-31. I am honored and humbled to be part of the ARRL Laboratory Staff and I'm looking forward to serving our members and testing some
really cool, new radios!"

Tracy, whose last day at ARRL is today, said, "The various responsibilities I have held over 17 years at ARRL have taught me volumes about the League's
membership, Amateur Radio in general and many, many different technical topics related to the Service. The support I received from other HQ staff was invaluable,
and I will long remember my time here."

Post 218 of 367

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285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:41:28

Court Finds FCC Violated Administrative Procedure Act in BPL Decision

The US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit today released its
on the ARRL's Petition for Review of the FCC's Orders adopting rules governing broadband over power line (
systems. The Court agreed with the ARRL on two major points and remanded the rules to the Commission. Writing for the three-judge panel of Circuit Judges
Rogers, Tatel and Kavanaugh, Judge Rogers summarized: "The Commission failed to satisfy the notice and comment requirements of the Administrative Procedure
Act ('APA') by redacting studies on which it relied in promulgating the rule and failed to provide a reasoned explanation for its choice of the extrapolation
factor for measuring Access BPL emissions."

The Court agreed with the ARRL that the FCC had failed to comply with the APA by not fully disclosing for public comment the staff studies on which it relied.
The Court also agreed with the ARRL that the Commission erred in not providing a reasoned justification for its choice of an extrapolation factor of 40
dB per decade for Access BPL systems and in offering "no reasoned explanation for its dismissal of empirical data that was submitted at its invitation."
The Court was not persuaded by the ARRL's arguments on two other points, on which it found that the Commission had acted within its discretion.

The conclusion that the FCC violated the APA hinges on case law. "It would appear to be a fairly obvious proposition that studies upon which an agency relies
in promulgating a rule must be made available during the rulemaking in order to afford interested persons meaningful notice and an opportunity for comment,"
the Court said, adding that "there is no APA precedent allowing an agency to cherry-pick a study on which it has chosen to rely in part."

The Court continued, "The League has met its burden to demonstrate prejudice by showing that it 'ha[s] something useful to say' regarding the unredacted
studies [citation omitted] that may allow it to 'mount a credible challenge' if given the opportunity to comment." Information withheld by the Commission
included material under the headings "New Information Arguing for Caution on HF BPL" and "BPL Spectrum Tradeoffs." The Court concluded that "no precedent
sanctions such a 'hide and seek' application of the APA's notice and comment requirements."

With regard to the extrapolation factor, the Court ordered: "On remand, the Commission shall either provide a reasoned justification for retaining an extrapolation
factor of 40 dB per decade for Access BPL systems sufficient to indicate that it has grappled with the 2005 studies, or adopt another factor and provide
a reasoned explanation for it." The studies in question were conducted by the Office of Communications, the FCC's counterpart in the United Kingdom, and
were submitted by the ARRL, along with the League's own analysis showing that an extrapolation factor closer to 20 dB per decade was more appropriate,
as part of the record in its petition for reconsideration of the FCC's BPL Order. The Court said that the FCC "summarily dismissed" this data in a manner
that "cannot substitute for a reasoned explanation." The Court also noted that the record in the FCC proceeding included a study by the National Telecommunications
and Information Administration that "itself casts doubt on the Commission's decision."

The briefs for the ARRL were prepared by a team of attorneys at WilmerHale, a firm with extensive appellate experience, with assistance from ARRL General
Counsel Christopher D. Imlay, W3KD. Oral argument for the ARRL was conducted by Jonathan J. Frankel of WilmerHale. Oral argument was heard on October 23,
2007; the Court's decision was released more than six months later.

After reading the decision, General Counsel Imlay observed, "The decision of the Court of Appeals, though long in coming, was well worth the wait. It is
obvious that the FCC was overzealous in its advocacy of BPL, and that resulted in a rather blatant cover-up of the technical facts surrounding its interference
potential. Both BPL and Amateur Radio would be better off had the FCC dealt with the interference potential in an honest and forthright manner at the outset.
Now there is an opportunity to finally establish some rules that will allow BPL to proceed, if it can in configurations that don't expose licensed radio
services to preclusive interference in the HF bands."

ARRL Chief Executive Officer David Sumner, K1ZZ, added: "We are gratified that the Court decided to hold the FCC's feet to the fire on such a technical
issue as the 40 dB per decade extrapolation factor. It is also gratifying to read the Court's strong support for the principles underlying the Administrative
Procedure Act. Now that the Commission has been ordered to do what it should have done in the first place, we look forward to participating in the proceedings
on remand, and to helping to craft rules that will provide licensed radio services with the interference protection they are entitled to under law."

ARRL President Joel Harrison, W5ZN, concluded: "I am very pleased that the Court saw through the FCC's smoke screen and its withholding of valid engineering
data that may contradict their position that the interference potential of BPL to Amateur Radio and public safety communications is minimal. The remand
back to the FCC regarding their use of an inappropriate extrapolation factor validates the technical competence of Amateur Radio operators and especially
of the ARRL Lab under the direction of Ed Hare, W1RFI. We are grateful for the work of our legal team and especially for the unflagging support of the
ARRL membership as we fought the odds in pursuing this appeal."

Post 219 of 367

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Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:42:20

Japanese Amateurs Receive More Privileges on 75/80 Meters

Japan's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (
announced that Japan's Table of Frequency Allocations and the
Japanese Amateur Bandplan
have been amended, giving amateurs in that country more privileges on certain frequency blocks in the 75/80 meter band. Japanese amateurs are now allowed
to operate the following additional frequencies on the 75/80 meters: 3.599-3.612 MHz, 3.680 to 3.687 MHz, 3.702-3.716 MHz, 3.745-3.747 MHz and 3.754-3.770

As of April 28, 2008, Japanese amateurs will have privileges on the following frequencies in the 75/80 meter band:

• 3500-3520 kHz (CW only)

• 3520-3525 kHz (Digital Mode and CW)

• 3525-3575 kHz (CW and Phone)

• 3599-3612 kHz (CW and Phone)

• 3680-3687 kHz (CW and Phone)

• 3702-3716 kHz (CW and Phone)

• 3745-3770 kHz (CW and Phone)

• 3791-3805 kHz (CW and Phone)

"This makes it a bit easier for US amateurs to make contacts with Japanese amateurs, especially in contests, since Japan does not have phone privileges
on the 160 meter band," said ARRL Membership Services Manager Dave Patton, NN1N. "These new privileges will also make it easier for DXpeditions to work
Japan." -- Information provided by

Post 220 of 367

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Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:43:24

Ten New Satellites in Orbit

Ten satellites reached orbit April 28 aboard an Indian PSLV-C9 rocket launched from the
Satish Dhawan Space Center.
The primary payloads were India's CARTOSAT-2A and IMS-1 satellites. In addition to the NLS-5 and RUBIN-8 satellites, the rocket carried six
research satellites, all of which communicate using Amateur Radio frequencies. All spacecraft deployed normally and appear to be functional at this time.

The SEEDS satellite is designed and built by students at Japan's Nihon University. When fully operational, SEEDS will download telemetry in Morse code and
1200-baud FM AFSK packet radio at 437.485 MHz. The satellite also has Slow-Scan TV (
capability. Several stations have reported receiving SEEDS CW telemetry and the team would appreciate receiving more reports from amateurs
at their ground station Web page.
is the creation of a student team at Aalborg University in Denmark. It will downlink scientific telemetry at 437.425 MHz using 1200 or 9600-baud packet.

is a product of students at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL). Can-X2 will downlink telemetry
at 437.478 MHz using 4 kbps GFSK, but the downlink will be active only when the satellite is within range of the Toronto ground station.

was designed and built by students at Aachen University of Applied Sciences in Germany. The satellite features a Morse code telemetry beacon at 437.275
MHz. Compass-1 will also provide a packet radio data downlink, which will include image data, at 437.405 MHz.

Cute 1.7 + APDII
is a satellite created by students at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. This satellite will not only provide telemetry, it will also offer a 9600-baud
packet store-and-forward message relay with an uplink at 1267.6 MHz and a downlink at 437.475 MHz.

was designed and built by students at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. It includes an SSB/CW linear transponder. The satellite will be
in telemetry-only mode for the first three months of the mission, after which it will be switched to transponder mode. Delfi-C3 downlinks 1200-baud packet
telemetry at 145.870 MHz. The linear transponder, when activated, will have an uplink passband from 435.530 to 435.570 MHz and a corresponding downlink
passband from 145.880 to 145.920 MHz.

Post 221 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Wednesday, 28-May-2008 20:44:29

VoIP Hurricane Net Looking to Recruit Net Control Operators

VoIP Hurricane Net
is looking for Net Control Operators (NCOs) to assist with its weekly Hurricane Preparation Net and during Hurricane Net activations. The VoIP Hurricane
Net, created in 2002, is a support net working with
the Amateur Radio station at the National Hurricane Center (

The VoIP Net Management team is looking for NCOs from any geographic area to maintain a net for as long as emergency communications are required before,
during and shortly after hurricanes; this could be up to 24 hours a day and sometimes for several days. Net Control Operators from the Pacific, Asia, Australia/New
Zealand and other international areas can play a critical role in assisting our net operations during the overnight hours of a North American activation
during their local daytime, providing North American NCOs rest during their normal overnight hours.

The VoIP Hurricane Net uses a cross-link between an IRLP Reflector channel and an EchoLink conference, allowing the NHC to access Amateur Radio operators
who do not have access to HF communications; Amateur Radio operators located at official National Weather Service (NWS) offices and Emergency Operations
Centers (EOCs) also provide severe weather and damage reports to WX4NHC. This is also useful in times when poor HF propagation does not allow contact with
the NHC, making it another way to reach the NHC with critical weather and damage reports in times of a communications emergency caused by hurricanes. VoIP
technology can also be utilized for other weather related and disaster communications. Operations at WX4NHC are organized by National Hurricane Center
Coordinator John McHugh, K4AG, and Assistant National Hurricane Center Coordinator Julio Ripoll, WD4R.

Individuals who possess any of the following qualifications are encouraged to apply to become Net Control Operators:

• Most importantly, a sincere desire to serve as a Net Control Operator and the ability to be flexible with the pressure and issues that can arise during
a Hurricane Net activation.

• Prior experience with an emergency or Public Support Net.

• Prior experience with running a club or VoIP Net.

• Net Control Training through a local Amateur Emergency/Public Service group.

• Incident Command Training.

Weather Spotter Training or equivalent international weather spotting training.

• Any professional experience as a communications dispatcher.

Fluent Spanish speakers are also encouraged to apply to become NCOs in order to further support operations in South and Central America, Mexico and Puerto

The VoIP Net Management team will be offering NCO training in the coming weeks. If you're interested in becoming an NCO, please contact Director of VoIP
Hurricane Net Operations Rob Macedo,
or VoIP Hurricane Net Weekly and Activation Net Control Scheduler Jim Palmer,
KB1KQW. --
Information provided by VoIP Hurricane Net Public Information Officer Lloyd Colston, KC5FM

Post 222 of 367

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877 posts
Thursday, 29-May-2008 9:24:59

ARLD050: DX news
ARLD050 DX news

DX Bulletin 50 ARLD050
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT November 21, 2001
To all radio amateurs

ARLD050 DX news

This week's bulletin was made possible with information provided by
Tedd, KB8NW, the OPDX Bulletin, JF2SKV, WA7BNM, The Daily DX, DXNL
and 425DXnews. Thanks to all.

BARBADOS, 8P. John, K4BAI is active as 8P9HT until November 27. He
hopes to be QRV as 8P9Z as a Single Op/All Band entry in the CQ WW
CW Contest. Outside the contest he will concentrate on 160 meters
and the newer bands using mostly CW, and 6 meters when the band is
open. QSL both calls via K4BAI.

MOROCCO, CN. Jacques, F6BEE is QRV as CN2JS until November 27. He
will be a Single Op/All Band entry in the CQ WW CW Contest. QSL to
home call.

MADEIRA ISLANDS, CT3. Frank, DL2CC is QRV until November 26 and
will be active in the CQ WW CW Contest as CT9M. Outside of the
contest listen for CT3/DL2CC. QSL via DL1SBF.

GALAPAGOS ISLAND, HC8. Jon, N0JK and a few others are active as
HC8N from San Cristobal Island, IOTA SA-004, until November 26.
They will participate in the CQ WW CW Contest. Outside the contest
they are active on all HF bands, including 6 and 2 meters as well as
the satellites. QSL via AA5BT.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HI. Julio, AD4Z is QRV as HI3K using CW on 160
meters and the newer bands until December 9. He also plans to use
his father's callsign HI3J. QSL to home call.

JE6MYI to be QRV as NH0S during the CQ WW CW Contest. Outside the
contest, look for then to be QRV on all bands using CW, SSB, RTTY,
FM and PSK31 as NH0S, NH0V, KH0/JE6MYI, KH0/AD6VH and KH0/JK2VOC.
QSL via JF2SKV, JG3VEI, JW6MYI, JQ1UKK and JK2VOC, respectively.

CRETE, SV9. Bill, W4WX will be QRV as SV9/W4WX from November 27 to
December 4. His activity will be on 80 to 10 meters using SSB and
RTTY. QSL to home call.

PALAU, T8. JA6VZB and JH6RTO will be active on all bands signing
T88JA and T88FS, respectively, from November 22 to 27. This
includes an entry in the CQ WW CW Contest. T88FS will also be QRV
on 6 meters and satellites. QSL to home calls.

COSTA RICA, TI. Andy, VE2EM is QRV as TI2/VE2EM until November 27
from the QTH of TI2HMG using CW on 40 to 10 meters. He also plans
to be active in the CQ WW CW Contest. QSL to home call.

until November 27. His activity is on 160 to 10 meters. This
includes being a Single Op/All Band entry in the CQ WW CW Contest as
VP5G. At the same time, Ed, WA3WSJ is active as VP5ED until
November 27. This includes being a QRP entry in the CQ WW CW
Contest. QSL via operators' instructions.

CAMBODIA, XU. Andy, G4ZVJ is QRV as XU7AAV until November 27. This
includes an entry in the CQ WW CW Contest. QSL to home call.

THIS WEEKEND ON THE RADIO. The CQ WW DX CW Contest is scheduled for
this weekend. Please see October QST, page 113 for details.

Post 223 of 367

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Thursday, 29-May-2008 9:27:33

Telephone Interference
Bulletin CIB-10 August 1995
Interference occurs when your telephone instrument fails to
"block out" a nearby radio communication. Potential
interference problems begin when the telephone is built at the
factory. All telephones contain electronic components that
are sensitive to radio. If the manufacturer does not build in
interference protection, these components may react to
nearby radio communications. Telephones with more features
contain more electronic components and need greater
interference protection. If you own an unprotected telephone,
as the radio environment around you changes, you may
sometimes hear unwanted radio communications. Presently,
only a few telephones sold in the United States have built-in
interference protection. Thus, hearing radio through your telephone is a sign that your phone lacks adequate
interference protection. This is a technical problem, not a law enforcement problem. It is not a sign that the
radio communication is not authorized, or that the radio transmitter is illegal.

Because interference problems begin at the factory, you should
send your complaint to the manufacturer who built your telephone.
A sample complaint letter is provided here.
You can also stop interference by using a specially designed
"radio-proof" telephone, available by mail order. A recent FCC
study found that these telephones, which have built-in interference
protection, are a very effective remedy. A list of Radio-Proof
telephones is provided here.

Interference problems in telephones can sometimes be stopped
or greatly reduced with a radio filter. Install this filter at the
back of the telephone, on the line cord, and/or at the telephone

wall jack. Radio filters are available at local phone product stores and by mail order. (See attached list, Radio
Interference Filters.) A list of Radio Interference filters is provided here.
To get started, follow these steps: If you have several telephones, or
accessories such as answering machines, un-plug all of them. Then plug each
unit back in, one at a time, at one of your wall jacks. Listen for the radio
communication. If you hear interference through only one telephone (or only
when the answering machine is plugged in), then the problem is in that unit.
Contact the manufacturer of that unit for help. Alternatively, simply stop
using that unit, replace it with a radio-proof model, or install a radio filter.
(NOTE: Only a very small percentage of interference problems occur in the
outside telephone lines. Your local telephone company can check for this
type of problem.)

Next, it's important to follow through and contact the manufacturer. Telephone
manufacturers need to know if consumers are unhappy about a product's failure to
block out radio communications. Also, the manufacturer knows the design of the
telephone and may recommend remedies for that particular phone.
To file a complaint, write a letter to the manufacturer, using the sample letter at the
end of this document. To help the manufacturer select the right remedy, be sure to
provide all the information in the sample, including the type of radio communication
that the telephone equipment is receiving. You can identify the type of radio communication by listening to it.
There are three common types:
AM/FM broadcast radio stations - Music or continuous talk distinguishes this type of radio communication. The station identifies itself by its call letters
at or near the top of each hour.
Citizen's Band (CB) radio operators - These radio operators use nicknames or "handles" to identify themselves on the radio. Usually, the CB operator's voice
is clearly heard. You may also hear sound effects or other noises.
Amateur ("ham") radio operators - Amateur radio operators are licensed by the FCC. They use call letters to identify their communications. The amateur's
voice can be heard but may be garbled or distorted.
Cordless telephones are low-power radio transmitters/receivers. They are highly sensitive to electrical noise,
radio interference, and the communications of other nearby cordless phones. Contact the manufacturer for
help in stopping interference to your cordless telephone.
Final note: Current FCC regulations do not address how well a telephone blocks out radio communications.
At present, FCC service consists of the self-help information contained in this bulletin. A partial list of
radio-proof telephones and radio filters is also attached.
The FCC strongly encourages manufacturers to include interference protection in their telephones as a benefit
to consumers. The telephone manufacturing industry has begun to develop voluntary standards for
interference protection. The FCC will continue regular meetings with manufacturers and will closely track the
effectiveness of their voluntary efforts.
If you are not satisfied with the manufacturer's response, contact the Electronic Industries Association, 2500

Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22201, phone: (703) 907-7500.
Dear Manufacturer: I am writing to register a complaint about telephone equipment I purchased
(manufactured by your company). Unfortunately your product is receiving a nearby radio communication,
making it difficult for me to complete phone calls. Please contact me within 30 days to discuss what steps
your company will take to make my telephone work properly. Thank you for your help. I look forward to your
prompt reply.
The lists below show companies that sell radio-proof telephones and radio interference filters. If you would
like to try a radio-proof telephone or radio interference filter, make sure that you can return it for a refund,
and keep the purchase receipt.

2365 Waterfront Park Dr.
Canyon Lake, Texas 78133
899-4575 Notes: Desk and wall models available. Will do custom orders for multiple-line phones, speaker phones, answering machines, etc. Advertises 30-day
money-back guarantee.
2811 74th Street, Suite B
Lubbock, TX 79423
658-2027 Notes: Desk and wall models available. Advertises 30-day money-back guarantee.

222-3111 Notes: Also available at AT&T and GTE Phone Center stores.
1102 Silver Lake Road
Cary, IL 60013
322-2645 Notes: Filters for computers and printers also available.
583 Candlewood Street
Brea, CA 92621
671-2009 Notes: Also available filters for 2-line telephones.
O. BOX 18495 Indianapolis, IN 46218-0495
545-5412 Notes: Also available hard-wired filter for wall-mount telephone.
Box 82 Randolph, OH 44265
325-2110 Notes: Also available filters for 2-line telephones.
56 Park Road
Tinton Falls, NJ 07724
O. Box 10 Oak View, CA 93022
Box 13330 Fort Pierce, FL 34979
334- 6786, or (407) 468- 6032
Available at nearest Radio Shack store.
Catalog #273-104.
101 W. Waukau Avenue
Oshkosh, WI 54901-7299
558-3325, or (414) 231-7370
7486 Shadeland Station Way
Indianapolis, IN 46256
255-8480, or (317) 841-8642
899-4575 Notes: Also available filters for 2-line telephones.

and address of
telephone manufacturer
Dear Manufacturer:
I am writing to register a complaint about telephone equipment I purchased
(manufactured by your company). Unfortunately, your product is receiving
a nearby radio communication, making it difficult for me to complete
telephone calls. Please contact me within 30 days to discuss what steps
your company will take to make my telephone work properly.
Thank you for your help.
I look forward to your prompt reply.
Name:___________________________ Telephone:_________________________
Type of telephone equipment:__________________________________________
Model Number:_________________________________________________________
Description of Interference (AM/FM, CB, Amateur, etc):

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DX Advisory Committee Semi-Annual Report
Board and Committee Reports

Doc. #37

December 31, 2002
for the American Radio Relay League
Board of Directors Meeting

Submitted by
Clifford H. Ahrens K0CA
Chairman, DX Advisory Committee
Midwest Division Representative


During the second half of 2002, the major DXCC news items were:

1. On September 4, 2002, the DXCC Desk announced the addition of a 30-Meter (10 MHz) Single Band DXCC award. Applications for this award were accepted beginning
October 1, 2002. 30-Meter credits will count toward the DeSoto Cup competition ending September 30, 2003. They will also be included in the DXCC Annual
List totals for the period ending on that date. A 30-Meter endorsement to 5 Band DXCC will also be available.

Agenda Items

1) New Entity/Removal Issues


2) Other Issues

1. The DXAC has informally discussed the increasing number of illegal "freeband" operations which take place in the frequency spectrum between the amateur
ten-meter and the CB band. Discussion has focused on what effect these operations could have on the DXCC program. Concerns have been voiced that illegal
"freeband" activity by persons who are also amateur radio operators who are also engaging in amateur radio operations could have a negative impact on amateur
radio relations with the government agencies involved. The DXAC has not been requested to do a formal study or express an opinion as a committee. But the
individual DXAC members are giving feedback to DXCC staff on this issue.

DXAC Status

The DXAC continued informal discussions of several important issues facing the DXCC program. These include:
1. The status of development of the "Logbook of The World" (LOTW) system for electronic logbook and QSO information for DXCC awards. ARRL staff are continuing
to work on the design of LOTW.

2. Publicizing the "Logbook of the World", the DXCC Challenge program, the new QRP DXCC award, and the 30 meters DXCC award.
3. Continuing to promote the use of DXCC Card Checker services. As of December 17, 2002, there are 155 card checkers. These were nominated by the following:
Directors - 6, Section Managers - 63, DX Clubs - 53, Foreign Society pilot program -- 33. Currently nominations are still available from 8 ARRL sections.
Over 4,750 applications have been verified by DXCC Card Checkers to date.

4. Illegal "freeband" operations.

5. DXpedition QSLing practices.

The DXAC will continue to listen to feedback from the DX community on important current DX issues and pass those opinions on to the MSC and ARRL staff.
It will also be ready to discuss and make recommendations on any matters or issues referred to DXAC by the MSC.

Respectfully submitted,

Clifford H. Ahrens K0CA
Chairman, DX Advisory Committee
Midwest Division Representative

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Thursday, 29-May-2008 9:47:16


In the wake of the Newt Gingrich cellular telephone taping incident, the FCC has made it clear that it's illegal for manufacturers or dealers to modify
scanning receivers to enable reception on cellular telephone frequencies. A Public Notice, DA 97-334, issued February 13, declares that scanner modification
is included in the ban on manufacturing cellular-ready scanners.

The notice comes as members of Congress raised concerns over the widely publicized incident where a cellular telephone conversation of House Speaker Newt
Gingrich was intercepted and taped and its contents ended up on the pages of the New York Times. A House subcommittee hearing on cellular telephone privacy
that also stemmed from the Gingrich cellular taping and disclosure also addressed the issue earlier this month.

Among those testifying before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade and Consumer Protection was Bob Grove of Grove Enterprises (and Monitoring Times),
who tried to argue that a legal loophole allowed him to sell and then retrofit scanners to pick up cellular conversations. Other testimony focused on the
low priority that Congress has placed on prosecution of cellular eavesdropping cases. --FCC/Steve Mansfield, N1MZA


The FCC has upheld a stiff fine against Ace Communications of Fishers, Indiana, for illegally selling scanners that were not FCC-certified and that could
receive cellular telephone frequencies. The FCC's Compliance and Information Bureau issued the $20,000 Notice of Forfeiture February 5, 1997, for "willful
and repeated violation of Section 302(b) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and repeated violation of Section 302(b) of the Act and Section
2.803 of the Commission's rules. Specifically, the FCC cited the company for "advertising and selling two different scanners without first obtaining an
equipment authorization." The FCC complaint involved the Yupiteru MVT-7100 and the Trident TR-2400 scanners. The Commission said it would not have issued
an equipment authorization because the scanners in question "were capable of tuning into frequencies assigned to the cellular telephone service."

Ace had advertised one of the scanners in Amateur Radio publications in 1993, but none of the ads ever ran in QST. The FCC also rejected all arguments to
reduce the fine or dismiss the Notice of Apparent Liability. --FCC

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:03:07


The national association for AMATEUR RADIO

table with 1 columns and 3 rows
Support Your Radio Club!
Join or Renew Your ARRL Membership
table end

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:03:52

Today's Hams Must Nurture Newcomers, Haynie Tells Dayton ARRL Forum

NEWINGTON, CT, May 22, 2004--It's up to today's Amateur Radio veterans to cultivate ham radio's younger generation, ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, told
the ARRL Forum at
Dayton Hamvention 2004.
Calling the statistic "shocking," Haynie cited ARRL survey data showing that more than one-fifth of new amateur licensees never get on the air. He suggested
that too few experienced amateurs take new licensees under their wing to help them get started.


ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, addresses the ARRL Forum at Dayton Hamvention 2004.

"One of the things that we need to do is open up our hearts and open up our minds a little bit about the new generation coming along," he said. The addition
of another half-dozen ARRL Education and Technology Program (
pilot schools has raised the total to 81, Haynie pointed out. In addition to its primary goal of using Amateur Radio to educate youngsters about wireless
technology, the ETP has resulted in thousands of new hams--teenagers and younger.

"What makes these programs successful, of course, is the local hams, the local clubs getting behind the program and teaching these kids the kinds of things
we all know," Haynie said, adding that nothing is too basic or simple. "I didn't know how to put on a PL-259 when I got my General," Haynie admitted, recalling
that he'd more than once forgotten to slip the connector's shell over the end of the cable before soldering the plug.

Haynie suggested that today's older hams also need to consider that technology is changing, and the questions appearing on the ham radio examinations of
tomorrow will be ones "that haven't been thought of yet." In 1972 when he took his General, he said, his test included questions on Hartley and Colpitts
oscillators. In contrast, today's examinations cover topics such as phase-locked loops, satellite operation and digital technology.

The ARRL president asserted that many Amateur Extra class licensees couldn't pass today's Element 4 examination if they had to do. Haynie said that if and
when the FCC changes Amateur Radio licensing requirements in response to various petitions for rule making--including one from the League--it will not
be a matter of "dumbing down" Amateur Radio. "It's not that Amateur Radio is dumbed down," he said. "People like me have failed to keep up, and if you
look in your heart, you're going to say the same thing."

"Amateur Radio is what you make of it once you get your license," Haynie continued. Getting a ham ticket doesn't make anyone more intelligent, and learning
the ropes usually begins after someone already has a license in hand. "You learn by doing," he said. "Just because you passed the exam does not make you
an MIT grad. If you want the tests harder--if you want people to come out of that examination room in here to be able to design circuits--you're in the
wrong hobby."

Haynie told the Hamvention forum that he learns something new every day, even though he's been licensed for more than 30 years now. "I love the nuts and
bolts of Amateur Radio, but I'll never be an engineer," he said.

Haynie said the ARRL Board did not take lightly its latest restructuring proposal, and he acknowledged that the League's petition has not won universal
praise. "It was not an overnight decision," he said, adding that the Board wanted to take a fair and evenhanded approach to restructuring.

"I said, if we come down on the side of code, we're going to make the no-code people mad, and if we come down on the side of the no-code, we're going to
make the code people mad, so the best thing for us to do is be evenhanded, and make everybody mad," Haynie said, tongue-in-cheek. "And I think we're doing
a good job of it."


President Haynie greets a visitor to the ARRL booth at Dayton Hamvention 2004. [Richard Lawrence, KB1DMX, Photo]

How the FCC will act on the Morse code requirement and restructuring "is anyone's guess," Haynie said, but he predicted that the Commission will never reinstate
higher code speed requirements as some have requested.

"The FCC is not going to go back to 13 and 20 words per minute, and you can take that to the bank," he predicted. "It's not going to happen." The Commission
went with the single 5 WPM requirement because it was "sick and tired" of dealing with medical waivers, he said.

"Whatever you enjoy about Amateur Radio, it's not going to change" as a result of any restructuring Haynie said. While the FCC might take "the path of least
resistance," he believes it's more likely to take bits and pieces of the various petitions to come up with something that's would be workable and "give
Amateur Radio a shot in the arm."

"We need that," Haynie said.

Whether newcomers stay with Amateur Radio is not totally the point, because the younger licensees will be the leaders of the future, assuming positions
of responsibility in business and government.

"We don't have a Barry Goldwater today," he said, referring to the late Arizona senator who was K7UGA. "And maybe that's our fault."

Given the pressure on amateur spectrum today--which he called "the greatest I've ever seen"--he also urged amateurs to take the time to visit their congressperson.
"They love to see the voters," he said.

Despite good progress on several fronts, "we can't do this ourselves," Haynie concluded. "We've got to have grassroots support." He also strongly encouraged
amateurs to spread Amateur Radio's message to the news media and within their communities.

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:04:24

ARRL Welcomes W3IZ to Headquarters Staff


Norm Fusaro, W3IZ.

NEWINGTON, CT, May 23, 2004--Norm Fusaro, W3IZ, is the newest member of the ARRL Headquarters family. As ARRL Affiliated Club/Mentor Program Manager, Fusaro--who
joined the ARRL Field and Educational Services (F&ES) staff May 17--will be responsible for ARRL Affiliated Club support, as well as for inaugurating a
volunteer mentor program and an enhanced volunteer instructor program. The position Fusaro's filling is a new one at Headquarters, and he plans to make
the most of his past informal experience as an "Elmer"--or mentor--helping new licensees to get up and running in Amateur Radio.

"Something I did on the local level was to be the guy to go out there and extend a helping hand, offer some guidance, open the station up for visitors,"
said Fusaro, who notes that he would have liked similar support when he first got his ticket 20 odd years ago.

F&ES Manager Rosalie White, K1STO, says the League created Fusaro's position after recent survey results indicated that far too many new licensees either
never get on the air at all or don't remain active. Many survey respondents indicated they needed help in getting active on the air or to learn new modes
or get involved in other ham radio activities.

"We want people to enjoy Amateur Radio or to keep enjoying Amateur Radio," White said. "We hope to find ways to support clubs and individuals in mentoring
activities." She believes Fusaro's background in retail sales and customer service--some of it in the electronics and computer field--will stand him in
good stead in his new post. "His sales background helps him to look at what the 'ham customer' needs in terms of support and to think about ways to fulfill
those needs," she said.

A native of the Philadelphia area, Fusaro is an avid contester and soon-to-be-former Frankford Radio Club member (he says he'll be joining the rival Yankee
Clipper Contest Club now that he's living in New England). In addition to Elmering many new hams in the past, he's served as a club officer and leader
for several years in the RF Hill Amateur Radio Club and taught ham radio licensing classes.

Fusaro says in his new position, he'll work with both clubs and individuals with a goal of establishing a network of mentors. "The goal is to get the newly
licensed ham some practical guidance and maybe some hands-on training," he said, so they'll be spared the sort of frustration he experienced obtaining
his license and in getting on the air.

One resource that he hopes to offer eventually is a Web mentoring database that new licensees can use to find assistance in their localities. "Much like
the volunteer examination database," he said. Unabashedly passionate about Amateur Radio, Fusaro says he's looking forward to having an opportunity to
now work with new amateurs on a professional level.

In addition to contesting, Fusaro enjoys ragchewing and RTTY. His favorite on-the-air events include the Pennsylvania QSO Party, the ARRL November Sweepstakes
and the ARRL International DX Contest. He's an active HF mobile and portable operator too.

His wife, Debbie, is N3ZXF. The couple is purchasing a home in Bristol, Connecticut, where he's already scoped out the antenna prospects.

WB3IOS Moves to New F&ES Position


Jean Wolfgang, WB3IOS.

White recently announced another change within ARRL Field & Educational Services. Jean Wolfgang, WB3IOS, who's been on the Headquarters staff for seven
years, has assumed a new position as Certification and Continuing Education (
Program Specialist. In that position, she'll oversee all day-to-day activities to ensure the success of the League's on-line technical courses and Amateur
Radio Emergency Communications classes.

Like Fusaro, Wolfgang also hails from Pennsylvania. White credits her with coming up with the idea to open registration for the on-line technical courses
more often, to aid members in working the on-line courses into their schedules.

"She aids hundreds of members in registering for ARRL's on-line and hybrid emergency communications courses--Level I, Level II and Level III," White said,
"and handles their progress through the receipt of graduation materials, including grant-reimbursement checks."

In her prior position, Wolfgang established the Youth Web pages, enhanced ARRL's support for ham radio and Scouting programs, such as the Jamboree On The
Air, and she shepherded Kid's Day. She also oversaw the ARRL educational advisors and ARRL's annual educational awards.

Wolfgang's husband Larry Wolfgang, WR1B, is an editor on the ARRL's Book Team and a long-time Headquarters employee. Their son Dan develops electronic publications
in the League's Production Department.

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:04:56

FCC Chairman Responds to Request to Support ARRL Restructuring Plan

FCC Chairman Michael K. Powell. [FCC Photo]

NEWINGTON, CT, May 25, 2004--FCC Chairman Michael K. Powell has assured US representatives Greg Walden, W7EQI (R-OR), and Mike Ross, WD5DVR (D-AR), that
the Commission will act "as expeditiously as possible" on Amateur Radio restructuring. Walden and Ross wrote Powell a month ago to urge adoption of the
ARRL's restructuring Petition for Rule Making (
RM-10867) "
in its entirety" along with rules changes needed to put it into place. Powell said the League's petition was one of many.

"At this time, the Commission staff is reviewing and analyzing carefully all of the petitions, comments and proposed rule changes in this area," Powell
responded May 21. "Because this matter is of great importance to you and the almost 700,000 amateur radio operators nationwide, the staff is working diligently
to create a comprehensive solution to address the proposals the petitioners have submitted." The next step in the process, he said, will be to prepare
a notice of proposed rule making for the Commission's consideration.

In addition to the League's filing, Powell pointed out, the Commission received 17 other petitions for rule making that address examination requirements
and operating privileges for Amateur Service licensees. The various proposals attracted more than 5000 comments, he noted--more than 800 of them on the
ARRL's petition alone.

In their letter to Powell, Walden and Ross expressed their belief that the ARRL's plan "will encourage the development, refinement and use of new technologies;
increase the number of young people involved in Amateur Radio; and provide incentives for Amateur Radio licensees to pursue technical self-training and
opportunities for volunteerism in the best traditions of our country."

Other comparable restructuring plans were filed by the Radio Amateur Foundation, RM-10868, (
Part 1)
Part 2)
and by the National Conference of Volunteer Examiner Coordinators,

Fifteen other petitions for rule making came down on one side or the other of retaining the Amateur Radio Morse code examination requirement to operate
on HF. Judging from Powell's letter to Walden and Ross, the FCC plans to address all 18 petitions within the framework of a single rule making proceeding.

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:05:25

The Amateur Amateur: A Wealth of Possibilities

By Gary Hoffman, KB0H
Contributing Editor
May 25, 2004

I know what Amateur Radio is. I just can't think of a simple way to explain it.

What do you say when someone asks, "What is Amateur Radio?"

My guess is that you give some brief overall description and then start describing what interests you the most. Or maybe you skip the general stuff and
jump right into your favorite part.

"It's about . . .

talking to people all over the world."

looking for
hidden transmitters."

getting together for
Field Day."

earning my
Worked All States
award or

When someone asks me that question, I never seem to know what to say. A million answers flood my brain, and I just stand there looking like they've asked
me to solve a complicated physics problem. Oh, I know what Amateur Radio is; I just can't think of a simple way to explain it to someone.

I have not yet settled into some comfortable niche and stuck with it. I'm still fascinated by many aspects of the hobby--too many of them, in fact. Almost
every time I read an article in QST, I find myself saying, "I'd like to try that!"

There are half-finished (and half-started) projects all over my house. If we begin the tour in my garage, you'll see that my car and my wife Nancy's have
dualband Amateur Radio transceivers in them. At first glance, you'd think that these were completed projects, but, face it, is any mobile setup ever really
finished? They work. They do what I want them to do. But there is always this nagging feeling that there should be more.

Also standing in the garage is a ladder. We will use it to climb up to the roof where we will see my antennas. Nancy and I have spent a lot of time up here.
Our neighbors have seen us erect and remove many strange-looking objects. We are moderately happy with what's there now. (I'm happy, because the current
antennas work. Nancy is happy, because she hasn't had to help me put up any more new ones recently.) Still, there is an itch. Could we put up something
better? (I already know Nancy's answer.)

Climbing down from the roof and going down to the basement (remembering to put away the ladder first), we'll make our way to my shack. There are two transceivers
there. One is my primary station transceiver. The other is a 10-meter mobile rig. The 10-meter radio is part of a now-abandoned project to extend our mobile-to-mobile
range. I figured out how to do that with our existing 2 meter transceivers. But I still feel that I should do something with that 10-meter radio.

I love my HF transceiver and have done all manner of things with it. Some of my happiest moments were when I made overseas contacts. But I have yet to really
get into DXing. I've never participated in a contest. I haven't sought any awards. I've never marked off grids on a map. And I've yet to receive a single
QSL card (of course, I've sent out only two.)

I don't want to go overboard with HF, but I don't feel I'm quite where I want to be either.


My station running in PSK31 mode; Let's call it a work in progress.

There is a computer sitting in my shack. I bought it for the specific purpose of doing digital modes on the amateur bands. This was another case of, "Gee!
That looks interesting!" I had heard about PSK31, and after seeing a station use it last year at Field Day, I decided to give it a try. With only a minor
hiccough or two I managed to connect the computer to my HF transceiver and make several PSK31 contacts (including one of my two DX contacts). It has been
fun, but it has not become an all-consuming passion. Let's consider this one a work in progress.

Now let's move on to a case where my interests and Nancy's overlap. I really, really want to understand electronics better. I want to be able to take something
apart, look at its guts and know precisely how it works. (Actually, I'd settle for knowing "more or less" how it works.) Nancy would simply like to build
a working radio. Although she hasn't said it in so many words, I'm pretty sure she'd like to know what makes it tick as well.


A bunch of kits waiting for the warm touch of a soldering iron.

This brings us to the field of kit building. Theoretically, that should satisfy both our needs. Sadly, though, our initial attempts were very unsatisfying.
Although we've both vowed not to quit, the urge to try again has never been strong enough to overcome inertia. Several unbuilt kits remain in the basement--more
undone projects!


The beginnings of an emergency power project.

Ah, and then there is ARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service). I belong to the local group, and I am active. But even here there are so many potential paths
to take that it makes my head spin. I've made a start at setting up my station for emergency power, but I haven't finished that one yet. I've started to
put together a jump bag, but it has a long way to go before it could be considered useful. I've taken some training (the three
Amateur Radio Emergency Communications
courses), but there is so much more to learn that I hardly know where to begin. And in what field should I specialize? Traffic handling? Net control? Field

There are other aspects of Amateur Radio that also have caught my attention--including Morse code (CW), Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS), Amateur
Television (ATV), packet radio and more What should I do? Decisions! Decisions!

By now you've probably become convinced that I have some form of attention deficit disorder. I could counter by saying that I'm a "radio renaissance man."
But the truth is that I'm just a kid who has wandered into the Amateur Radio candy store and is bedazzled by the possibilities.

I've concluded that what makes Amateur Radio hard to pin down in words is that it represents such a vast world of possibilities, and I've yet to explore
nearly enough of them.


Bonus Cartoon Feature: "Glitches in the System"

Editor's note: ARRL member Gary Hoffman, KB0H, lives in Florissant, Missouri. He's been a ham since 1995. Hoffman says his column's name -- "The Amateur
Amateur" -- suggests the explorations of a rank amateur, not those of an experienced or knowledgeable ham. His wife, Nancy, is N0NJ. Hoffman has a ham-related
Web page.
Readers are invited to contact the author via e-mail,

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Friday, 30-May-2008 6:05:56

NTIA Head Tips Hand on Agency's Additional BPL Findings


NTIA Acting Assistant Secretary Michael D. Gallagher. [NTIA Photo]

NEWINGTON, CT, May 26, 2004--National Telecommunications and Information Administration Acting Administrator Michael Gallagher has hinted at some of the
findings in his agency's pending Phase 2 broadband over power line (BPL) study. In
May 17 at the
United Telecom Council's "
Telecom 2004" in Nashville, Tennessee, Gallagher said the complete NTIA Phase 2 BPL study is "targeted for release later this year." While the Phase 2 study
will provide "additional guidance" on contending with BPL interference issues, the NTIA has advised against putting the present FCC rule making proceeding
on hold until its release.

"Key Phase 2 technical analyses have been completed," Gallagher told the UTC gathering, "and the findings are appended to NTIA's comments on proposed rules."
The NTIA has yet to file those comments, although it has posted its
Phase 1 BPL study
on the proceeding. The comment deadline on the FCC's BPL
Notice of Proposed Rule Making
(NPRM) in ET Docket 04-37 was May 3, but the period for reply comments ends June 1.

Responsible for developing telecommunications policy for a White House that's promoting BPL, as well as for administering federal government radio spectrum
that could be affected by the technology, the NTIA finds itself with a stake on both sides of the BPL controversy.

Gallagher's Telecom 2004 presentation acknowledged that the principal concern surrounding the technology is that "BPL systems might interfere with federal
government radio communications or other state and private radio operators." The NTIA's Phase 1 study showed that interference risks already are high under
existing Part 15 rules, and it advises retaining--not relaxing--existing Part 15 power limits. Among the Phase 1 study's recommendations for reducing interference
are frequency shifting and notching as well as "refined compliance measurement procedures," which Gallagher characterized as solutions "to satisfy all
parties." BPL proponents have said they can comply with Part 15 emission limits, but NTIA says they're basing that assertion on the use of existing measurement

The agency has said its Phase 2 study will, among other things, assess interference risks due to aggregation (ie, total emissions from multiple BPL systems)
and ionospheric propagation of interfering signals from BPL systems. Gallagher said the Phase 2 study has determined that BPL aggregation and ionospheric
propagation "is not a potential near-term problem."

The NTIA predicts that millions of BPL devices can be deployed under the rules the FCC is expected to adopt--probably later this year--before ionospheric
propagation and aggregate BPL emissions become an interference issue.

ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, says he's curious to hear the NTIA rationalize its "near-term" assertion. "Does this mean it's okay to go ahead with a bad
idea if the problems it causes are sufficiently far in the future?" he asked.

The Phase 2 study also will evaluate the effectiveness of proposed Part 15 measurement techniques and recommend a "height-correction factor" of 5 dB to
BPL measurements made at a height of 1 meter, Gallagher said. It also will advise requiring a peak field strength measurement search "all along the power
line" at a distance of 10 meters and at a height of 1 meter.

The NTIA acknowledges that peak field strength is as much as 20 dB higher--a factor of 100--than the peak measured at a height of 1 meter under current
Part 15 rules. Because the peak does not occur consistently at a particular distance from a BPL device along the power line, the NTIA says, technicians
must seek a peak field strength by tracking the entire power line. According to the NTIA, this will cover 80 percent of peaks at any height.

The agency has determined that a moderate-to-high probability of interference exists to a fixed station from BPL power lines at a distance of 450 meters--approximately
1480 feet--and to a mobile station at a distance of 55 meters--approximately 180 feet.


A BPL extractor for a field test system in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. [Alan Erickson, WB0OAV, Photo]

To "fulfill special protection requirements," Gallagher said, the NTIA will suggest "minimal" coordination areas--where a specified authority would coordinate
all planned BPL deployment--plus excluded bands and exclusion zones. The NTIA recommends "voluntary coordination" with respect to other radio operations
plus "mandatory Access BPL power control, frequency agility and shut-off capabilities" to reduce interference risks and to expedite interference mitigation.

The NTIA further proposes that BPL rules provide for "prompt response to complaints of suspected interference" and recasting the FCC's Part 15 shutdown
requirement as "a last resort."

"Our BPL study of more than 10 million signal samples shows that solutions exist to all identified BPL technical issues," Gallagher concluded.

That's true, Sumner said, "but only if you include shutting a BPL system off and keeping it off as a 'solution.'"

During a White House meeting May 20, ARRL officials asked the Bush administration to heed its own experts at the NTIA and back away from its support of
BPL in favor of less troublesome broadband technologies. In its comments in the proceeding, the League also called on the FCC to put its BPL proceeding
on hold to allow more thorough research of its interference potential to licensed radio services.

For additional information, visit the "
Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) and Amateur Radio"
page on the ARRL Web site. To support the League's efforts in this area, visit the ARRL's secure
BPL Web site.

Post 232 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 6:07:02

i have to say that this is intentional. That I still can't get in to my old board and everyone else can. What a bitch move on behalf of whoever!

Post 233 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 6:07:25

Amateurs Aid as Tornados Devastate Nebraska Communities

NEWINGTON, CT, May 26, 2004--From storm spotting through recovery support, Amateur Radio operators were on duty this week, aiding tornado-stricken communities
in Nebraska and elsewhere in the Midwest. A May 22 tornado virtually destroyed most structures and was blamed for one death in
With a population of approximately 300 people, Hallam--some 20 miles south of Lincoln in Lancaster County--calls itself "The Little Town with the Big Heart."
ARRL Nebraska Section Emergency Coordinator Reynolds Davis, K0GND, said Lancaster County ARES/SKYWARN spotters activated the evening of May 22 in response
to a report of an approaching front. Within a half-hour, W0NWS at the National Weather Service office in Valley already was receiving tornado damage reports
via the Lincoln Amateur Radio Club's K0KKV area-wide repeater.


One of several tornados that touched down May 22 in Nebraska. [Matt Crowther Photo, courtesy of NWS]

"When the system moved into Lancaster County shortly after 8:30 PM, it destroyed almost every structure in the town of Hallam," Davis said, leaving the
residents homeless. The NWS rated the tornado that struck Hallam as an F-4 on the five-point Fujita Scale. Davis said that as the storm moved into southeastern
Lancaster County, weather-spotter Larry Ohs, KC0LXQ, about a half-mile west of Hallam, reported winds in excess of 80 MPH. "The actual tornado passed just
south of him and caused a great deal of damage to his car," Davis added.

The storm also severely damaged the high school in Norris and plucked the tower supporting the K0RPT repeater's south receiver from the ground. Davis said
the tornado emptied the equipment cabinet, and the tower remains missing. The tornado went on to destroy additional homes to the northeast, and its path
of destruction finally ended south of Bennet, he said.

More than 50 amateurs participated in the SKYWARN net, said Davis, who also serves as Lancaster County Emergency Coordinator. The National Weather Service
Omaha office logged dozens of weather and storm-damage reports from radio amateurs in several Nebraska counties on May 22.

Once the SKYWARN Nets closed, the K0RPT VHF repeater was put into service to support Red Cross communications among the tornado scene, the chapter house
and a shelter set up in a Lincoln high school for residents displaced by the storm. Two ARES nets activated May 23 to coordinate damage survey and assessment.
Davis said one net on the K0KKV repeater focused on damage in southern Lancaster county west of US 77, while another on the N0FER repeater covered damage
east of the highway.


An example of the sort of damage wrought by the tornados that swept through southern Nebraska May 22. [Carl Morones, N0CRL/Lisa Morones, KC0KGW]

"Operators were assigned to each county road within selected grids," he said. "Two operating positions at K0EOC at the Lancaster County Emergency Operations
Center logged all damage reports received." Davis said that by the time both damage survey nets shut down, 41 operators had driven nearly 2200 miles and
surveyed 100 square miles.

Nebraska Gov Mike Johanns declared a state of emergency in several of the state's counties after more than a dozen tornados swept across southern Nebraska.
Davis said Johanns and US Sen Chuck Hagel accompanied Federal Emergency Management Agency officials led by FEMA Director Dick Hainje in touring Hallam
May 24.

In Missouri, Grundy County EC Glen Briggs, KB0RPJ, reports that Amateur Radio groups in the northern part of the state served as storm spotters following
a threat of severe weather. The hams relayed severe weather reports to the National Weather Service and to local emergency management and law enforcement

"The hardest hit areas were near Chillicothe and Brookfield," Briggs said." The K0MPT repeater in Chillicothe was knocked off the air by the storms as a
tornado passed near the repeater site." He said the amateurs switched to backup repeaters and simplex channels until power was restored. Some 18 operators
in nine Missouri counties participated, he said.

Post 234 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 6:08:33

FCC Extends BPL Reply Comments Filing Deadline

NEWINGTON, CT, May 27, 2004--The FCC has extended the deadline to file reply comments in its broadband over power line (BPL) proceeding, ET Docket 04-37,
from Tuesday, June 1, to Tuesday, June 22. The Commission released its BPL
Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) February 23, and the initial comment deadline passed May 3. The FCC acted on a request from the
National Antenna Consortium
and the
Amherst Alliance
(NAC/Amherst) for a much longer filing deadline extension. The NAC/Amherst petition cited the anticipated release of the National Telecommunications and
Information Administration (NTIA) Phase 2 BPL study in making its request for a filing delay. The organizations said the FCC was not allowing stakeholders
adequate time to prepare comments to address the two-part NTIA report on BPL interference. The FCC said the NTIA has indicated that it will submit comments
and a technical appendix in the BPL proceeding this week. Those submissions are expected to contain key findings of the Phase 2 report, due to be released
later this year.

"We believe that three weeks should provide ample time for review and analysis of this information, and accordingly grant the extension for that period,"
said FCC Office of Engineering and Technology Chief Edmond J. Thomas, who signed the
Order Granting Extension of Time released May 27. NAC/Amherst had sought to have the FCC postpone the filing comment deadline until either September 1 or
two months after the public release of the NTIA's Phase 2 study--whichever was later. The FCC said the groups "presented no specific justification for
such a longer time, nor is one evident to us." The FCC said the additional three weeks should be "ample time" to respond to the anticipated NTIA submission
"as long as it is filed reasonably close to the anticipated date of May 28.

Noting that its Part 15 rules already permit Access BPL systems and that its BPL NPRM places additional requirements on BPL systems over and above what
Part 15 already requires, the FCC said to further delay the proceeding would diminish the Commission's ability to protect licensed users now occupying
the HF spectrum. In addition, the FCC said, a further extension "would needlessly increase regulatory uncertainty about this technology's promise to deliver
broadband services" to US consumers.

The FCC Order turned down a request that the FCC reissue in a substantially more detailed form the provisions of its proposed BPL rules concerning interference
prevention and mitigation and the enforcement of standards. The FCC said that NAC/Amherst provided no compelling reason nor did it suggest how the FCC's
proposed rules were insufficiently described.

The FCC does not routinely grant such time extensions, and it denied earlier petitions, including filings from the ARRL and NAC/Amherst, to extend the initial
comment filing deadline, which was May 3. The League and others said commenters needed more time to digest the NTIA's Part 1 BPL
released April 27.

Earlier this year, FCC Chairman Michael K. Powell turned down a request by US Rep Greg Walden, W7EQI, to delay further action on the BPL proceeding until
the NTIA study's had been released and stakeholders had had a chance to evaluate it before commenting.

Connecticut Attorney Don Schellhardt is a co-founder of The Amherst Alliance and served as its first national coordinator. He's the NAC's vice president
for government relations and membership development and an associate ARRL member.

For more information on BPL, visit the
"Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) and Amateur Radio" page
on the ARRL Web site.

Post 235 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 6:09:10

Amateur Radio in Poland

By Henryk Kotowski, SM0JHF
May 28, 2004

After enduring political and economic change, Poland is rapidly becoming an Amateur Radio superpower.


Chris, SP7GIQ, a self-made contester and antenna maintenance guy, has just finished replacing some parts on his 40 meter quad.


Michal, SP5CJT, made his first moonbounce attemps with his brother Paul, SP5CIC (now WA6PY), from Poland in the early 1970s.


Very active in his local club, Leszek, SP2WKB, from Bydgoszcz, is 27 years old and gets inspiration from Kazik, SP2FAX.


Andrzej, SP5AHT, is the editor of Swiat Radio--now the official journal of the PZK and the only full color magazine devoted to SP Amateur Radio. His young
son proves that a Yaesu FT-817 will put a smile on anybody's face.


Team Poland at WRTC 2002 in Finland--Bogdan, SP3RBR; Andrzej, SP8NR; Chris, SP7GIQ, and Kazik, SP2FAX.

Browsing the results of 2003 IARU HF Championship, announced in February 2004 QST, one cannot avoid catching sight of the number of logs submitted from
Poland. A total of 22 percent of all European logs came from Poland--241 logs. The national Amateur Radio organization, Polski Zwiazek Krótkofalowców (
has approximately 2500 members, so almost 10 percent of them participated in this unique contest and submitted their logs. The Headquarters station, SN0HQ,
logged over 15,000 QSOs from a dozen locations with the participation of over 50 of the country's most proficient operators.

I lived the first 30 years of my life in Poland so I have certain amount of interest and a relation to Polish events and news, in particular those pertaining
to Amateur Radio. Judging by its involvement in the IARU HF Championship and many other spheres of our hobby, Poland is today a superpower in ham radio.

16,000 Hams and Growing

The number of licenses is growing in Poland, and now exceeds 16,000. It is no longer compulsory to belong to an organization, as it was prior to 1989. There
were then hundreds of Amateur Radio clubs coordinated by three entities: PZK, the scouts and the National Defense League. Although the overall level of
education in theory and practical operating techniques was good, suitable equipment was very difficult to get. After drastic changes of politics and economics
in early 1990s, the number of clubs has declined but almost anyone can afford to buy a piece or two of modern equipment. The result is an army of well-trained
and well-equipped Amateur Radio operators in Poland.

Contesting with Passion

There are a few contest fanatics who have created top-ranking antenna farms and make winning scores, alone or with friends. Two teams from Poland participated
in the WRTC 2002 games. The SP DX Contest (organized jointly by the PZK and SP DX Club) on the first weekend of April attracts hundreds of contestants
from all over the world. The number of SP stations in this 24 hour event is on the rise. Some short, one-letter-suffix call signs were assigned for contest
use in the mid 1990s. Today anyone can apply for a one-letter suffix vanity call sign. The prefixes used for Amateur Radio in Poland are mainly SP, SQ,
SN, SO, and rarely HF and 3Z. The SR prefix is used for repeaters.

Chasing DX has always been popular in Poland. Well over 200 members of the SP DX Club have contacted 300 DXCC entities or more. A couple of hundred members
usually gather at the annual club meeting during a weekend in September. One of the top rankings in The DXCC Challenge--a competition that requires a lot
of patience and experience--is held by Ryszard, SP5EWY.

Expanding Operation Worldwide

More and more SP hams travel to exotic spots to work or for pleasure, and take the opportunity to get on the air. In recent years, several Polish DXpedtions
to Pacific islands or Polar regions have taken place. A large number of Polish-speaking hams, scattered all over the world, keep in touch with friends
and families at home through Amateur Radio. The most popular calling frequency is 14.273 MHz.

Advanced technologies are not yet widespread. The lack of modern electronics industry and access to components and instruments makes it very arduous to
assemble a moonbounce station, for example. Digital modes are easier to implement, as computers are popular and inexpensive.

I present here some of the hams active today in Poland.

Table with 2 columns and 2 rows

An informal meeting at the home of Ryszard, SP5EWY. From the left: SP5BR, SP5EAQ, SP5ENA, SP5DRH and Ryszard, SP5EWY

A multioperator effort from Kazik, SP2FAX's station. Przemek, SP7VC, is in the foreground. Waldemar, SM0TQX (ex-SP5DZJ), in the center is visiting from
Sweden. The boss, Kazik is in the background.

The SP5GRM 15 meter array in the town of Sierpc.

Chris, SP7GIQ, standing next to his low-band vertical. Chris is a quad antenna aficionado--as evident in the background.
table end

Post 236 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:42:39

By Doug Smith, KF6DX
Digital Voice: The Next
New Mode?
Interest in digital voice systems is on the rise. Do they have a place
in Amateur Radio? Come on a brief tour of the technology and see
for yourself.
Why Digital Speech?
These days, it seems communications
systems are going digital everywhere
they can. Why are we doing it? What¡¯s
wrong with well-established analog
Well, nothing much is wrong with
them; in fact, they will always represent
the most straightforward ways for the
transmission and perfect reproduction of
speech signals. But propagation paths for
radio signals may be far from perfect and
that¡¯s where digital voice comes in.
Digital modes offer certain advantages
over their analog counterparts. Foremost
among those is that digital detectors have
a very clear-cut decision to make. In principle,
it¡¯s easier to decide whether a received
signal represents a binary zero or
one than to decide exactly what analog
voltage it represents. With appropriate restrictions,
that¡¯s also true in practice. A
second big advantage of digital modes is
that errors in transmission may be made
relatively easy to detect and correct.
Coding schemes have been devised that
produce very robust performance, even
through poor propagation media. Finally,
digital signals lend themselves to some
advanced processing techniques that
would be incredibly complex in analog.
Those techniques generally achieve performance
levels not otherwise possible.
In many cases, the advantages mentioned
above have made it very worthwhile
to employ digital transmission and
processing of analog signals. Commercially,
digital high-definition TV (DTV)
and cellular phones have begun to show
that. The resounding surge in DSP-based
transceivers is certainly evidence of
what¡¯s possible with signal processing;
but here, I¡¯d like to discuss how analog
signals¡ªspecifically speech signals¡ª
may be transmitted and received in digi
tal format. A look back at the history of
digital speech modes reveals a lot about
both how and why.
A Brief History of
Digital Voice Modes
The public switched telephone network
(PSTN), the communications medium
to which the most people have
access, went digital a long time ago. Engineers
realized that to obtain the best
performance over a large area, many repeaters
and switches are required. Analog
amplifiers, repeaters and switches
introduce noise; that makes it difficult to
maintain acceptable signal-to-noise ratios
(SNRs) over long distances. As against
that, digital signals received at a repeater
or amplifier may be cleanly detected and
a new, noise-free copy of those signals
may be retransmitted. A digital transmission
format was therefore chosen for the
PSTN around WW2 time.
The first task for those working on the
problem was to decide on a way to convert
analog speech signals to digital. The
device doing that job is aptly known as
an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
The job itself is called sampling. Samples
are taken at regularly spaced intervals and
the result is a string of numbers that represent
the analog voltage at those discrete
Figure 1¡ªAn

analog wave

being sampled

at a rate much

higher than its

bandwidth. At

(A), an analog

signal; at (B),

the sampled


28 January 2002

times. Each voltage sample is converted
to a binary number proportional to the
voltage. To get an accurate representation,
many samples per second must be
taken so that the voltage doesn¡¯t change
much between samples. See Figure 1. The
number of voltages that can be represented,
therefore, is determined by the
number of binary digits or bits available.
For example, if eight bits are available,
then 28 or 256 voltage levels are possible.
One of the first things discovered
about such a scheme is that since only
256 levels are possible, the binary number
chosen at any particular sample time
may not correspond exactly to the actual
analog voltage; it¡¯s only the closest of
those available. For a large signal over
time, errors are just as likely to be positive
as negative; they are also just as
likely to be small as large, within certain
limits. Errors therefore show up as quantization
noise in the sampled signal,
which limits the total range of signal
amplitudes. That range is called the
dynamic range.
Telephone engineers recognized that
if they used more bits for the smaller signals,
and fewer for the large, they could
achieve an increase in dynamic range.
The system now in use on the PSTN in
North America and Japan, called ¦Ì-law
coding, does exactly that and extends
dynamic range by quite a lot.1 The chief
penalty is that the maximum SNR is reduced
slightly¡ªnot a bad trade-off. Other
countries use A-law coding, which is
slightly different.
The sampling rate must be at least
twice the bandwidth of the signal being
sampled.2 The phone company decided
that about 3 kHz of bandwidth was good
enough for speech and so chose a sampling
rate of 8000 samples per second.
With eight bits per sample, the transmission
rate is 8 ¡Þ 8000=64,000 bits/second
(bps). The system provides what is generally
known as toll-quality speech and
it preserves most of the important characteristics
of a person¡¯s voice.
The US space program also had need
for voice communications and NASA,
too, recognized the value of digital transmission
modes. During the 1960s, designers
found that certain digital coding
schemes gave them the ability to determine
the transit time between transmitter
and receiver, hence the distance
between the two, while using a continuously
transmitted digital signal. They also
knew that square-wave limiting (clipping)
of human voice signals increases
the talk power of those signals. Clipped
speech signals resemble digital waveforms,
so they reasoned that they could
1Notes appear on page 32.

Figure 2¡ªA representation of delta modulation (DM).
How Do I Sound?
That seems like an innocent question and it¡¯s easy to slip into non-technical
terms, like ¡°scratchy,¡± ¡°warm¡± and so forth. If you are serious about giving a meaningful
response, though, some forethought is required. For scientific voice-quality
evaluation, a uniform system that gauges subjective responses is necessary.
A wide variety of factors influences perceived voice quality, including amplitude
and frequency distortion, echoes and noise. Anything detracting from the naturalness
of speech increases the effort a listener must exert to understand what is
being said. For signals that are significantly impaired, the annoyance experienced
by a listener may be rated on a linear scale called mean opinion score (MOS).
The MOS scale is shown below:

table with 3 columns and 7 rows
Perceptible, but not annoying
Slightly annoying
Very annoying
table end

Non-integer scores like 3.5 are possible. An MOS of 3.0 is generally referred to
as ¡°toll quality,¡± meaning ¡°good enough to pay for.¡± Digital voice users may tolerate
MOS levels less than three if they get additional benefits, such as simultaneous
voice and data services.
While evaluation of voice systems may be made based on test-bench measurements,
they must ultimately relate to the perception of the listener. A large body of
voice-system evaluations exists based on MOS. Comparisons among systems are
therefore readily made. MOS relates well to the readability figures commonly used
in Amateur Radio signal reports.
Comparison is always part of subjective analysis. In fact, comparison is absolutely
necessary to remove all bias in voice-quality evaluation. Most often, a
listener is presented with two audio samples in succession; he or she is not informed
beforehand which sample is the one being evaluated. Several repetitions
using many different listeners may be averaged to mitigate the effects of individual
listening talents. For digital voice systems, MOS may be correlated with the bit
error rate (BER) on the communications link. Performance in hostile environments¡ª
those containing high levels of environmental and man-made noise¡ªmay
thereby be quantified.¡ªDoug Smith, KF6DX
use them as such. Combined with range-before the space age.
determining codes to produce a single Just after WW2, researchers discovdigital
bit stream, they found that gave ered a waveform-coding system known
them both voice communications and the as delta modulation (DM). In it, when an
distance information they sought. analog input wave¡¯s voltage is increas-
Such a system was used by NASA for ing, a binary one is transmitted; when the
the Apollo program.3 It¡¯s very clever; but analog voltage is decreasing, a zero is
if you think it crude by today¡¯s standards, transmitted. See Figure 2. A fixed amount
remember that at the time, LED displays of voltage change is associated with each
had not yet been perfected and digital bit so that the analog waveform may be
numerical readouts aboard the spacecraft reconstructed at the receiver through inwere
provided by Nixie tubes! Since then tegration. It¡¯s a very simple system and
other, more-sophisticated schemes have it works reasonably well, but it has an inbeen
developed and some even existed herent problem: It can¡¯t represent analog
January 2002 29

waves having slopes exceeding the maximum
voltage change per bit. In the 1970s,
others found that limitation could be
overcome by incorporating a greater
slope when several ones or zeros occurred
in a row.4 Their system, called continuously
variable slope-delta modulation
(CVSD), produces toll quality at bit rates
significantly lower than those on the
PSTN and it¡¯s more immune to errors in
the bit stream. Its maximum SNR,
though, is generally not as good as what
you get over the telephone.
Other schemes, such as adaptive
differential pulse code modulation
(ADPCM), have achieved some measure
of success.5 Over the last 30 years, a lot
of experimentation has gone into finding
better ways to characterize voice signals
than those of the waveform coders described
above. Driving that research is the
need to minimize the number of bits
transmitted and thus, the occupied bandwidth
of digital voice signals, as well as
the complexity of modems used to do it.
Intense investigation about the nature
of human speech production and hearing
began in earnest in the 1930s.6 Many
things discovered then remain relevant to
this day.
On the Nature of
Human Speech and Hearing
Investigators of human speech have
found that it may be modeled as a source
of excitation (wind from the lungs) followed
by a filter (the voice tract).7 They¡¯ve
also discovered that certain properties of
a person¡¯s voice may be characterized and
extracted from voice signals that lend
themselves to efficient digital coding.8
Those characteristics relate to the basic
nature of human speech sounds and
physical factors in their production.
Some voice coders make use of a
source-filter model to achieve good speech
reproduction at low bit rates. Instead of
transmitting information about the wave
shape of speech, they transmit spectral information
about the source and the frequency
response of the vocal-tract filter.
That approach is a winner, largely because
the spectrum of speech changes relatively
slowly. That is, the frequency content of
speech may be considered constant over
short time frames of, say, 20 ms or so.
Even over time frames longer than that,
the source spectrum may remain reasonably
constant. Those sorts of speech characteristics
allow parametric speech coders
a large measure of efficiency.
Human hearing has evolved so that it¡¯s
good at distinguishing human speech
sounds. Auditory research has revealed
some interesting things about the earbrain
combination that are relevant to
speech coders and decoders (codecs).
30 January 2002

Such research is conducted subjectively;
that is, what someone hears (or doesn¡¯t
hear) can only be determined by asking
questions of the observer and attempting
to infer something from his or her answers.
For that reason, we define physical
and perceptual parameters of sounds
differently and separately.9
Intensity is the physical measure of
sound amplitude. Loudness is the corresponding
perceptual magnitude; it is
arbitrarily defined with respect to a fixedfrequency
tone at a certain intensity. We
have no guarantee that two listeners will
say that any particular sound has the same
loudness; however, controlled experiments
have shown that observers agree
closely on whether one sound is twice as
loud as another. So the perception of
loudness may be scaled in an orderly way
from soft to loud.
Frequency is, of course, the physical
measure of cycles per second of a sound.
The corresponding perceptual measure is
known as pitch. This term is not to be
confused with the base frequency of a
person¡¯s voice. Pitch is to frequency as
loudness is to intensity.
Having separate perceptual measures
for sound characteristics might seem useless
at first, but research has shown that
loudness is not independent of frequency.
10 By now, it¡¯s fairly well-known
that human hearing is most sensitive to
frequencies in the range of 2-3 kHz. For
instance, a 2-kHz tone sounds louder than
a 500-Hz tone of the same intensity. Also,
pitch is not independent of intensity. You
may demonstrate that to yourself by turning
up the intensity on a pair of headphones
and comparing the pitch of what
you hear when they¡¯re on your head to
what you hear as you move them away.
Don¡¯t turn the intensity up too much,
though, because researchers have also
found that permanent hearing loss may
occur at intensity levels far below those
causing significant discomfort.11
Human hearing seems to have certain
thresholds that come into play during recognition
of speech, music and other
sounds. One important threshold of hearing
is the ability to tell whether one sound
is louder than another. In the presence of
multi-frequency or polyphonic sounds,
that threshold is influenced by how close
in frequency the sounds are. For example,
a quiet sound that is close in frequency
to a louder sound might not be audible at
all. Such masking is important in speech
coding because it implies that the number
of discrete intensities and frequencies
to be represented may be reduced.
Another threshold of hearing is the
ability to tell whether one sound is higher
or lower in frequency than another. Although
it¡¯s influenced by intensity, ex
periments generally find that threshold
increases as the frequencies of sounds increase.
In other words, it¡¯s harder to discern
subtle differences in frequency
among higher-frequency sounds. The significance
of that in speech coders is that
the number of discrete frequencies that
have to be represented may be reduced.12
Much of the energy in human speech
above 3 kHz is produced by sounds like
¡°p¡± and ¡°f,¡± which are inherently noisy.
It¡¯s therefore no surprise that our hearing
has not developed good frequency discernment
up there: Not much useful information
is contained in those frequencies.
There may be physical reasons for that as
well, but it¡¯s interesting that our ability to
understand speech closely matches our
ability to communicate verbally.13 For example:
The fastest talker can go about 300
wpm, which is about the limit of most listeners¡¯
Technical Goals of Digital Voice
All the above directly relates to our
desire and ability to reduce the data rate
of digital speech signals. Lower data rates
are good because they may be transmitted
in smaller bandwidths and recovered
with higher SNRs using narrower receiver
bandwidths. A definite trade-off exists,
though, between data rate and speech
quality. To illustrate what¡¯s possible, consider
the following example that draws on
several key concepts in speech coding.
Let¡¯s say we want to build a speech
coder¡ªfor a single language only¡ªthat
uses a bit rate approaching the minimum
possible bit rate. We may not know what
that minimum is, but we want to see if
we can find it. Let¡¯s also say that cost and
complexity aren¡¯t big concerns. Occupied
bandwidth is our chief concern; other
goals are secondary.
We decide to employ a speech-recognition
engine at the transmitter that identifies
individual words from the talker.
That¡¯s already being done with much success,
so it¡¯s not a big technical leap of
faith. We assume that a vocabulary of
about 65,000 words is enough to support
all the sentences the speaker is likely to
construct. Each word may then be represented
by a 16-bit code, since 65,000=216.
The speech-recognition engine looks up
a 16-bit code for each word and puts them
together into a serial bit stream. Ignoring
the requirements for synchronization,
pauses between words, error detection and
correction, a person talking at 150 wpm
generates data at a rate of (150 wpm)(16
bits/word)(1/60 minutes/second) = 40 bps.
Many languages have a heck of a lot more
words than just 65,000 and some people
might talk faster, but you get the idea.
Now that signal can be coded into an
analog format that occupies very little bandwidth.
The inverse process is employed at
the receiver, terminating in a speech synthesizer
that drives an audio power amplifier
and loudspeaker. See Figure 3.
What are the drawbacks of this scheme?
Well first of all, it¡¯s rather elaborate and
expensive. Secondly, the software has to
be different for each language supported.
You¡¯d have to know which language was
being used ahead of time to correctly decode
messages. Finally, the listener at the
receiver can¡¯t tell who is speaking unless
he or she reveals it; none of the speaker¡¯s
emotions or inflection is transmitted. The
listener can¡¯t tell if the person has a stuffy
nose or whether there are any other voices
or sounds in the background. Speech from
the decoder sounds robotic and it¡¯s difficult
to listen to; comprehension has been
sacrificed to some extent because of the
lack of important speech properties. The
conclusion is that we have reduced the bit
rate too much and traded off too many
important speech characteristics. The bit
rate must obviously be increased to improve
things. That brings us to some definitions
about what is acceptable for digital
speech in Amateur Radio. The following
restrictions ultimately determine the lower
bit-rate limit.
For Apollo astronauts or military personnel,
it¡¯s not always very important to
be able to tell who is speaking, so long as
the information is communicated. Amateur
Radio is a different story, because how
something is said and how it sounds is
sometimes as important as what¡¯s being
said. We may deduce, then, that digital
voice for hams must be of high quality so
that it¡¯s difficult to tell the speech was
Amateurs often work with signals near
the SNR limit of detection. In that regard,
digital voice systems need to perform at
least as well as existing analog formats to
become popular. Digital coding opens
some interesting possibilities for redundant
transmission, such as sending the data
many times and comparing data sets to
achieve a large measure of forward error
correction. Data transmission rates may
also be artificially slowed to aid reception,
then sped back up at the receiver after all
the data have been received. How that kind
of thing will affect phone contests and distance
records is open to speculation.
I suspect that many hams would like
to try digital voice without having to buy
a new transceiver. That means digital
voice systems may initially take the form
of external boxes that interface to existing
transceivers at the audio level. Such
boxes are already being developed.14
Aside from speech-quality goals, certain
other benefits may come to digital voice
users. The ability to embed certain iden
tifiers in a digital voice transmission provides
significant benefits. Transmissions
may be automatically identified as to
their source, destination, protocol, and
other parameters. As that kind of thing is
made possible, cellular and trunking systems
come within reach.
Is Digital Voice Legal on the Amateur
Bands? If So, What Frequencies
and Emissions May Be Used?
Part 97 of the FCC rules states that
phone signals¡ªwhether analog or digital¡ª
must remain in the phone subbands.
15 That¡¯s mainly a concern for the
eight HF bands where phone is used. In
the VHF bands above 10 meters, phone
is legal for US-licensed amateurs at all
allocated frequencies, with the exception
of 50-50.1, 144-144.1 and 219-220 MHz.
The rules also say that no transmission
¡°... shall occupy more bandwidth than
necessary for the information rate and
emission type being transmitted, in accordance
with good amateur practice.¡±16
That¡¯s purposefully vague: The Amateur
Radio Service is free to experiment with
almost any mode you can think of, as long
as it¡¯s not wasteful of bandwidth. You can
take it to mean that a digital voice transmission
should not occupy more than the
equivalent SSB transmission on congested
bands or the equivalent AM or FM
transmission on sparsely occupied bands,
such as 10 meters. While the symbol rate
(baud rate) of digital data transmissions
is limited on many US ham bands, the
baud rate of digital phone transmissions
is unlimited!17
What is the emission designator for
digital voice? Well, the first symbol of
an emission designator tells what modulation
format is being used. For an SSB
transmitter, that is letter ¡°J.¡± For an FM
Figure 3¡ªA digital speech system
occupying very little bandwidth in
transmission¡ªbut you have to know
what language is in use.
or PM transmitter, the letter is ¡°F¡± or ¡°G.¡±
The second symbol tells about the nature
of the modulating (baseband) signal. The
most likely situation in amateur operation
is the application of a modulated
audio signal to the input of a transmitter.
The symbol for that is numeral ¡°2.¡± The
third symbol tells about the type of information
being transmitted. That would
be letter ¡°E¡± for phone. So the most likely
emission designators for digital voice
would be J2E or F2E.
It may be weird to hear digital signals
on the phone bands and courtesy dictates
that operators explain¡ªusing analog
phone¡ªwhat¡¯s going on until general
understanding is reached on the use of
digital phone. The same kind of situation
occurs during HF slow-scan television
operation (SSTV, designator J3F) and it¡¯s
been handled admirably by practitioners.
Note that digital video is also perfectly
legal on the HF phone bands (designator
J2F), although it hasn¡¯t seen much use.
What is the State of the Art Now?
Where Does Amateur Radio Come In?
International bodies have drafted several
standards for audio codecs and modems;
many are seeing use on the Internet
and elsewhere.18 Work continues in commercial
and academic sectors, as well as
in Amateur Radio. Those efforts are making
it easier for more amateurs to get involved¡ª
and involved we are.
The ARRL is making a significant commitment
to digital voice and several other
developing technologies. Those technologies
relate to one another well; they reflect
global trends toward more effective
use of our radio communications spectrum.
They also represent excellent opportunities
for Amateur Radio to make significant
contributions to the advancement of the
communications art. The possibilities are
very exciting, since they may constitute
the next big changes in our service.
The FCC is very interested in amateur
work in this field. They recognize that the
Amateur Radio Service is an ideal place
for experimentation with and testing of
those concepts. Since we¡¯re a large and organized
force of dedicated communicators,
we belong at the forefront of their development.
That notion is alive and well.
Considerable work is already being
done by amateurs. A couple of years ago,
Charles Brain, G4GUO, and Andy Talbot,
G4JNT, started working with it. They
produced a system satisfying the technical
goals outlined above that was described
in a paper summarizing their
accomplishments (see Note 17). Tucson
Amateur Packet Radio (TAPR) is producing
a kit of this digital voice codec that¡¯s
now available.19 It helps you to get started
in digital voice with a minimal invest-

January 2002 31
ment in time and hardware.
The system employs a digital speech
coding scheme known as advanced multiband
excitation coding (AMBE).20 Data
rates up to 9600 bps are supported and
the rate may be changed for experimentation.
Coupled to a suitable modem
and transceiver, it supports digital voice
operation in both half-duplex and fullduplex
modes. While AMBE is a complex
algorithm, the significant details of
its operation are in the public domain.
AMBE codecs provide high recovered
speech quality and they¡¯ve won spots in
some very prominent systems, including
Iridium and APCO 25. APCO 25 is a project
to provide reliable digital voice communications
to the public-service community.
Where Do We Go From Here?
Even with a digital voice codec in
hand, you¡¯re going to need a modem that
supports 2400-9600 bps: Many TNCs can
do it. Those rates are relatively easy to
achieve using audio frequency-shift keying
(AFSK) and audio phase-shift keying
(APSK) when 15 kHz or more of
bandwidth is available, such as at VHF
and above. Because of dispersive propagation
on HF, though, those rates are difficult
to sustain and some innovative
techniques must be employed. Therefore,
high-speed HF modem design is one area
that invites further work.
Some of us are working toward a single
DSP system for digital voice that incorporates
both the codec and the modem in
software or firmware. The work is being
undertaken on DSP development platforms
that have data-conversion hardware
(ADCs and DACs) included. Others have
suggested that fast PCs, equipped with
sound cards, might be capable of digital
voice operation meeting the goals outlined
above. That is another area ripe for experimentation.
Digital repeaters or ¡°digipeaters¡± may
be desirable on VHF and above to extend
the range of digital voice communications.
It might even be possible to build
digipeaters that simultaneously handle
more than one QSO.
I guess there¡¯s no going back now that
we¡¯ve identified and proven the benefits
of digital communications technology.
There may be other, as-yet-unidentified
fruits to harvest in the quest for practical
digital voice systems.
For more information about digital
voice, point your browser to www.arrl.
org/tis/info/digivoice.html and take a
look at some of the information and links
A Continuing Legacy of Innovation
Around the turn of the last century, experimenters began working with electromagnetic
waves. This gave birth to Amateur Radio and wireless communications
by a mode known as ¡°spark.¡±
It didn¡¯t take long for amateurs to find better and more efficient modes of communicating
via wireless. Spark soon gave way to CW, then to AM voice. As time
progressed, technology advanced and SSB brought spectral efficiency beyond the
capabilities of AM. While amateurs have utilized RTTY techniques for many years,
the explosion in interest did not occur until the computer became a popular tool in
amateur stations, spawning a variety of digital modes. Now, at the turn of another
century, it is time for us once again to lead the challenge for new modes in the
Amateur Radio Service.
Early in 2000, the ARRL Board of Directors unanimously approved a recommendation
from its Technology Task Force to create a Digital Voice Working
Group. The TTF¡¯s Technology Working Group had performed a survey of radio
amateurs throughout the world, seeking input on new technologies for the Amateur
Service. The survey revealed that digital voice was one of the top recommendations.
Subsequently, ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, appointed a Digital
Voice Working Group with the objective of paving the road for digital voice to
become a reality in the Amateur Service.
For a new mode to be widely accepted, participation from a wide geographical
area must be sought. The working group involves radio amateurs knowledgeable in
relevant techniques from the United States and Europe, where significant digitalvoice
work in the Amateur Service has already been performed.
Under the guidance of this working group, many amateurs should soon be
enjoying yet another new mode of communication. Yet to come will be two additional
working groups with similar objective assignments: high-speed digital
networks and multimedia, and software-defined radio.
Moving from spark to CW and from AM to SSB were important events. The
next generation of changes should be equally outstanding. For those who say
nothing new comes from our Service anymore, and that the technology train
left the amateur station years ago, I say ¡°Listen up!¡± The interesting thing about
that train is that it always comes back to the station looking for new passengers,
and the Amateur Service has a long, continuing tradition of loading the train to
capacity each time!¡ªJoel Harrison, W5ZN, ARRL First Vice President, Chair,
Technology Task Force
provided there. Reports of the TTF, TWG
and DVC are available at
announce/reports-01/tt.html. League
comments on so-called ¡°software-defined
radios¡± may be found at
Doug Smith, KF6DX, a member of the engineering
staff of Ten-Tec Corporation,
serves as chair of the ARRL Digital Voice
Committee. He is also editor of QEX/
Communications Quarterly and author of
the DSP chapter of The ARRL Handbook
for Radio Amateurs. He can be reached
c/o ARRL Headquarters, 225 Main St,
Newington, CT 06111;
1J. C. Bellamy, Digital Telephony, Wiley and
Sons, New York, 1982.
2A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer,
Digital Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1975.
3E. J. Nossen, ¡°The RCA VHF ranging system
for Apollo,¡± RCA Engineering, Vol 19, Dec
1973/Jan 1974.
4J. A. Greefkes and K. Riemens, ¡°Code Modulation
with Digitally Controlled Companding
for Speech Transmission,¡± Philips Technical
Review, 1970.
5G.721: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation,
ITU, Geneva, Switzerland, 1984.
6H. Fletcher and W. A. Munson, ¡°Relation Between
Loudness and Masking,¡± Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, Vol 9, 1937;
also see S. S. Stevens and H. W. Davis, Hearing,
Wiley and Sons, New York, 1938.
7L. R. Rabiner and R. W. Schafer, Digital Processing
of Speech Signals, Prentice-Hall,
8N. S. Jayant and P. Noll, Digital Coding of
Waveforms: Principles and Applications to
Speech and Video, Prentice-Hall, 1984.
9J. L. Hall, ¡°Auditory Psychophysics for Coding
Applications,¡± The Digital Signal Processing
Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams,
Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998.
10B. Moore, An Introduction to the Psychology
of Hearing, Academic Press, London, 1989.
11C. M. Harris, Ed., Handbook of Acoustic Measurements
and Noise Control, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1991.
12D. Smith, KF6DX, ¡°PTC: Perceptual Transform
Coding for Bandwidth Reduction of
Speech in the Analog Domain,¡± QEX/Communications
Quarterly; Part 1, May/June
2000; Part 2, Mar/Apr 2001. The article may
be found on ARRLWeb,
13R. C. Stauffer, Ed., Charles Darwin¡¯s Natural
Selection, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
14The G4GUO digital voice codec is a prime
example. See Note 17 for more information.
1547 CFR 97.305.
1647 CFR 97.307(a).
17P. Rinaldo, W4RI, ¡°Is Digital Voice Permis
sible under Part 97?¡± sidebar to C. Brain,
G4GUO, and A. Talbot, G4JNT, ¡°Practical HF
Digital Voice,¡± QEX/Communications Quarterly,
May/Jun 2000. The article may be
found on ARRLWeb,
digivoice.html. ¡°The Help Desk,¡± elsewhere
in this issue, contains an updated list of HF
band plans.
18See, for example, G.723.1, ITU.
19For details, visit the TAPR Web site, www.
20Information and audio samples are available

32 January 2002

Post 237 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:45:49

W1AW Levitates 120-foot Tower

By Rick Lindquist, N1RL
Senior Assistant Technical Editor
September 1, 1998

The problem: The bottom section on the W1AW 120-foot tower is deteriorating and must be replaced. The solution: Lift up the tower, remove the old section,
and replace with a new one.


Rust is visible on the right hand tower leg.

"It's gotta come out of there!" Yes, it was a question of decay, but that wasn't our dentist talking. That was the verdict of W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia,
NJ1Q, on the bottom section of the station's 120-foot tower. The tower--the tallest of the four on site--is the one that makes possible the reliably strong
signal for W1AW bulletins and code practice transmissions. "One of the section legs is rusted out," Carcia said. "After 20-plus years, it just has to be

Sounds simple enough until Carcia also mentions that the guyed tower will not be dropped to repair it. "They're gonna lift up the tower about an inch or
so," Carcia explained before the fact. The tower, comprised of Rohn 65 sections, weighs about 2 tons. It was this way or remove the antennas and take the
sections off one at a time "and take a week doing it," Carcia said.

A Bit of History

The tower was installed at W1AW back in April of 1977--at a time when the ARRL Headquarters expansion project was under way and a crane just happened to
be on site. Back in those days, HQ staff members did the job themselves. The crew consisted of Bob Myers, W1FBY, who designed the new tower and antenna
system, plus former staffers Jim Cain, K1TN, and Jay Rusgrove, WA1LNQ--and some last-minute help from current Executive Vice President Dave Sumner, K1ZZ.

One hurdle the original tower project had to overcome was the presence of the legendary W1AW wire rhombic. The crane had to lift the new tower over the
antenna, which was mounted on a sequence of utility-type poles. The rhombic is long gone, but the remnants of the cedar poles remain.

Don't Try This at Home

This job requires a crane--a very large crane. It is not for the faint-of-heart. Matt Strelow, KC1XX, of New Hampshire has maintained the W1AW towers for
a few years now. He agreed to take on this particular task as well, but he concedes that this particular approach is not especially common. In addition
to replacing the bottom section, the crew also would replace the guy cables.

Hear the Story!

Rick Lindquist, N1RL,
(RealAudio: 56 seconds) W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q, who explains how the tower repair will be accomplished.

The weather cooperated on the appointed day--July 23--although it was quite hot and muggy. By the time the job was nearing completion, a thunderstorm was
well on its way. Because a W1AW qualifying run had been scheduled for that day, Carcia had installed a folded dipole in some nearby trees to sub for the
usual fixed monobander on the tower. Then, the crane in place, the tower crew set about preparing for the great tower levitation trick.

The crew moved quickly, setting up the new guy cables and then attaching the crane's harness at the top of the tower. Then came the moment of truth: The
crane operator applied just enough lift to pick up the entire tower and hold it approximately an inch off the base. Seeing the huge tower suspended just
above its base was a little eerie--almost like one of those David Copperfield tricks on TV.

Bolts on each tower leg were carefully removed. Then, the old section was swung away and lowered and the new section brought up to replace it. New bolts
were installed, the new guy wires deployed and tensioned, and the whole business was wrapped up within a few hours of starting. W1AW was back on its regular
40 and 20-meter antennas for the evening bulletin transmission.

Here's the camera's eye view of the entire procedure:

(Each image is a link to a larger copy of the photo.)

Table with 2 columns and 8 rows

The crane truss is ready.

Andy Toth attaches new guy cables at the tower mid-point.

At the very top of the tower, Andy completes the attachment of the lifting truss.

Andy and Matt make some guy adjustments on the ground.

Sidewalk supervisors included ARRL Executive Vice President David Sumner, K1ZZ (l), and W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q.

Hold it right there!" Matt hollers to the crane operator.

The levitated tower.

Matt tackles a tough nut to remove the old bottom section.

Matt removes the final bolt on the old section.

The ground crew, Andy and Al Kinnon, KD1EA, swings the old section away.

Matt is left momentarily twisting slowly in the wind.

The ground crew hoists the new section into place.

With Matt's help from above, the ground crew jockeys the new section into position.

The ground crew fits the new section over the pier post at the tower base.

The ground crew aligns the new section.

Matt bolts in the new section.

table end

Post 238 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:46:33

Electric Fence Noise

A Step-By-Step Procedure

An electric fence can generate radio noise, even if it is in otherwise good working order. This noise is not normal however and it almost always can be
corrected. In many cases, this noise is caused by a portion of the fence that may fail as the spark causing the noise weakens the wire. Whenever noise
from an electric fence causes harmful interference to a licensed radio service, Part 15 of the FCC rules require the fence operator to correct the problem
or cease operation of the fence. Fortunately, in most cases, a little maintenance is all that is required. Let's now take a closer look at the problem
of unwanted radio noise from an electric fence, and ways to find and fix it.

Virtually all radio interference originating from an electric fence is caused by a spark or arcing across some fence related hardware. The noise can interfere
with radio and television reception and propagate for a considerable distance. In some cases, the noise can disrupt radio reception for a radius of over
a mile from the fence. The interference is most noticeable on an AM radio and typically heard as a "tick-tick-tick" sound. This is a somewhat unique characteristic
of electric fence noise.

Fortunately, correcting most of these problems is typically a relatively easy and simple process. Many cases can also be corrected at no cost. For example,
it is unlikely for the fence charger to be the culprit and require replacement. Troubleshooting electric fence noise typically involves locating the offending
spark gap and correcting it. Bad splices in the fence wire and gate hooks are two of the more common problems associated with electric fence noise.

Figure 1.

Figure 1 - Electric-fence controllers are not often a source of noise. It is more likely that electric-fence interference is caused by a problem on the
wire itself.

Vegetation can also be a problem. A typical scenario is results noise that will cyclically come and go. First, the weeds grow until they reach the height
of the fence. Once a plant makes contact, a short can occur and noise is generated. After a while, the plant burns back and breaks the connection. The
process doesn't repeat until the weed recovers and grows up to the fence again.

It is also possible for an insulator to go bad, and thereby allowing the fence to arc to one of the fence posts. This is more likely if the problem changes
with weather, either getting better or worse when it rains.

It is unlikely (but possible) that the problem is an arc or other defect inside the fence controller. Since most problems occur along the fence wire and
related hardware, the fence wire can act as an antenna and radiate the radio noise generated by the arc. A filter, such as a brute-force AC line filter,
will only help filter noise being conducted in to and radiated by the AC power lines. In the case of the fence however, such a line filter will unlikely
be of much if any help. The only solution in most cases is to find the source of the arc and correct the defect causing it.

Here is a step-by step approach to troubleshooting a noisy electric fence:

List of 12 items
1. Visually inspect the fence for obvious defects. Remove or cut back any problem vegetation and replace any broken hardware. Look for and take note of
potential problem areas such as splices, gate hooks, turnbuckles and similar hardware. Rust or corrosion at these points is often an indicator that the
splice or gate hook is making radio noise. In some cases you may be able to hear the spark by ear.

2. Confirm the presence of the noise with an AM battery powered portable radio. If you have one, a radio capable of receiving the aircraft band can also
be used. Because of its shorter wavelength, aircraft band frequencies can in some cases be used for troubleshooting purposes. The noise occurs in short
bursts in tempo with the fence charger.

3. Unplug the fence charger to verify the noise goes away. Also confirm the noise also goes away at the affected radio or television receivers -- especially
if your neighbor is involved. If it does not, there may be additional sources of noise causing the problem.

(Note: There are electric blankets and heated mattress pads that cause a pulsed noise, similar to an electric fence. Products made Perfect Fit generate
noise even when turned off. These devices must be unplugged from AC power in order to eliminate the noise.)

4. With the fence controller disconnected from AC power, remove the fence connection to it. Confirm the noise goes away. If it does not, you may have a
bad charger. A brute-force AC line-filter (1) may help in this case. If not, try replacing or using a different charger.

5. Again remove power to the fence charger. Add a short length of fence wire to the charger. Several feet should be adequate. Insulate the wire as appropriate
to ensure that arcing cannot occur. It must not come it contact or be near anything could result in an arc. Spare antenna insulators may serve temporary
duty for this test. Turn on the charger and confirm the noise does not return. If the short "fence" wire appears to radiate noise, you may need to replace
the fence charger. Fortunately, this is not a typical case.

6. Remove power to the charger and reconnect the fence wire. If there are multiple sections, connect one section at a time and turn on the charger. Make
note of which fence sections generate - and do not generate -- noise. This will help narrow down the search. Reconnect all portions of the fence and turn
on power.

7. Walk the perimeter of the fence while listening with the battery portable radio. If you have an aircraft band receiver with a telescoping antenna, use
the minimum length of antenna necessary to hear the noise. You may be able to further isolate the problem by carefully observing the signal strength of
the noise. It will increase as you approach the source. This is not always a reliable test with an AM broadcast receiver however.

8. Turn the radio level down and listen for faint audible sizzling at any and all suspect areas of the fence. Arcing may also be visible. (This may be especially
noticeable at night.) Splices and hardware, such as gate hooks, in fence sections known to be causing the noise require particular attention. Any areas
that look corroded, pitted or frequently fail are particularly suspect. (The spark can eat in to a conductor.) See Figures 2 and 3.

9. Remove power from the charger. Clean and resplice all areas of the fence identified in step 8. It is important to ensure good electrical contact in all
fence circuit connections. Gate hooks may require replacement but may be jumpered as a test or temporarily solution to the problem.

10. Restore power to the fence. If the noise does not go away, repeat steps 8 and 9 as required. As a last resort, try placing a jumper across all connections
with short clip leads. Identify problem areas by removing the jumpers one at a time until the nose returns. Turn off the fence each time you handle a jumper
in order to avoid risk of shock. Correct each problem area as soon as you find it. (Clip leads are short wires with alligator clips at each end. They are
available at Radio Shack.) Alternately, you can redo all splices after careful cleaning of the wire. Steel wool or a wire brush may be helpful for cleaning

11. Restore power to the fence charger and verify the noise is no longer present. If your neighbor is involved, be sure to have him or her check the affected
radio or television receiver.

12. Additional information may be obtained from the ARRL's Web page on
electric fence noise.
list end

Figure 2.

Figure 2 -- Gate hooks are a potential problem. They often become corroded where they contact the wire, resulting in an arc or spark. The result is a "spark"
transmitter, hooked up to the longwire "antenna" fence. The arc creates radio noise and ultimately wears there the wire -- a problem for the fence owner
as well as anyone affected by the radio noise.

Figure 3.

Figure 3 -- Splices can also create problems, especially if they are between two different types of wire. Splices should be mechanically secure, lessening
the likelihood of poor contact, sparking and wire failure.


List of 2 items
1. A "brute-force" AC line filters can help eliminate a radio signal from getting to and being radiated by power-lines. While this is rarely the problem,
it may help in some cases.

2. If the device draws less than 300 watts (about 2.5 A), try using a Radio Shack catalog #15-1111. If not, some of the filters sold by Industrial Communications
Engineers can handle higher current. More information is available
on line.
list end

Post 239 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:47:46

WHEREAS, the Federal Communications Commission of the United States of America (“FCC”) has issued
and Order declaring a limited preemption over local regulation of amateur radio antenna facilities (known
as “FCC Order PRB-1”) appearing at 101 FCC 2d 952; 50 Fed. Reg. At 38813-38816 (1985)), the policy of
which limited preemption is to require that amateur radio communications be reasonably accommodated by
local regulation and to preempt local land use regulations which unduly restrict effective amateur radio
communications beyond the minimal practical regulation appropriate to accomplish the local authority’s
legitimate purpose and
WHEREAS, in compliance with FCC Order PRB-1 the Township Council intends for the provisions of this
Ordinance to accommodate reasonably such amateur radio communication as may be within the
jurisdiction of the Township, and that to that end, to authorize the Planning Board of the Township to
conduct reviews and impose such specific conditions on construction as the Planning Board in its discretion
deems proper under the terms of this Ordinance and the then existing preemption policy of the FCC; and
WHEREAS, the Planning Board shall be both bound and instructed by the promulgated limited preemption
policy of the FCC, including FCC Order PRB-1, and other and future such FCC orders, ruling and
applicable pronouncements of policy; now, therefore:
BE IT ORDAINED, by the Township Council of the Township of Medford in the County of Burlington,
SECTION ONE. The Medford Township Land Development Ordinance, together with all amendments
and supplements thereto, shall be and hereby is amended as follows:
The following definitions are added to Section 203, where appropriate:
Amateur Radio Antenna are the arrangement of wires or metal rods used in the sending and receiving of
electro-magnetic waves.
Amateur Radio Station is a radio station operated in the Amateur Radio Service under license by the
Federal Communications Commission.
Amateur Radio Antenna Support Structure is any structure, mast, pole, tripod or tower utilized for the
purpose of supporting an antenna or antennas for the purpose of transmission or reception of electromagnetic
waves (by Federally licensed amateur radio operators).
The following section shall be created and added to the Land Development Ordinance, at Section 531:
Section 531. Amateur Radio Antennas and Antenna Support Structures.
Antenna support structures of amateur radio operators licensed by the Federal Communications Commission may, as a right, have a height not exceeding one
hundred (100) feet above grade, subject to the provisions of this Section. The height shall be measured vertically and shall include the height to any
building upon which the antenna support structure is mounted. Every antenna and antenna support structure shall be located in conformity with this Section,
as same may be amended and
supplemented, and, in any case, to the rear of the front line (or extended front line) of the main
building on the same lot. In addition, no antenna support structure or antenna shall be located between
any principal building and the street line. Every antenna and antenna support structure shall be set
back at least twenty feet (20’) from side and read property lines. In order to obtain a building permit
for the structure, the applicant shall provide a copy of his or her valid Federal Amateur Radio
Operating License.
Antenna may be located above the antenna support structure as reasonably necessary for effective radio communications.
Where the height of the antenna support structure is to exceed the height otherwise permitted in a district, the Planning Board shall review the site plan,
including detail of proposed structures and such other information as may be submitted by the applicant to the Building Inspector, and may impose reasonable
conditions on the proposed construction necessary to protect public health and safety and to serve the purposes of the Municipal Land Use Law (N.J.S.A.
40:550-1, et seq., as amended and supplemented) and other applicable law including, to the extent permitted by law, the protection and promotion of aesthetic
interests. The Planning Board shall afford the public an opportunity to be heard as part of the review process, upon such notice to be given as the Planning
Board deems appropriate.
Any existing antenna support structures accommodating only amateur radio communication that were previously approved by permit or variance approval is hereby
permitted under this ordinance as a grandfathered use.
Upon the FCC-licensed operator’s cessation of ownership or leasehold rights in the subject antenna support structures, or upon the loss of his or her Federal
amateur radio operator’s license (whichever shall occur earlier), the operator shall forthwith (but in no case later than 30 days after written notice
to the operator and to the owner of record of the subject lot if known, or if not known, then to the assessed owner, sent by certified mail, return receipt
requested) safely remove all antenna support structures at no expense to the Township.
In the event said operator shall fail during said 30-day period to remove the antenna support structures pursuant to subsection 4 above, it shall be the
duty, responsibility and obligation of the owner of the subject lot upon which any or all of such antenna support structures are located, to remove such
structures forthwith at no expense to the Township.
Nothing set forth herein shall exempt or excuse anyone from compliance with requirements of applicable provisions of the Uniform Construction Code, other
codes, all general law, and other Township ordinances.
The following revisions are made to the end of Section 604.A:
…tower or structure, except in the case of amateur radio antenna support structures which may be located
on a lot in accordance with Section 531 of this Ordinance.
SECTION TWO. In all other respects said Medford Township Land Development Ordinance, as amended
and supplemented, shall remain in full force and effect.
SECTION THREE. All other ordinances and parts of ordinances, and resolutions, insofar as they are
inconsistent with any of the terms and provisions of this Ordinance, are hereby repealed to the extent of
such inconsistency only.
SECTION FOUR. If any section, paragraph, sentence, clause, phrase, term, provision or port of this
Ordinance shall be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or inoperative, such
judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its operation
to the section, paragraph, sentence, clause, phrase, term, provision of part thereof directly involved in the
controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.
SECTION FIVE. This Ordinance shall take effect on the earliest date allowed by law following final
passage, adoption and publication, in accordance with the law.

Post 240 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:51:43

Make Your Own "Rubber Duckies"
Not the bathtub kind . . . the kind you stick on an H-T. For a few dollars and a couple of
hours of fun, you can roll your own 2-meter rubber duckies that will likely perform better
than many commercial units.
By Paul Stump, N0LRF

Getting all the ducks in a row. Here are three homemade duckies shown for physical comparison.
Has the dog chewed up...a car door snapped off...or you simply can’t find that H-T antenna? Not to worry! You can build a
replacement antenna that delivers a lower SWR and more RF output than the one that came with your radio—and you can do it for
$10 or less and a couple of hours of fun! Let me tell you how....
This design is based on using a maximum applied RF power of 5 W at 144 to 148 MHz. The title photo shows three completed
homemade rubber duckies. Figure 1 shows the antenna cross-sections and part dimensions listed in the bill of materials. All
materials are readily available, if not from your junk box, then from Digi-Key, Radio Shack or your local hardware store. [1]
March QST: Make Your Own 'Rubber Duckies' - Page 1
ARRL1998 QST/QEX/NCJCD C i ht(C) 1999b Th A i R di R l L I

Figure 1—Making a replacement H-T antenna is relatively simple. The details show the dimensions and cross-sections of
the coil form (A), whip (B), and the initial and finished stages of antennas (C) made with three types of BNC connectors:
standard, crimped and molded.
1—Male BNC connector equipped with 1/4 inch length of RG-58 coax
1—3/8 inch OD ×
×××× 3/16 inch ID coil form made from water-faucet tubing, CPVC or cross-linked polyethylene; available at
hardware stores.
1—Tip cap, screw protector (Serv-A-Lite #10SP)
1—18-inch length of #24 AWG solid, insulated hook-up wire, or equivalent
1—Assorted heat-shrink tubing (Radio Shack 278-1627B or equivalent)
1—3-inch whip; modified RG-58 coax
1—Glue, CCA, "super" Hot Stuff Super T, or equivalent (available at hobby stores).
Initial Assembly
Refer to Figure 1. Prepare a 3/8 inch OD × 3/16 inch ID coil form from water-faucet tubing, CPVC or cross-linked polyethylene (all
available at hardware outlets) as shown. Use a sharp utility knife to cut the tubing. Deburr the holes and edges. Optionally, bevel the
top edge of the form. [2]
If you’re starting with a bare BNC connector, insert a short piece of coax into the connector. Cut the coax at a distance of 1/4-inch
from the rear of the connector. Remove the coax outer jacket and shield at the end of the plug, leaving 1/4 inch of center conductor
and insulator. Hold the inner conductor and insulation with needle-nose pliers (otherwise, the center insulator can pull out with the
stripping action), then strip and tin the center conductor to a 1/8 inch length.
Insert one end of a length of #24 wire through the bottom coil-form hole and route it out the end of the form. Solder the wire end
to the coaxial cable’s center conductor. Slide the form onto the rear of the BNC connector and "super" glue the form to the plug as
shown in Figure 1. [3] Allow the assembly to dry for 10 to 15 minutes while you prepare the whip.
Take a three-inch length of RG-58 coaxial cable. Using a small screwdriver, remove (push out) the coax center conductor and its
insulator. Pinch one end of the jacket and shield. Grab the shield with long-nose pliers and remove it. Place the outer jacket over the
center insulator and conductor. Strip and tin the center conductor at one end. Add enough layers of heat-shrink tubing at the base of
the whip to provide a snug fit inside the coil form. [4]
March QST: Make Your Own 'Rubber Duckies' - Page 2
ARRL1998 QST/QEX/NCJCD C i ht(C) 1999b Th A i R di R l L I
Wind 11 turns of wire around the coil form, keeping the turns snug. Pass the free end of the wire through the upper hole in the
form, then outside, and pull the wire snug. Trim the wire about 1/4 inch from the end of the coil form. Strip and tin the wire end.
Solder the whip to the coil-wire end. Gently feed the connection into the coil form with needle-nose pliers. While doing this, hold the
upper turns of the coil against the form and create a loop of wire inside the form as shown in Figure 1. Insert the lower 1/4 inch of
the whip inside the upper end of the coil form.
Final Assembly
For optimal performance, use a VHF SWR/power meter and a field-strength meter to tune the antenna. If you don’t, your
homemade antenna may still work at least as well as the factory antenna. I used a Diawa Model CN-101L meter and a
"homebrewed" multimeter/field-strength meter positioned about eight feet away from the transceiver. Connect your new antenna to
the SWR/power meter using the proper combination of connectors. (A right-angle SO-239 adapter and a PL-259-to-female BNC
adapter worked for me.)
Connect an external power source to your H-T (to avoid battery sag). Attach the radio’s antenna output to the SWR meter’s
transmitter input with a three-foot (or shorter) length of coaxial cable. Attach your homemade antenna to the SWR meter’s antenna
port. Select a transmitter power setting of no more than 5 W. Choose a simplex frequency of 146.0 MHz and check the antenna’s
SWR and field strength.
Adjust the field-strength meter’s location and its antenna for a mid-scale reading. (Now’s a good time to commit adjacent radio
channels to the H-T’s memory: 145.00, 146.00, 147.00 and 147.90 for testing purposes.)
Connect your commercial rubber ducky to the SWR/power meter and check the antenna’s performance on all five frequencies;
log your measurements. Those are the numbers you’re going to beat. We’re looking for minimum SWR, maximum power and
maximum field strength. Don’t move any of the equipment and always key the H-T while standing in the same position (you act as a
ground reflector).
Now, attach your homemade antenna to the SWR meter. Check the antenna’s SWR and field strength. [5] Gently adjust the
vertical position of the whip until there is an improvement in the readings. Try squeezing the coil turns closer to each other. Continue
making adjustments until the readings are optimized. Once you are satisfied, run a bead of glue around the base of the whip. Place
a length of 1/2-inch-diameter heat-shrink tubing over the coil, overlapping both ends of the coil form. Don’t heat the tubing yet.
Recheck the SWR and field-strength readings. I found that the addition of the shrink tubing increased the electrical length of the
antenna and therefore, lowered the antenna’s resonant frequency. If that’s so, carefully trim the whip length in 1/16-inch increments
until the antenna is resonant at the desired center frequency (see Note 2). My antennas generally required two 1/16-inch trim
attempts to resonate them at 146.0 MHz.
Using a heat gun, hair dryer or a match, shrink the tubing while rotating the antenna. Recheck the SWR and field-strength
readings at 145.0, 146.0, 147.0 and 147.9 MHz. If the antenna resonates below 146.0 MHz, clip a little more off the whip. If the
antenna is resonant above 146.0 MHz, you’ll either have to live with it, or try to pull the whip a bit out of the coil. If the antenna is still
too short, you can carefully remove the shrink tubing with a razor or knife and make a new, longer whip. (You’ve got extra materials,
don’t you?)
Next, install the tip cap (which will slightly lower the resonant frequency). Recheck readings and trim the whip, if necessary.
Finally, open the beverage of your choice and admire your work!
I thank GARMIN International for allowing the use of their test equipment; Bruce Stucky, NK0Z, for directing the antenna tests,
his proofreading skills and constructive criticism; Sheldon Wheaton, KC0CW, for his technical critiques and encouragement and my
wife, Carla Stump, who encouraged me and tolerates my R&D time.
Paul Stump, N0LRF, was first licensed in 1964 as WN0JWS at the age of 13. He upgraded to Technician in 1966, as WA0JWS.
After years of radio inactivity and license expiration, he started all over again in 1990, as N0LRF, working up to Advanced class that
Paul’s primary Amateur Radio interests now include APRS to send weather data and to track himself and others, and HF phone.
He’s worked in the aerospace, navigational, communication businesses for the past 14 years. Paul is employed by GARMIN
International in mechanical engineering. He’s a charter member of the Kansas City APRS Working Group (KCAWG) at You can contact Paul at 3575 Hwy 68, Ottawa, KS 66067, e-mail; his home-page
March QST: Make Your Own 'Rubber Duckies' - Page 3
ARRL1998 QST/QEX/NCJCD C i ht(C) 1999b Th A i R di R l L I
address is
March QST: Make Your Own 'Rubber Duckies' - Page 4
ARRL1998 QST/QEX/NCJCD C i ht(C) 1999b Th A i R di R l L I

Post 241 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 8:53:14


The Art of Soldering
Soldering is used in nearly every phase of electronic construction.
A soldering tool must be hot enough to do the job
and lightweight enough for agility and comfort. A 100-W soldering
gun is overkill for printed-circuit work, for example. A
temperature-controlled iron works well, although the cost is
not justified for occasional projects. Get an iron with a small
conical or chisel tip.
You may need an assortment of soldering irons to do a wide
variety of soldering tasks. They range in size from a small
25-W iron for delicate printed-circuit work to larger 100 to
300-W sizes used to solder large surfaces. Several manufacturers
also sell soldering guns. Small “pencil” butane torches
are also available, with optional soldering-iron tips.
Keep soldering tools in good condition by keeping the tips
well tinned with solder. Do not run them at full temperature
for long periods when not in use. After each period of use,
remove the tip and clean off any scale that may have accumulated.
Clean an oxidized tip by dipping the hot tip in sal ammoniac
(ammonium chloride) and then wiping it clean with a
rag. Sal ammoniac is somewhat corrosive, so if you don’t wipe
the tip thoroughly, it can contaminate electronic soldering.
If a copper tip becomes pitted, file it smooth and bright and
then tin it immediately with solder. Modern soldering iron tips
are nickel or iron clad and should not be filed.
The secret of good soldering is to use the right amount of
heat. Many people who have not soldered before use too little
heat, dabbing at the joint to be soldered and making little solder
blobs that cause unintended short circuits.
The secret of good soldering is to use the right
amount of heat. Many people who have not
soldered before use too little heat, dabbing at
the joint to be soldered and making little solder
blobs that cause unintended short circuits.
Solders have different melting points, depending on the ratio
of tin to lead. Tin melts at 450° F and lead at 621° F. Solder
made from 63% tin and 37% lead melts at 361° F, the lowest
melting point for a tin and lead mixture. Called 63-37 (or eutectic),
this type of solder also provides the most rapid solidto-
liquid transition and the best stress resistance.
Solders made with different lead/tin ratios have a plastic
state at some temperatures. If the solder is deformed while it
is in the plastic state, the deformation remains when the solder
freezes into the solid state. Any stress or motion applied
to “plastic solder” causes a poor solder joint.
Never use acid-core solder for electrical work. It should be
used only for plumbing or chassis work. For circuit construction,
only use fluxes or solder-flux combinations that are
labeled for electronic soldering.
The resin or the acid is a flux. Flux removes oxide by
suspending it in solution and floating it to the top. Flux is not
a cleaning agent! Always clean the work before soldering. Flux
is not a part of a soldered connection—it merely aids the soldering
process. After soldering, remove any remaining flux.
Resin flux can be removed with isopropyl or denatured alcohol.
A cotton swab is a good tool for applying the alcohol and
scrubbing the excess flux away. Commercial flux-removal
sprays are available at most electronic-part distributors.
The two key factors in quality soldering are time and temperature.
Generally, rapid heating is desired, although most
unsuccessful solder jobs fail because insufficient heat has been
applied. Be careful; if heat is applied too long, the components
or PC board can be damaged, the flux may be used up
and surface oxidation can become a problem. The solderingiron
tip should be hot enough to readily melt the solder without
burning, charring or discoloring components, PC boards
or wires. Usually, a tip temperature about 100° F above the
solder melting point is about right for mounting components
on PC boards. Also, use solder that is sized appropriately for
the job. As the cross section of the solder decreases, so does
the amount of heat required to melt it. Diameters from 0.025
to 0.040 inches are good for nearly all circuit wiring.
Here’s how to make a good solder joint. This description
assumes that solder with a flux core is used to solder a typical
PC board connection such as an IC pin.
4 Prepare the joint. Clean all conductors thoroughly with
fine steel wool or a plastic scrubbing pad. Do the circuit board
at the beginning of assembly and individual parts such as resistors
and capacitors immediately before soldering. Some
parts (such as ICs and surface-mount components) cannot be
easily cleaned; don’t worry unless they’re exceptionally dirty.
4 Prepare the tool. It should be hot enough to melt solder
applied to its tip quickly (half a second when dry, instantly
when wet with solder). Apply a little solder directly to the tip
so that the surface is shiny. This process is called “tinning”
the tool. The solder coating helps conduct heat from the tip to
the joint.
4 Place the tip in contact with one side of the joint. If you
can place the tip on the underside of the joint, do so. With the
tool below the joint, convection helps transfer heat to the joint.
4 Place the solder against the joint directly opposite the soldering
tool. It should melt within a second for normal PC connections,
within two seconds for most other connections. If it
takes longer to melt, there is not enough heat for the job at hand.
4 Keep the tool against the joint until the solder flows
freely throughout the joint. When it flows freely, solder tends
to form concave shapes between the conductors. With insufficient
heat solder does not flow freely; it forms convex shapes—
blobs. Once solder shape changes from convex to concave,
remove the tool from the joint.
4 Let the joint cool without movement at room temperature.
It usually takes no more than a few seconds. If the joint
is moved before it is cool, it may take on a dull, satin look that
is characteristic of a “cold” solder joint. Reheat cold joints
until the solder flows freely and hold them still until cool.
4 When the iron is set aside, or if it loses its shiny appearance,
wipe away any dirt with a wet cloth or sponge. If it
remains dull after cleaning, tin it again.
4 Soldering equipment gets hot! Be careful. Treat a
soldering burn as you would any other. Handling lead or
breathing soldering fumes is also hazardous. Observe these
precautions to protect yourself and others:
4 Properly ventilate the work area. If you can smell fumes,
you are breathing them.
4 Wash your hands after soldering, especially before handling
4 Minimize direct contact with flux and flux solvents.
From February 2001 QST © ARRL

Post 242 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 10:29:00

Discover the Magic
HF Radio
By Norm Fusaro, W3IZ
With a 100 watt transceiver and a simple wire antenna you
can start to communicate and make friends with other hams
all over the country or the world.
HF is different than FM repeaters.
No “machine” or infrastructure is used.
Allows communication beyond line of sight. Contacts
are generally a couple of hundred miles to over several
thousand miles.
Propagation is strongly effected by solar activity.
Several communication modes are available to use.
SSB, CW, RTTY, SSTV, Digital, AM
When most people hear the term “ham radio” they
generally think of HF or shortwave and long distance
These are the frequencies from 1.8* to 30 MHz or the 160
meter to 10 meter bands.
HF is also known as shortwave
*160m is actually a Mid Frequency (MF) band but it is
included in the Amateur HF bands for ease of discussion.

The sun charges particles (ions) in the upper atmosphere. Radio
waves change direction when they enter the ionosphere.

The Layers of the Ionosphere

NVIS - Radio Waves that take off at very high angles are
reflected straight back to Earth.

The gray line or terminator is a transition region between daylight
and darkness. One side of the Earth is coming into sunrise, and the
other is just past sunset.
Building a Station
There are basically two main components involved:
list of 1 items
list of 1 items nesting level 1
list of 1 items nesting level 2
1.A 100 watt Transceiver and
list end nesting level 2
list end nesting level 1
list end
2.An antenna system. The antenna system consists of the radiator,
feedline and matching network.
What makes a good radio?
list of 1 items
·Scanning, memories and other “bells & whistles” are not
the important features that
make a good HF rig.
list end
·The receiver’s ability to hear weak signals and separate the incoming signals are
what makes a good HF rig.
·The numbers to look at when selecting a transceiver are:
list of 1 items
(ability to hear signals) and
list end
(ability to distinguish signals)
Remember, you can’t work them if you can’t hear them.
Physical Safety
NEVER attempt to erect antennas near powerlines.
You will be killed.
An antenna system consists of:
list of 1 items
list of 1 items nesting level 1
1.The antenna or radiator
list end nesting level 1
list end
2.The feedline
3.The matching network or tuner
list of 1 items
·A good SWR is not an indicator of an effective antenna system.
list end
·Think of a dummy load; it has a good SWR but it is not an effective antenna.
The dipole
list of 1 items
·The dipole is the simplest antenna that any amateur can use on HF.
list end
·Whether fed with coax or open wire, dipoles are cheap and easy to build and install.
·A dipole can be made for a single band. The total length of the antenna can be
calculated by using the formula:
468 ÷ freq (MHz) = length in feet
list of 1 items
·Each side, or leg, of the dipole is going to be one half of the total length.
list end
·Fed with 50 or 75 ohm coax, this antenna will be resonant on a single band that it
was cut for.
·A dipole fed with balanced line (twin lead) and a matching network can be used on
multiple bands.
468f (MHz)

FeedlineThe DipoleRadiator, Feedline and

matching networkmatching


It is not necessary to install dipoles in a
horizontal straight line.

Inverted “VEE”


Sloping Dipole or “Sloper”
list of 1 items
·The tri-band Yagi or beam antenna is popular among a lot of HF operators.
list end
·A modest 3 element model at heights as low as 40 ft can greatly improve your
·Many hams have earned their DXCC award using a small tri-band beam and 100
watts of power.
Three Element Tri-band Yagi

Physical Safety
NEVER attempt to erect antennas near powerlines.
You will be killed.
Vertical Antennas
list of 1 items
·It is recommended that you read about vertical antennas in the ARRL Antenna
Book before installing one.
list end
·Many hams new to HF can become disappointed by vertical antennas because they
don’t understand how they work or listen to myths about them.
·Once you read and understand about vertical antennas you will find that they are
excellent low angle radiators and are great for DXing. A lot of big gun stations
have verticals in their arsenal of antennas.
•Vertical antennas are

excellent low angle


•Ground mounted

verticals require an

extensive radial


•Elevated mono-band

verticals only require 4

radials to be effective.

Physical Safety
NEVER attempt to erect antennas near powerlines.
You will be killed.
Station Grounding

Matching Networks
list of 1 items
·The terms antenna tuner, match box, Transmatch and antenna coupler, are all
synonyms for a matching network.
list end
·A matching network is a combination of inductance and capacitance used to cancel
out unwanted reactance to better couple the transmitter power to the antenna.
·The matching network provides an efficient transfer of power from the transceiver
to the antenna.
·The use of a matching network to achieve low SWR does not make a poor antenna
radiate better.

“L” Network

Pi Network

“T” Network
Keeping a Log Book
(From the ARRL Handbook)
At one time, keeping a log of your contacts was an FCC requirement. The FCC has
dropped this equirement in recent years, but many amateurs, both new and old, still keep
Why Keep a Log?
If keeping a log is optional, why do it? Some of the more important reasons for keeping a
log include:
Legal protection — If you can show a complete log of your activity, it can help you deal
with interference complaints. Good recordkeeping can help you protect yourself if you are
ever accused of intentional interference, or have a problem with unauthorized use of your
call sign.
Awards tracking — A log helps you keep track of contacts required for DXCC, WAS, or
other awards. Keeping a log lets you quickly see how well you are progressing toward your
An operating diary — A log book is a good place for recording general information about
your station. You may be able to tell just how well that new antenna is working compared
to the old one by comparing recent QSOs with older contacts. The log book is also a logical
place to record new acquisitions (complete with serial numbers in case your gear is ever
stolen). You can also record other events, such as the names and calls of visiting operators,
license upgrades, or contests, in your log.
Paper and Computer Logs
Many hams, even those with computers, choose to keep their logs on paper. Paper logs still
offer several advantages (such as flexibility) and do not require power. Paper logs also
survive hard-drive crashes!
Preprinted log sheets are available, or you can create your own. Computers with word
processing and publishing software let you create customized log sheets in no time. On the
other hand, computer logs offer many advantages to the serious contester or DXer. For
example, the computer can search a log and instantly tell you whether you need a particular
station for DXCC. Contesters use computer logs in place of dupe sheets to weed out
duplicate contacts before they happen, saving valuable time. Computer logs can also tell
you at a glance how far along you are toward certain awards. Computer logging programs
are available from commercial vendors. Some programs may be available as shareware
(you can download it from a website and pay for the program if you like the way it works).
If you can program your computer, you can also create your own custom logging program,
and then give it to your friends or even sell it!
(From the ARRL Handbook)
A QSL card (or just “QSL”) is an Amateur Radio tradition. QSL cards are nearly as old as
Amateur Radio itself, and the practice has spread so that short-wave listeners (SWLs) can
get cards from shortwave and
AM broadcast stations. Most amateurs have printed QSL cards. QSL card printers usually
have several standard layouts from which to choose. Some offer customized designs at
extra cost. If you are just starting out, or anticipate changing your call sign (just think, you
could get a call like “KC4WZK”), you may want to purchase a pack of “generic” QSL
cards available from many ham stores and mail-order outlets.
Filling Out Your Cards
QSL cards must have certain information for them to be usable for award qualification. At
a minimum, the card must have:
• Your call sign, street address, city, state or province and country. This
information should be preprinted on one side of your QSL card.
• The call of the station worked.
• The date and time (in UTC) of the contact.
• The signal report.
• The band and mode used for the contact.
Awards for VHF and UHF operations may also require the grid locator (or “grid square”)
in which your station is located. Current practice is to include your 6-digit grid square on
your QSL card even if you have no plans to operate VHF and UHF, since some HF
competitions and awards require your grid square designator.
Many hams provide additional information on their QSL cards such as the equipment and
antennas used during the contact, power levels, former calls and friendly comments.
Sending and Receiving Domestic QSLs
Although most QSL cards can be sent as post cards within the United States, usually saving
some postage costs, post card style QSL cards often arrive with multiple cancellations and
other unintended markings that can obscure or obliterate the printed and written
information. It is best to send all QSL cards in a protective envelope. Back when postage
was cheap, you could send out 100 post cards for a few dollars and domestic stations would
send QSLs as a matter of course. Currently, if you really need a particular QSL, it is best to
send a selfaddressed stamped envelope along with your card. QSLing for DX stations is
somewhat more involved and is discussed elsewhere in this chapter.
How-to’s of DXCC — Direct QSLs and
DX Bureaus
Since DX stations are often inundated with QSL cards (and QSL requests) from US hams,
it is financially impossible for most of them to pay for the return postage. Hams have hit
upon several ways to lighten the load on popular DX stations.
The fastest, but most expensive, way to get QSL cards is the direct approach. You send
your QSL card, with one or two International Reply Coupons (IRCs) or one or two dollars
and a self-addressed airmail envelope to the DX station. International Reply Coupons are
available from your local post office and can be used nearly anywhere in the world for
return postage. Some DX hams prefer that you send one or two “green stamps” (dollar
bills) because they can be used to defray posting, printing and other expenses. However, it
is illegal in some countries to possess foreign currency. If you’re not sure, ask the DX
station or check DX bulletins available on the DX Cluster System, accessible by either
packet radio or Telnet.
Many DX hams have recruited QSL managers, hams who handle the QSL chores of one or
more DX stations. QSL managers are convenient for everyone. The DX station need only
send batches of blank cards and a copy of the logs; hams wanting that station’s card need
only send a First Class stamp for US return postage and can expect a prompt reply. (In the
case of QSL managers located outside the United States, you must still send IRCs (or
dollars) and a self-addressed return envelope.)
The easiest (and slowest) way to send and receive large batches of QSL cards is through
the incoming and outgoing QSL bureaus. The outgoing bureau is available to ARRL
members. The incoming bureaus are available to all amateurs. Bureau instructions and
addresses are printed periodically in QST; they appear in the ARRL Operating Manual, and
they are available from ARRL Headquarters for an SASE.
Alternatively, you can submit your QSO log electronically to ARRL’s Logbook of The
World. All submissions are free; you only pay when you “redeem” your QSO credits for an
award, such as DXCC. Once you are signed up as a Logbook user, you can submit new
contact records whenever you wish. Your contacts will be matched against the logs of other
Logbook users. Whenever a match occurs, you receive instant credit for the contact. You
can learn more about Logbook of The World by visiting its Web site at

QSL Card
Some Common Controls Found On
Amateur Radio Transceivers.

The placement of the controls may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer or on various
models from the same manufacturer, however, the basic controls perform the same
functions on all radios.
list of 1 items
1.VFO – This is the main tuning knob used to tune in a station. This tunes your
transmit and receive frequency and is shown on the MAIN DISPLAY.
list end
2.METER- The meter in most radios is a multi function meter and shows a lot of
information. Use this like the speedometer in your car; don’t stare at it,
but glance at it to make sure all things are proper.
list of 1 items
·“S” or Signal strength – This indicates the relative strength of a
received signal on a scale of 1 through 9.
list end
·RF POWER – This shows how much power the transmitter is
putting out. MAX is good
·SWR – This shows the Standing Wave Ratio of the antenna or how
much power is being reflected back to the radio. MIN is good.
·ALC – This shows the condition of the Automatic Limiting Control
circuitry. You want to make sure that you are not overdriving your
transmitter. A good reading is when the peaks top the scale and stay
within the range marked on the meter scale.
list of 1 items
3.AF (gain) – This is the VOLUME control for the receiver. Audio Frequency
list end
list of 1 items
4.RF GAIN – This adjust the gain of the receiver amplifier circuits. It allows you
to make these circuits less sensitive so that you can dampen
really strong signals.
list end
It is normal to see the S METER rise as you decrease the gain of the
receiver by adjusting the RF GAIN.
list of 1 items
5.MIC GAIN- This control the loudness of the microphone in any voice mode. It
is best to adjust this for a good “in range” reading on the
ALC meter.
list end
list of 1 items
6.MODE – This allows you to choose the mode of operation.
list end
CW – Continuous Wave (Morse code)
USB – Upper Sideband
LSB – Lower Sideband
RTTY – Radio Teletype (Also FSK – Frequency Shift Keying)
PKT – Packet (Also AFSK – Audio Frequency Shift Keying)
FM – Frequency Modulation
list of 1 items
7.RIT – This stands for Receive Incremental Tuning and is used to fine tune a
station you are listening to without changing your transmit frequency. It is
sometimes called a Clarifier.
list end
list of 1 items
8.XIT- This is similar to RIT but it adjust your transmit frequency. It is Transmit
Incremental Tuning.
list end
list of 1 items
9.RF PWR – Adjust the amount of transmitter power.
list end
list of 1 items
10.IF SHIFT- This shifts the center of the receiver’s pass band. It allows you to
avoid a signal that is close to yours by not letting it in the
window of the receiver’s pass band.
list end
list of 1 items
11.NOTCH – This is another good filter for reducing nearby interference. Unlike a
window, it acts like a cover and blocks the signal that is in your
list end
list of 1 items
12.DSP – Digital Signal Processing
list end
Imagine looking through a Cracker Jack box and looking at street lights. You can only
view the lights that are in your window. That’s how the receiver’s IF works. It can
only receive signal it it’s window or PASSBAND. If you are looking at the lights and
there is one to either side that you want to avoid then you can SHIFT the window. On
the other hand, if there is a light in your viewing window that is distracting and if you
shifted your window you would loose the light you want to look at, then you could
slide your finger along the front of the viewing window until it just covered the
unwanted light. That’s how the NOTCH works. These two controls will help you pull
out signals in a crowded band.

60 Meter Band
Maximum Power is 50 watts ERP
Maximum Bandwidth is 2.8 KHz
The new 60 meter band is a secondary allocation--federal government users are primary--
and the first on which the only permitted mode will be upper-sideband (USB) phone
(emission type 2K8J3E). The FCC has granted hams access to five discrete 2.8-kHz-wide
channels in the vicinity of 5 MHz.
The NTIA advised in a letter to the FCC Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) that
users of 60 meters should set their carrier frequency 1.5 kHz lower than the channel center
frequency, according to this NTIA chart:

table with 2 columns and 6 rows
Channel Center
Amateur Tuning Frequency
5332 kHz
5330.5 kHz
5348 kHz
5346.5 kHz
5368 kHz
5366.5 kHz
5373 kHz
5371.5 kHz
5405 kHz (common US/UK)
5403.5 kHz
table end

Noting that high-frequency audio response can vary considerably from radio to radio, Hare
has suggested a more conservative approach. He suggests restricting audio bandwidth to
200 Hz on the low end, and 2800 Hz on the high end--for a total bandwidth of 2.6 kHz.
Hare notes that some transmitters that the Lab has looked at are capable of bandwidths of
3.0 kHz or greater.
In its letter to the FCC, the NTIA also stipulated that radiated power should not exceed "the
equivalent of 50 W PEP transmitter output power into an antenna with a gain of 0 dBd."
The FCC R&O set the requirement at 50 W ERP (Effective Radiated Power) and said it
would consider a typical half-wave dipole to exhibit no gain.

Publications for the HF operatorOrder Toll-Free 1-888-277-5289
order on line at
ARRL Handbook ARRL Order No. 9760
ARRL Antenna Book ARRL Order No. 9043
ON4UN’s Low Band DXing ARRL Order No. 7040
The Complete DX'er -- 3rd Edition - by Bob Locher, W9KNI. ARRL Order No. 9073
On the Air with Ham Radio - By Steve Ford, WB8IMY. ARRL Order No. 8276
RF Exposure and You - by Ed Hare, W1RFI. ARRL Order No. 6621
Ham Radio for Dummies - by Ward Silver, N0AX. ARRL Order No. 9392
ARRL Multi Media Library <>
has additional presentations for
those who may want to learn more about contesting, DXing, NVIS or operating HF mobile.
Here are some NVIS websites of interest
list of 1 items
list end
list of 1 items
•This is the NVIS reflector
list end
ContactNorm Fusaro, W3IZARRL Affiliated Clubs/Mentor

Program Manager225 Main St. Newington, CT

Post 243 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 10:32:00

This article is copyright 2001 by the American Radio Relay League, but may be reproduced by
individuals and groups for promotional and educational purposes. Any other use without the
permission of the ARRL is prohibited. The text "Reprinted from the November 2001 QST,
copyright 2001 ARRL" must be included on any reproductions.

Post 244 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 12:36:58

Chasing DX
Old freq. units
Fourteen ____ (weight)
Enable, as a weapon
John Glenn's ride
"that _____ for the course"
With 22, 55, 56, and 61 across - What you collect for 35 across
See 20-across
The 18 and 21 MHz bands?
"Is that really necessary?"
New fangled rigs (abbr.)

table with 15 columns and 15 rows
table end

table with 4 columns and 10 rows
27. Work on GUIs and others 30. This began, the July after 24down
58. The word that explains a UK prefix assignment 59. Digital ckt. family
13. DOS background job (remember?) 21. Non-ham pesky visitor on FD
45. Pamper 47. What a birdie in your RX sounds like?
31. An ARRL section official, in
60. Hamshacks, on Field Day
22. C in F-land
48. G-land noblemen
1-land (abbr.)
61. See 20-across
24. A peak year in cycle 19
49. Tower-top antenna supports
33. All but KH6 and KL7 35. You need more than 999 for this award
62. Beam heading to work PY from W2
25. Some Ukraine prefixes 27. It's between the DSP and the speaker
51. Repeated, it's part of FO0land 52. 7O city
38. Power units
28. How some DF antennas look
53. The part of a part you solder
39. One of the things Elmers do 40. School org. 41. One place where the DX might be listening?
1. "... no space ___ ." 2. Trimmed, as a dipole (if not a bush) 3. It moves with a signal
29. Listings for selling small VHF xcvrs 32. MHz predecessor 33. Those in Chile
54. Use 3-Down to give out one of these 55. Cute 1960's mobile hamshack
42. Heading 180 from NC 46. 9H operator, probably 49. Early radio parts manufacturer 50. 1960's TV host, with Martin
4. What an amp also does in the shack 5. Prefix with VOX 6. What an un-keyed transmitter is
34. House current, familiarly, if imprecise 35. Like 38-down, but for (other) digital modes 36. Keeps your rig's rock steady
51. Open wire (line)
7. Some are green, some black, some orange
37. A good signal report, in ancient Rome
54. Equipment reviewer, sometimes
8. Gives a callsign
38. Speed on CW
55. See 20-across 56. See 20-across 57. What many towers are made of
9. Nickels and dimes 10. Org. in charge of 43-down 11. What a DXPedition station spends most of the time doing 12. Non-digital, in G-land
41. Biggest non-amateur user of radio in the early days 43. Awards for performances by hams in space? 44. Warm tubes and solder resin, among others
table end

table with 15 columns and 15 rows
table end

Post 245 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 14:13:32

A Fictional Character Comes to Life

By John Curry, K5IMC
January 25, 2004

After a successful visit to an elementary school to talk about Amateur Radio, one ham makes an unexpected connection with the inspiration for a ham radio
children's book.

It was an unusually warm winter evening in Hallandale Beach, Florida, just north of Miami, as my wife and I pulled into the driveway of a large condominium
building by the ocean and spotted a distinguished-looking man standing by the entrance. In response to my inquiry, he confirmed that he was, indeed, Bob
Marx. I was eager to meet Bob after two months of phone calls and e-mails because, to me, he was a fictional character who had come to life.


Ed Middlebrook, KC5NT, leads a classroom discussion on the Amateur Radio children's book Radio Rescue, by Lynne Barasch. [John Chamberlain, AC5CV, photo]

The story of our meeting began in November 2002, when I accompanied two other members of the Heart of Texas Amateur Radio club in Waco--Ed Middlebrook,
KC5NT, and John Chamberlain, AC5CV--to the elementary school in West, Texas, for an afternoon of Amateur Radio demonstrations for about 120 third-graders.
Most of the students had recently read a children's book called Radio Rescue, by Lynne Barasch. Radio Rescue is a fun book that generated a great deal
of interest in Amateur Radio among the children, and the school librarian asked Ed to make a radio presentation. You may be wondering how a radio demonstration
for elementary school students in Texas led to a visit to a new friend in Florida some three months later. Well, as I read Radio Rescue in preparation
for our visit to the school, I had no idea what was about to happen.

Radio to the Rescue

Barasch, an artist and author of several children's books, wrote and illustrated Radio Rescue. It's a story about a boy who obtains his Amateur Radio license
and has a series of ham radio-related adventures that should appeal to all children, regardless of the level of their interest in radio. The book has been
nominated for numerous awards for children's literature and was the winner of several, including the Texas Bluebonnet Award Master List for 2002-03, an
honor that ensures that the book is on a recommended reading list for children in Texas. The book was reviewed in the January 2001 issue of QST. Although
it's is a work of fiction, the story is true--the story of Lynne's father, Bob Marx. What makes the story especially appealing is that Bob was first licensed
as 2AZK at age 10--in 1923.

When Ed, John and I arrived at the elementary school in West, we first met with the students in large groups for Ed to lead a discussion about Radio Rescue,
which most of them indicated they had read. Ed asked questions about the book and received knowledgeable and thorough answers from the children. We then
divided them into smaller groups of about 20 to rotate among three simultaneous hands-on radio exercises.


Students crowd around a paddle and code practice oscillator to try their hand at Morse code. [John Chamberlain, AC5CV, photo]

In one classroom, I demonstrated Morse code using a memory keyer and allowed the children to send code with the keyer and to try their hand at an old straight-key-on-board
that I had brought. To my surprise the code, which some believe is no longer useful, was a hit with the children, several of whom described it as "cool."
Some of the children were also quite adept at sending a few letters on their first try. In the school library, John demonstrated voice communications and
the public service aspect of ham radio by having the children use hand-held Family Radio Service radios to call into a base station and report weather
"emergencies." Ed's part of the program included a demonstration of ham radio contacts on 10 meter SSB. We had set up the station on a porch just outside
the school, as the November day was quite warm, and raised a dipole antenna about 15 feet into the air using a telescoping painter's pole. The students
were able to talk with several amateur stations around the United States, including students at a college in California.

Our three demonstrations related to the radio themes of the book: communications, public service and Morse code. Most of the children seemed to be attentive
in all the sessions and interested in the content of our presentations. We learned that they were excitedly telling their teacher in a later class about
what we had shown them.


Two boys work together at an "emergency weather station," sending and receiving drill data using FRS radios. [John Chamberlain, AC5CV, photo]

An Unexpected Call

Because I was favorably impressed with Radio Rescue and with the success the three of us had with our school presentations, I wrote a letter to Barasch,
who lives in New York City, to tell her about the experience and about the interest her book was stimulating in Amateur Radio. I mentioned in the letter
that I was able to identify with her father's early experiences with Amateur Radio because I was licensed at age 11, although that was 33 years after Bob
received his ticket. I did not ask about her father in the letter, however. I thought it possible that Bob had become a silent key because he was not in
the FCC database of licensed amateurs and because he wouldn't exactly be a youngster any more.

Exactly one month later, two days before Christmas, the phone rang in the evening. My wife handed me the phone, saying it was "Bob Marx, a ham operator
in Florida." I still did not realize who was calling until I picked up the phone and heard a few words of introduction. I responded that I was glad to
hear from him and, impolitely I'm sure, said that I did not know he was still alive. Bob replied in a strong voice, "I'm 89 and well."

His daughter Lynne had mailed him a copy of my letter and a copy of her reply to me, which I received a few days later. He was calling to say how pleased
he was to learn about our experience with the book. We had a nice conversation, and at some point, I mentioned that my wife and I were planning a trip
to Florida in the winter. Bob suggested that we visit him, so we added a stop in Hallandale Beach to our itinerary. In a later phone conversation, we set
a tentative date of February 28 for our side trip to south Florida to meet Bob.

Retaining the Code

As Bob ushered us to the 11th floor of his building and into his home, I was impressed with his youthful appearance and demeanor. I had thought he had sounded
much younger than his 89 years over the phone, and he was the same in person. Those of us who were licensed at a young age might be tempted to think, upon
meeting Bob, that early exposure to Amateur Radio has some sort of continued rejuvenating effect. My wife and I were also pleased to meet Bob's wife, Elaine.
The four of us spent an enjoyable evening getting to know one another and had dinner at an excellent Chinese restaurant nearby. Of course, Bob and I spent
most of our time discussing Amateur Radio, although he has not been licensed for many years. I presented Bob with the January 2003 issue of QST, which
had several articles about vintage radio. I had to admit that what is considered vintage now may be newfangled to him because most of the equipment described
in that issue was developed after he left the hobby.

Because Bob is still interested in Morse code, I took along an MFJ memory keyer. He used a straight key, bug and sideswipe key in his day, but he had never
seen a simple electronic keyer, much less the memory version. I sent some code and also played some messages I had programmed into the machine for Bob.
He took to the code right away and was able to copy over 20 WPM, as well as send some code on a machine that he had never seen--after almost 70 years of
inactivity. He recalled that his speed was about 30 WPM at one time.


At left, Bob Marx, ex-W2AZK, goes through a book with John Curry, K5IMC. Marx is the father of Lynne Barasch, who authored Radio Rescue, a children's book
based in part on some of Marx's experiences as a young ham in the 1920s. [Photo courtesy of John Curry, K5IMC]

Memories of Eighth-Floor DX

Bob had some interesting experiences in the early days of Amateur Radio, some of which are covered in the book. He had quite an impressive array of equipment
and says he operated CW rather than spark, as spark had pretty much died out from the ham bands by 1923. Bob was licensed at one of the most exciting times
in Amateur Radio, just as the first two-way transatlantic contacts were made between the United States and France in 1923. During his ham career, Bob made
a number of DX contacts, working all continents except Asia. He was even able to communicate with the first Byrd Antarctic expedition in 1928 until it
was near Brazil, and passed information about Byrd's progress to The New York Times when the Times radio operators could not get through.

No doubt Bob was a sharp operator and it didn't hurt that he was able to string his antenna between the roof of his building and the roof of the building
across the street at about the eighth floor level. Bob continued to experience the joys of having a big signal until the New York public works department
decided that his antenna had to go. He maintains, however, that he still was able to get out well with a rooftop antenna on that building and, later, on
another building after he and his mother moved.

After Bob finished school, he started a career in textiles, which he calls "the thread business," and married Elaine shortly afterward in 1936. In his late
50s, an age when most people are thinking about retirement, Bob bought a new textile agent business in Florida. After about three years of commuting from
New York, he and Elaine moved to Florida, where they have lived for the past 30 years. He is still working at age 90, although he doesn't stay very busy
because most textile work has moved overseas.

Bob left Amateur Radio behind in 1935 and he no longer has any of his equipment. He retains fond memories of his radio days, however, and is pleased that
he still knows the code. As for me, getting to know a real life fictional character who was a ham in the early days of radio has been a wonderful experience
that I won't forget, either.

John Curry, K5IMC, was first licensed in 1956. Retired from the US Office of Personnel Management, Curry is a member of the Heart of Texas Amateur Radio
Club in Waco and the Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club in Alexandria, Virginia. He can be reached via e-mail at

Post 246 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 14:16:49

SSB, Radar Pioneer Mike Villard, W6QYT, SK


O.G. "Mike" Villard, W6QYT, pioneered Amateur Radio SSB in the late 1940s. [Stanford University NewsPhoto]

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 27, 2004--Renowned RF engineer, Stanford University researcher and author Oswald Garrison "Mike" Villard Jr, W6QYT, of Palo Alto, California,
died January 7. He was 87. A pioneer of Amateur Radio single sideband (SSB) and meteor-scatter techniques, Villard authored some two dozen
QST articles
between 1946 and 1994. They covered topics ranging from SSB, supermodulation, meteor detection and long-delayed echo (LDE) phenomena to VHF and microwave
experimentation, antenna construction and fox hunting. He also was the author of more than 60 technical papers and held a half-dozen patents.

"His technical achievements were legendary," Dave Leeson, W6NL, a consulting professor of electrical engineering in Stanford`s Space, Telecommunications
and Radioscience Laboratory (STARLab), told
Stanford University News Service. "
Stanford and the entire engineering community were enriched by his person and his accomplishments."

Born in Dobbs Ferry, New York, the son of O.G. Villard Sr, a noted publisher and editor (The New York Evening Post and The Nation), Mike Villard developed
an interested in radio while still a youngster. He was first licensed as W1DMV in 1932, while living in Connecticut.

Since his father wanted him to follow in his footsteps, the younger Villard earned a bachelor's degree in English from Yale in 1938, but then headed to
Stanford University to pursue his first love, electrical engineering. While at Stanford, he studied under Professor Frederick Terman (ex-6FT and 6AE)--later
regarded as the "father of Silicon Valley."

During World War II, Villard followed Terman to work at Harvard University's Radio Research Laboratory on enemy countermeasures research. He returned to
Stanford after the war, joined the school's electrical engineering faculty in 1946 and completed his PhD in 1949. He taught and carried out research at
Stanford for five decades, and he headed STARLab's predecessor--The RadioScience Laboratory--from 1958 until 1972.

While a student at Stanford, Villard found mentors in Russell and Sigurd Varian, David Packard and William Hewlett, William Webster Hansen and other luminaries.
Villard later repaid the favor by aiding them as they developed the klystron--the basis of radar.

Among his Amateur Radio accomplishments, he experimented with and championed single-sideband, suppressed-carrier modulation in 1947, and the Stanford Amateur
Radio Club's
is said to have been the first ham station to use SSB transmission. While a student, he also served as the club's president, and from the 1950s through
the early 1980s he was the trustee of W6YX. An ARRL member for many years, Villard was also a past scientific advisor to the Northern California DX Foundation.

During his career at Stanford (and later at Stanford Research Institute--SRI), Villard pioneered the concept and development of a program to design and
build an over-the-horizon radar system to detect incoming military aircraft and high-altitude missiles. In addition, he demonstrated the feasibility of
the "stealth aircraft" concept by using specially treated low-impedance surfaces.

Among his awards for contributions to the military were the Meritorious Civilian Service Award from the Department of the Air Force and the Secretary of
Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service.

Another accomplishment was the design of a simple, small
high-frequency receiving antenna
that aided in nulling out signals that jammed broadcasts of the Voice of America, the BBC and others. Villard's design has remained in use around the world
for several decades.

Villard was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the International Scientific Radio Union. He was a fellow
of SRI, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Survivors include two sons and a daughter. His wife Bobbie died in 1996. A private graveside service will be held this spring in New York. Plans are pending
for a West Coast memorial service.

The family requests donations in support of the Mike Villard Memorial Fund to SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, AD-114, Menlo Park, CA 94025.--some
information from Stanford News Service

Post 247 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 14:17:48

The Big Project's Ranks, Enthusiasm Expand

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 27, 2004--Since coming onboard as
ARRL Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program
Coordinator some six months ago, Mark Spencer, WA8SME, has seen the number of "Big Project" pilot schools rise from 50 to 70. Fourteen schools came aboard
last fall, while another three schools already in the program received progress grants of up to $500 to help them continue their Big Project activities.

"The new schools coming onboard are approaching this program with a lot of enthusiasm that I hope will continue," Spencer said. He also hopes their upbeat
attitude will be infectious, and that other schools will follow the lead of the ones that have experienced the greatest success.


Youngsters at Stehekin School in Stehekin, Washington, get an introduction to Amateur Radio from Dick Bingham, W7WKR. The remote, one-room school employs
ham radio as a primary connection with the "outside world." Stehekin School has been a Big Project school since May 2002.


This young man is a student at Gowanda Middle-High School in Gowanda, New York--a Big Project school since May 2002. The Gowanda Central School District
Amateur Radio Club's call sign is KC2KJN.


Two youngsters at Iowa Street School in Fallbrook, California, show off their handheld transceivers. Iowa Street has been a Big Project school since February


Bill Carter KG4FXG (right), helps students at J. E. Richards Middle School in Lawrenceville, Georgia, get acquainted with wireless technology via Amateur

"The success of a project school boils down to the teacher, community and administration support and local Amateur Radio club support," Spencer says. "Those
schools that can get all these things together are really doing well."

The Big Project subsidizes the cost of an Amateur Radio station for each participating school--typically about $2800, Spencer says. To better spell out
the League's expectations, lead teachers and principals now must agree in writing to make a good-faith effort to integrate Amateur Radio and wireless technology
into their curricula for at least three years.

"This is not a giveaway," Spencer said. "We have a responsibility to our donors."

Spencer sees his role as supporting project schools by helping teachers to integrate the Education and Technology Program's
available on the League's Web site--into their classroom pursuits. "This has to be a grassroots activity," he says. What he looks for is a plan from the
school that provides hands-on learning for the students that's realistic and optional.

On the other hand, he recognizes that schools in recent months have faced heavy budget cuts that have compelled school administrators to pull back on enrichment
activities. "Our program has mitigated the costs for schools," said Spencer, who has experience himself in using Amateur Radio in the classroom. But since
the ARRL cannot provide much more than the initial seed money for equipment, an affiliation with a local club becomes all the more essential.

Not just money but time is at a premium for today's educators, especially when it comes to managing extra-curricular activities. "Teachers are already stretched
too thin," he says. That's where local Amateur Radio clubs come in. "Sometimes the clubs do a better job than we can do from here in supporting a participating
school's program." Spencer points out that some clubs cooperating with Big Project schools also have provided additional equipment to the schools. Even
more important: Club members often offer their ham radio experience and expertise to mentor youngsters in Big Project Schools. Spencer says it's hard to
put a price tag on that kind of contribution.

The Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program is an after-school program at most schools, but Spencer says more and more schools are integrating Amateur
Radio into their science curriculum. "There's some movement in that direction," he said, "and I think it's positive." He also notes that more private schools
are applying to participate--and even home-schooled youngsters are making use of the Big Project curriculum.

"Making the curriculum available on the Web has been a positive thing," Spencer said. He reports more than 1200 downloads so far.

A third factor is a movement in many states toward more rigid standards of learning and standardized testing. "Amateur Radio and wireless technology can
fit into this trend because it's hands-on," Spencer asserts. "The kids really do learn better than if you teach to the test."

While licensing students is not a primary goal of the program, many youngsters have become Amateur Radio operators as a result of their involvement in the
Big Project. The number varies from school to school, and Spencer says the trend is encouraging. More important in his mind is the exposure to technology
the program provides--an average of 3500 contact hours per school each year. "They're spending an average of five hours per week talking about wireless
technology and Amateur Radio," he says.

The Big Project will start placing more emphasis on teacher training in the future. "Teachers are really the backbone of this program," Spencer said, although
he notes that not all of them are amateur licensees. He envisions a five-day ARRL Education and Technology Program in-service teacher-training opportunity
at ARRL Headquarters, if funds can support the endeavor.

"We're going to teach teachers how to teach wireless technology in the classroom," he said.

Launched in 2001 as an initiative of ARRL President Jim Haynie, the ARRL Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program employs ham radio to enhance student
learning through the application of mathematical and scientific concepts. The project emphasizes integration of math, science, writing and speaking, geography,
technology and social responsibility within a global society.

There's more information about the
ARRL Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program
on the ARRL Web site. The ARRL Development Office invites
for this initiative.

Post 248 of 367

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Friday, 30-May-2008 17:18:24

The American Radio Relay League is proud to honor those individuals and organizations whose 2006 contributions of $1000 or more support programs not
funded by member dues, including the ARRL Diamond Club, the Spectrum Defense Fund, the Education & Technology Fund, and the W1AW Endowment.
Alicia W. Abell, KG6LJ
and David A. Abell, K6XG
Peter G. Adely Sr, W2HP
and Katherine Adely, W2YSF
Charles P. Alter, W9UC
Lester A. “Andy” Anderson, WØAFQ
Merit R. Arnold, W6NQ *
Paul J. Azar, Jr., N5AN
Dwight Baker, W4IJY Baker Family Foundation (W5IZ)
Mary Banks, K4MRY
and Sherman Banks, W4ATL
Don Barber, K8GV
Bob Barden, N2BB/MDØCCE
Glen Barney, NY3E
William L. Bartels, N6YZ*
Dave Bell, W6AQ
and Alice L. Bell, W6QLT*
Bergen Amateur Radio Association, Inc
Mark A. Behrens, W4GP
David W. Brandenburg, K5RQ/
Brandenburg Life Foundation*
Vern J. Brownell, W1VB
Bruce Burnette, K5PX Bruce Butler, W6OSP
Frank M. Butler, Jr., W4RH*
Randall J. Bynum, NR6CA
Carlson Family Trust
Vivian A. Carr
Lathan “Bud” Clarke, W6OYV
Combined Federal Campaign
Joseph A. Cloutier, KC9JAC
Robert L. Conder, Jr., K4RLC
Corporation for National & Community Service
Stephen H. Cornell, K4AHA
Carter Craigie, N3AO
and Kay Craigie, N3KN*
Dayton Amateur Radio Association
Leland M. Deane, AA2LD
Lawrence J. De George, W1ISV
Denver Radio Club, Inc.
James A. Dicso, K2SZ*
Dick Dievendorff, K6KR*
Frank Donovan, W3LPL
Robert A. Duris, N1TSL
DX Engineering, Paul D. Sergi, NO8D*
Martin S. Ewing, AA6E
ExxonMobil Foundation
Frank Fallon, N2FF
Kenneth A. Fath, N4KF*
Harry T. Flasher, AC8G*
James C. Garland, W8ZR
Craig D. Goldman, K2LZQ
Itice R. Goldthorpe, K4LVV
and Ted F. Goldthorpe, Jr., W4VHF
Whitfield Griffith, Jr., N5SU
Elliot A. Gross, KB2TZ*
The Gryphon Fund*
Thomas J. Hutton, N3ZZ
George R. Isely, W9GIG*
Marion L. Jackson, Jr., N4JJ
R. Jackson, Jr., W3EZ
James L. Jaeger, K8RQ*
Robert W. Johnson, W3RZR
Jon E. Kannegaard, K6JEK
David H. Kaplan, WA1OUI*
Timothy A. Kearns, NN6A
Stacy S. Klein, N3NHU
John R. Kludt, K7SYS
Alfred A. Laun III, K3ZO
Eric G. Lemmon, WB6FLY
Don Lisle, K6IPV*
James N. Long, W4ZRZ*
Willis C. Mack, N1HAI
Bruce S. Marcus, N1XG*
Willis McDonald IV, KD7NZG
Stephen M. Meer, KØSCC
Barry W. Merrill Jr., W5GN
and Judith S. Merrill, KA5PQD*
Daniel J. Meyer, NØPUF
Microsoft Corporation
Kan Mizoguchi, JA1BK
Frank P. Morrison, KB1FZ
William C. Mueller, AA5WM
Tod Olson, KØTO
Nat Ostroff, W3JXY
Kurt B. Pauer, W6PH
Permian Basin Amateur Radio Club
Malcolm M. Preston, NP2L
Dr. Larry E. Price, W4RA*
Peter Radding, W2GJ
Michael M. Raskin, M.D., J.D., W4UM
and Sherry L. Raskin, W4SLR*
Robert B. Ravenscroft, W7JZZ
Stan Reubenstein, WA6RNU
Paul L. Rinaldo, W4RI*
Eric L. Scace, K3NA
Claudie and Herb Schuler, K2HPV
Wayne Schuler, AI9Q Edward H. Seeliger, Jr., KD5M Dr. Beurt R. SerVaas, W9WVO
Raleigh L. Shaklee, W6BH
Dennis Shapiro, W1UF* Ted Sisco, WB5UJR
Don P. Smith, W8KGL
Robert W. Smith, WB9BER
Steven L. Somers, AE6SS
Carl R. Stevenson, WK3C
Roger A. Strauch, KD6UO
Temple Amateur Radio Club
Robert W. Ter Maat, WA5SCP
Sparky Terry, KD4KL
Craig A. Thompson, K9CT
Stephen R. Tillett, K7KOT
Dave Topp, W5BXX*
Bill Tynan, W3XO
Verizon Foundation
Mabs Vierthaler-Buttschardt
David H. Walker, KØCOP
Joseph F. Walsh, WB6ACU*
Estate of Robert W. Walstrom, WØEJ
Dick Weber, K5IU*
Steven West, W7SMW
and Donna Karam, KC5FTN*
John K. Williams, K8JW
Owen Wormser, K3CB
Brian F. Wruble, W3BW
YASME Foundation Inc.
Michael J. Zak, W1MU*
Edward D. Zimmer, NØOKW
Allen J. Zimmerman, K3WGR
Anonymous - 18
The ARRL Legacy Circle
honors individuals who have
included ARRL in their will
or other estate plans.
Robert M. Ahmann, W7SC
Alan Applegate, KØBG
Richard L. Baldwin, W1RU
Andrew J. Barbour, AG4XN
Marcia E. Baulch, WA2AKJ
Dave Bell, W6AQ
and Alice L. Bell, W6QLT*
Alvin C. Borne, W6IVO
Clint Bradford, K6LCS
John J. Bryant III, K9QLS
Frank M. Butler, Jr., W4RH*
Carla M. Chaet, N7OPU
and Joseph G. Chaet, W1RGH
Charles K. Epps, W6OAT
Kenneth M. Gleszer, W1KAY
Itice R. Goldthorpe, K4LVV
and Ted F. Goldthorpe, Jr., W4VHF
Walter G. Groce, AJ1L
Fried Heyn, WA6WZO
and Sandra M. Heyn, WA6WZN
Douglas S. Hilton, AG4FL
and Diane S. Hilton, KI4LMO
Thomas H. Hodgson, W3DNN
Ronald Jansen, KB9WTB
Robert M. Kares, K3SUH
David L. Kersten, N8AUH
Don Lisle, K6IPV*
Eugene W. McPherson, NØMHJ
Loretta Milnes
and Greg Milnes, W7OZ, SK
Richard J. Mondro, K4FQT
Theodore A. Morris, WB8VNV
Dennis R. Motschenbacher, K7BV
Jack V. O’Keefe, W9MAD
Art Pahr, K9XJ
Benjamin F. Poinsett, K3BP
Keith D. Pugh, W5IU
Lawrence Quinn
and Wendy Quinn, W1DY
Barbara Race, WB8UWX
and George E. Race, WB8BGY
Michael M. Raskin, M.D., W4UM
and Sherry L. Raskin, W4SLR*
John P. Rautenstrauch, N2MTG
Alfred C. Rousseau, W1FJ
Joseph J. Schroeder, Jr., W9JUV
Claudie and Herb Schuler, K2HPV
Arnold I. Shatz, N6HC
and Sheryl G. Shatz, KA6DOW
Mary C. Stinson, KØZV
and Walton L. Stinson, WØCP
John L. Swartz, WA9AQN
John J. Thornton, W6HD
and Jane M. Thornton, KF6QHP
James E. Weaver, K8JE
and Janice E. Weaver
John L. Welch, KE6K
Clarence W. Wenzel, W9ILM
Lee R. Wical, KH6BZF
Anonymous - 20
*ARRL is also very proud to honor Maxim
Society donors whose lifetime donations
exceed $10,000.

Post 249 of 367

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877 posts
Friday, 30-May-2008 17:20:01

The American Radio Relay League is proud to honor those individuals and
organizations whose 2005 contributions of $1,000 or more support programs not funded
by member dues, including the ARRL Diamond Club, the Spectrum Defense Fund, the
Education &Technology Fund, and the W1AW Endowment.
ARRL is also very proud to honor Maxim Society donors whose lifetime donations
exceed $10,000.
Alicia W. Abell, KG6LJ
and David A. Abell, K6XG
Merit R. Arnold, W6NQ
Dr. Paul J. Azar, Jr., N5AN
Baker Family Foundation (W5IZ)
Mary Banks, K4MRY
and Sherman Banks, W4ATL
Glen Barney, NY3E
Mark A. Behrens, W4GP
Dave Bell, W6AQ*
Arlan L. Bowen, N4OO
David W. Brandenburg, K5RQ/Brandenburg
Life Foundation*
Vern J. Brownell, W1VB
Thomas M. Browning, WA1ELQ (SK)
and June F. Browning, N1AQA
Bruce Burnette, K5PX
Frank M. Butler, W4RH*
Randall J. Bynum, NR6CA
Robert L. Conder Jr., K4RLC
Stephen H. Cornell, K4AHA
Corporation for National
and Community Service
Carter Craigie, N3AO*
and Kay Craigie, N3KN*
Dayton Amateur Radio Association
Lawrence J. De George, W1ISV
The Delmarva Hamfest Committee
James A. Dicso, K2SZ*
Dick Dievendorff, K6KR*
Elizabeth Lombardi Doane, K1EIC
Frank Donovan, W3LPL
DX Engineering*
Eaton Amateur Radio Society
Arthur C. Erdman, W8VWX
Martin S. Ewing, AA6E
The ExxonMobil Foundation
Kenneth A. Fath, N4KF*
James C. Garland, W8ZR
Estate of Winkler C. Gosch, W1CUX
Whitfield Griffith, N5SU Elliot A. Gross, KB2TZ The Gryphon Fund* Ham-Com, Inc. Heil Sound, Ltd. Thomas J. Hutton, N3ZZ George R. Isely, W9GIG Dick Jackson,
W3EZ Marion L. Jackson Jr., N4JJ Andrew C. John, MD, JD, W8OU* Glenn Kaufman, KA3GLY George J. Kelly, WA2SQO Estate of Steven C. Klenc, KCØACQ John R.
Kludt, K7SYS Las Vegas Radio Amateur Club Don Lisle, K6IPV Robert F. Loll, WA6UPX James. N. Long, W4ZRZ* Willis C. Mack, N1HAI Bruce S. Marcus, N1XG* Stephen
M. Meer, KØSCC Barry W. Merrill Jr., W5GN*
and Judith S. Merrill, KA5PQD*
Microsoft Matching Gifts Program
William C. Mueller, AA5WM
Dan L. Osborne, WB5AFY
Charles A. Ottinger, AF5L
Malcolm M. Preston, NP2L
Dr. Larry E. Price, W4RA
Peter Radding, W2GJ
Michael M. Raskin, M.D., W4UM*
and Sherry Raskin, W4SLR*
Bob Ravenscroft, W7JZZ
The ARRL Legacy Circle honors individuals who have included
Paul L. Rinaldo, W4RI* ARRL in their will or other estate plans.
Ed Robinson, W5XT
Wayne W. Santos, N1CKM
Eric L. Scace, K3NA
Claudie and Herb Schuler, K2HPV
Wayne Schuler, AI9Q Edward H. Seeliger Jr., KD5M Dr. Beurt SerVaas, W9WVO
Dennis Shapiro, W1UF* Ted Sisco, WB5UJR Joseph Speroni, AHØA David S. Topp, W5BXX Kent W. Trimble, K9ZTV United Technologies Corporation Michael D. Valentine,
W8MM* David H. Walker, KØCOP Joseph F. Walsh, WB6ACU* Robert W. Walstrom, WØEJ Dick Weber, K5IU Steve West, W7SMW
and Donna Karam, KC5FTN
Burton B. Witham Jr., W4CNZ
Sarah B. Wood, KC9AYT
Owen Wormser, K3CB
Brian F. Wruble, W3BW
YASME Foundation Inc.
Edward D. Zimmer, NØOKW
Allen J. Zimmerman, K3WGR
Anonymous - 27
Member of the ARRL Maxim Society
Robert M. Ahmann, W7SC
Ann B. Backys, K9ANN
and Donald J. Backys, K9UQN
Andrew Barbour, AG4XN
Marcia E. Baulch, WA2AKJ
Michael E. Beck, W7EDO
Dave Bell, W6AQ*
Alvin C. Borne, W6IVO
Clint Bradford, K6LCS
Frank M. Butler, W4RH*
Carla M. Chaet, N7OPU
and Joseph G. Chaet, W1RGH
Charles K. Epps, W6OAT
Ed L. Fowler Jr., W5CML
Kenneth M. Gleszer, W1KAY
Itice R. Goldthorpe, K4LVV
and Ted F. Goldthorpe Jr, W4VHF
Fried Heyn, WA6WZO
and Sandra M. Heyn, WA6WZN
Douglas S. Hilton, AG4FL
Ronald Jansen, KB9WTB
Robert M. Kares, K3SUH
Robert J. Kelemen, W1US
David L. Kersten, N8AUH
James Joseph Kleis, WB4WGH
Don Lisle, K6IPV
Gene W. McPherson, NØMHJ
Gregory E. Milnes, W7OZ (SK)
Richard J. Mondro, K4FQT
Jack V. O’Keefe, W9MAD
Lawrence Quinn, N1LCV
and Wendy Quinn, W1DY
Barbara Race, WB8UWX
and George E. Race, WB8BGY
Michael M. Raskin M.D., W4UM*
and Sherry Raskin, W4SLR*
John B. Rautenstrauch, N2MTG
Alfred C. Rousseau, W1FJ
Jane M. Thornton, KF6QHP
and John J. Thornton, W6HD
Joseph J. Schroeder Jr., W9JUV
Claudie and Herb Schuler, K2HPV
Rev. Leslie J. Shattuck Sr., K4NK
Arnold I. Shatz, N6HC
and Sheryl G. Shatz, KA6DOW
Mary C. Stinson, KØZV
and Walton L. Stinson, WØCP
James E. Weaver, K8JE
and Janice E. Weaver
Lee R. Wical, KH6BZF
Member of the ARRL Maxim Society

Post 250 of 367

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 9:50:37

ARLD025: DX news
ARLD025 DX news

DX Bulletin 25 ARLD025
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT June 13, 2002
To all radio amateurs

ARLD025 DX news

This weeks bulletin was made possible with information provided by
Tedd, KB8NW, the OPDX Bulletin, SM5AJV, WA7BNM, The Daily DX, QRZ
DX, 425DXnews, The DXNL and Contest Corral from QST. Thanks to all.

TUNISIA, 3V. A number of Italian amateurs are QRV as 3V8KO from
Kuriat Island until June 16. Activity is on all bands. QSL via

GUINEA, 3X. 3XA8DX is active on 160 to 6 meters using CW, SSB and
RTTY. QSL CW QSOs via DJ6SI and all other modes via DL1QW.

ANGOLA, D2. Joan, D2U has been QRV on 10 meters around 1545z. QSL
via CT1BFL.

ST PIERRE AND MIQUELON, FP. K1TOL and N1RZ are QRV as FP/homecalls
on 6 meters until June 24. QSL to home calls.

TROMELIN ISLAND, FR/T. Jacques, FR5ZU/T has been QRV on 15 meters
around 1300z and 20 meter RTTY around 1800z. QSL via JA8FCG.

GUERNSEY, GU. Look for Terry, W6/G3MHV and Mady, KP3YL/W6 to be QRV
as GU3MHV and GU4WHV, respectively, from June 17 to 25. Activity
will be on 40 to 10 meters using CW and SSB. QSL both calls via

THAILAND, HS. Look for E21EIC to be a Single Op/All Band High Power
entry in the All Asian DX CW Contest. QSL to home call.

ITALY, I. Special event station IQ9YL will be active June 18 to 26
in connection with the International YL Meeting that will take place
in Palermo, IOTA EU-025, from June 21 to 23. QSL via operators'

SARDINIA, IS0. Freddy, IZ1EPM will be active as IS0/homecall from
Santa Teresa di Gallura, IOTA EU-024, from June 15 to 23. Activity
will be on 20 to 6 meters, including 17 and 12 meters. QSL to home

Saipan, IOTA OC-086, until June 17. They are active on 40 meters
using SSTV, PSK31 and RTTY. QSL to home calls. Meanwhile, Tony,
JA6CNL and Asa, JA6AGA are also QRV as KH0N and WH0C, respectively.
They will participate in the All Asian DX CW Contest. Outside of
the contest they will be active on the newer bands and 6 meters.
QSL to home calls.

OJ0SM until June 16. Activity is on 160 to 6 meters using CW and
SSB. There may also be some RTTY and PSK31 activity as well. QSL
via SM5HJZ.

EGYPT, SU. SU9BN is a new operator and has been QRV on 20 meters
around 1600 and 1900z.

INDIA, VU. Jose, VU2JOS is QRV as AT0J for all his contest
activities this year. QSL to home call.

AFGHANISTAN, YA. Chris, YA/G0TQJ has been QRV using RTTY just after
1600 to 1730z. QSL to home call.

Contest, AGCW VHF/UHF Contest, West Virginia QSO Party and the Kid's
Day Contest are all scheduled for this weekend. Please see June
QST, page 90 and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar website for details.

Post 251 of 367

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877 posts
Saturday, 31-May-2008 9:51:53

ARLD026: DX news
ARLD026 DX news

DX Bulletin 26 ARLD026
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT May 23, 1996
To all radio amateurs

ARLD026 DX news

This week's bulletin was made possible with info provided by CT1ENQ,
CT1EEB, CT1FUF, the Northern Portugal DX Group, Hamad, 9K2HN, Gary,
NH2G, Frank, AH0W/OH2LVG, Uwe, DL9GOA, Bob, DL7VOA, Ted, NH6YK,
Ramon, XE1KK, and Contest Corral from QST. Thanks to all.

MIDWAY ISLAND, KH4. Bill, NH6D, is still on Midway and will be
active in the WPX contest this weekend. He will also be
concentrating more on 160 and 80 meter work. Hams in W6, W7 and JA
lands may catch him on RS12. His primary purpose for being on the
island is US Navy business, so time for DXing is limited. QSL via

ANNOBON ISLAND, 3C0. Teo, EA6BH, plans to return to Equatorial
Guinea and operate from this island, too.

TUNISIA, 3V. Listen for YT1AD operating from 3V8BB May 23 to 30.

SENEGAL, 6W. N2WCQ/6W1 will be active until May 29. QSL via

NEPAL, 9N. 9N1KY should remain active until sometime in July.

COMOROS, D6. DL4XS, DL6ET and DL3KDV plan an all band effort,
including 160 meters, from August 22 to September 4.

ETHIOPIA, ET. Peter, ET3BN, has been on 20 meter RTTY, usually from
1800 to 1900z on 14085 kHz. QSL to PO Box 150194, Addis Ababa,

MEXICO, XE. Ramon, XE1KK, has put a beacon on 50.0225 MHz, located
in grid EK09ik. It is reportedly the only such beacon in the first
call area of Mexico. XE1KK/B runs 20 watts to an omni-directional
antenna. Listen for T T T DE XE1KK/B EK09. Ramon welcomes reception

MINAMI TORISHIMA, JD1. JG8NQJ/JD1 has wrapped up operations but
will return for a three month stay starting July 15. QSL via

JAN MAYEN, JX. LA7DFA is active on 14008 kHz CW signing JX7DFA.
Listen for his 20 meter RTTY from 1000 to 1400z Fridays.

COCOS KEELING ISLAND, VK9C. Bill, VK4FW, will start working 12
meters at VK9CT on May 24 around 0200z. He will run 400 watts to a
vertical. QSL via VK4CRR.

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, VK9X. Gerben, PA0GAM, will activate VK9GA May 23
to 27, with plans to work 80 through 10 meter CW. QSL via PA0GIN.

DODECANESE, SV5. Manfred, DL8SET, will be QRV June 6 to 20 on 20 to
6 meter CW and SSB. QSL via DL8SET.

CORSICA, TK. Falk, DK7YY, ex DL7UTA, will be active as TK/DK7YY
through May 30. He will be in the WPX contest using 100 watts to a
vertical. Before and after the contest he will concentrate on the
WARC bands, and if conditions permit, 10 meters.

TOGO, 5V. Roy, DL7UBA, and Lars, DL7ALM, will be QRV from June 3 to
18. They hope to obtain the calls 5V7HR and 5V7ML, respectively, on
all bands, CW and SSB. QSL via home calls.

GUAM, KH2. Gary, NH2G will operate Single Operator All Band in the
WPX contest from Guam.

SAINT KITTS, V47. Jimmy, W6JKV, and Mike, K6MYC, will arrive on the
island the night of June 29 and depart on July 9. They plan to
operate EME on 50.144 and 432 MHz. Six meter sporadic E is also on
their agenda, as well as two meter E-skip to Europe with their EME

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HI. Frank, DL5PV, is on 17, 20 and 30 meters
signing DL5PV/HI7. QSL via DL5PV.

contests, and the World Telecommunications Day CW are all this
weekend. For more info on the WPX contest check page 97 of March
QST, page 100 of May QST for the other events.

Post 252 of 367

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 10:15:23

Antenna Height
Communications Effectiveness
Second Edition

A Guide for City Planners and Amateur Radio Operators
By R. Dean Straw, N6BV, and Gerald L. Hall, K1TD
Senior Assistant Technical Editor and Retired Associate Technical Editor
Copyright ©1999
The American Radio Relay League, Inc.
225 Main Street
Newington, CT 06111

Executive Summary
Amateur radio operators, or “hams” as they are called, communicate with stations located all
over the world. Some contacts may be local in nature, while others may be literally halfway
around the world. Hams use a variety of internationally allocated frequencies to accomplish their
Except for local contacts, which are primarily made on Very High and Ultra High
Frequencies (VHF and UHF), communicating between any two points on the earth rely primarily
on high-frequency (HF) signals propagating through the ionosphere. The earth’s ionosphere acts
much like a mirror at heights of about 150 miles. The vertical angle of radiation of a signal
launched from an antenna is one of the key factors determining effective communication
distances. The ability to communicate over long distances generally requires a low radiation
angle, meaning that an antenna must be placed high above the ground in terms of the wavelength
of the radio wave being transmitted.
A beam type of antenna at a height of 70 feet or more will provide greatly superior
performance over the same antenna at 35 feet, all other factors being equal. A height of 120 feet
or even higher will provide even more advantages for long-distance communications. To a
distant receiving station, a transmitting antenna at 120 feet will provide the effect of
approximately 8 to 10 times more transmitting power than the same antenna at 35 feet.
Depending on the level of noise and interference, this performance disparity is often enough to
mean the difference between making distant radio contact with fairly reliable signals, and being
unable to make distant contact at all.
Radio Amateurs have a well-deserved reputation for providing vital communications in
emergency situations, such as in the aftermath of a severe icestorm, a hurricane or an earthquake.
Short-range communications at VHF or UHF frequencies also require sufficient antenna heights
above the local terrain to ensure that the antenna has a clear horizon.
In terms of safety and aesthetic considerations, it might seem intuitively reasonable for a
planning board to want to restrict antenna installations to low heights. However, such height
restrictions often prove very counterproductive and frustrating to all parties involved. If an
amateur is restricted to low antenna heights, say 35 feet, he will suffer from poor transmission of
his own signals as well as poor reception of distant signals. In an attempt to compensate on the
transmitting side (he can’t do anything about the poor reception problem), he might boost his
transmitted power, say from 150 watts to 1,500 watts, the maximum legal limit. This ten-fold
increase in power will very significantly increase the potential for interference to telephones,
televisions, VCRs and audio equipment in his neighborhood.
Instead, if the antenna can be moved farther away from neighboring electronic devices—
putting it higher, in other words—this will greatly reduce the likelihood of interference, which
decreases at the inverse square of the distance. For example, doubling the distance reduces the
potential for interference by 75%. As a further benefit, a large antenna doesn’t look anywhere
near as large at 120 feet as it does close-up at 35 feet.
As a not-so-inconsequential side benefit, moving an antenna higher will also greatly reduce
the potential of exposure to electromagnetic fields for neighboring human and animals.
Interference and RF exposure standards have been thoroughly covered in recently enacted
Federal Regulations.
Page 1
Antenna Height and Communications
By R. Dean Straw, N6BV, and Gerald L. Hall, K1TD
Senior Assistant Technical Editor and Retired Associate Technical Editor
The purpose of this paper is to provide general information about communications
effectiveness as related to the physical height of antennas. The intended audience is amateur
radio operators and the city and town Planning Boards before which a radio amateur must
sometimes appear to obtain building permits for radio towers and antennas.
The performance of horizontally polarized antennas at heights of 35, 70 and 120 feet is
examined in detail. Vertically polarized arrays are not considered here because at short-wave
frequencies, over average terrain and at low radiation angles, they are usually less effective than
horizontal antennas.
Ionospheric Propagation
Frequencies between 3 and 30 megahertz (abbreviated MHz) are often called the “shortwave”
bands. In engineering terms this range of frequencies is defined as the high-frequency or
HF portion of the radio spectrum. HF radio communications between two points that are
separated by more than about 15 to 25 miles depend almost solely on propagation of radio
signals through the ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of the Earth’s upper atmosphere that
is ionized primarily by ultraviolet rays from the Sun.
The Earth’s ionosphere has the property that it will refract or bend radio waves passing
through it. The ionosphere is not a single “blanket” of ionization. Instead, for a number of
complex reasons, a few discrete layers are formed at different heights above the earth. From the
standpoint of radio propagation, each ionized layer has distinctive characteristics, related
primarily to different amounts of ionization in the various layers. The ionized layer that is most
useful for HF radio communication is called the F layer.
The F layer exists at heights varying from approximately 130 to 260 miles above the earth’s
surface. Both the layer height and the amount of ionization depend on the latitude from the
equator, the time of day, the season of the year, and on the level of sunspot activity. Sunspot
activity varies generally in cycles that are approximately 11 years in duration, although shortterm
bursts of activity may create changes in propagation conditions that last anywhere from a
few minutes to several days. The ionosphere is not homogeneous, and is undergoing continual
change. In fact, the exact state of the ionosphere at any one time is so variable that is best
described in statistical terms.
The F layer disappears at night in periods of low and medium solar activity, as the ultraviolet
energy required to sustain ionization is no longer received from the Sun. The amount that a
passing radio wave will bend in an ionospheric layer is directly related to the intensity of
ionization in that layer, and to the frequency of the radio wave.
A triangle may be used to portray the cross-sectional path of ionospheric radio-wave travel,
as shown in Fig 1, a highly simplified picture of what happens in propagation of radio waves.
The base of the triangle is the surface of the Earth between two distant points, and the apex of the
triangle is the point representing refraction in the ionosphere. If all the necessary conditions are
Page 2
met, the radio wave will travel from the first point on the Earth’s surface to the ionosphere,
where it will be bent (refracted) sufficiently to travel to the second point on the earth, many
hundreds of miles away.

Fig 1—A simplified cross-sectional representation of
ionospheric propagation. The simple triangle goes from
the Transmitter T up to the virtual height and then back
down to the Receiver R. Typically the F layer exists at a
height of 150 miles above the Earth at mid-latitudes. The
distance between T and R may range from a few miles to
2500 miles under normal propagation conditions.
Of course the Earth’s surface is not a flat plane, but instead is curved. High-frequency radio
waves behave in essentially the same manner as light waves—they tend to travel in straight lines,
but with a slight amount of downward bending caused by refraction in the air. For this reason it
is not possible to communicate by a direct path over distances greater than about 15 to 25 miles
in this frequency range, slightly farther than the optical horizon. The curvature of the earth
causes the surface to “fall away” from the path of the radio wave with greater distances.
Therefore, it is the ionosphere that permits HF radio communications to be made between points
separated by hundreds or even thousands of miles. The range of frequencies from 3 to 30 MHz is
unique in this respect, as ionospheric propagation is not consistently supported for any
frequencies outside this range.
One of the necessary conditions for ionospheric communications is that the radio wave must
encounter the ionosphere at the correct angle. This is illustrated in Fig 2, another very simplified
drawing of the geometry involved. Radio waves leaving the earth at high elevation angles above
the horizon may receive only very slight bending due to refraction, and are then lost to outer
space. For the same fixed frequency of operation, as the elevation angle is lowered toward the
horizon, a point is reached where the bending of the wave is sufficient to return the wave to the
Earth. At successively lower angles, the wave returns to the Earth at increasing distances.
Page 3

Fig 2—Behavior of radio waves encountering the
ionosphere. Rays entering the ionized region at angles
above the critical angle are not bent enough to return to
Earth and are lost to space. Waves entering at angles
below the critical angle reach the Earth at increasingly
greater distances as the angle approaches the
horizontal. The maximum distance that may normally
be covered in a single hop is 2500 miles. Greater
distances may be covered with multiple hops.
If the radio wave leaves the earth at an elevation angle of zero degrees, just toward the
horizon (or just tangent to the earth’s surface), the maximum distance that may be reached under
usual ionospheric conditions is approximately 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers). However, the
Earth itself also acts as a reflector of radio waves coming down from the ionosphere. Quite often
a radio signal will be reflected from the reception point on the Earth back into the ionosphere
again, reaching the Earth a second time at a still more distant point.
As in the case of light waves, the angle of reflection is the same as the angle of incidence, so
a wave striking the surface of the Earth at an angle of, say, 15º is reflected upward from the
surface at the same angle. Thus, the distance to the second point of reception will be
approximately twice the distance of the first. This effect is also illustrated in Fig 2, where the
signal travels from the transmitter at the left of the drawing via the ionosphere to Point A, in the
center of the drawing. From Point A the signal travels via the ionosphere again to Point B, at the
right. A signal traveling from the Earth through the ionosphere and back to the Earth is called a
hop. Under some conditions it is possible for as many as four or five signal hops to occur over a
radio path, but no more than two or three hops is the norm. In this way, HF communications can
be conducted over thousands of miles.
Page 4
With regard to signal hopping, two important points should be recognized. First, a significant
loss of signal occurs with each hop. Lower layers of the ionosphere absorb energy from the
signals as they pass through, and the ionosphere tends to scatter the radio energy in various
directions, rather than confining it to a tight bundle. The earth also scatters the energy at a
reflection point. Thus, only a small fraction of the transmitted energy actually reaches a distant
receiving point.
Again refer to Fig 2. Two radio paths are shown from the transmitter to Point B, a one-hop
path and a two-hop path. Measurements indicate that although there can be great variation in the
ratio of the two signal strengths in a situation such as this, the signal power received at Point B
will generally be from five to ten times greater for the one-hop wave than for the two-hop wave.
(The terrain at the mid-path reflection point for the two-hop wave, the angle at which the wave is
reflected from the earth, and the condition of the ionosphere in the vicinity of all the refraction
points are the primary factors in determining the signal-strength ratio.) Signal levels are
generally compared in decibels, abbreviated dB. The decibel is a logarithmic unit. Three decibels
difference in signal strengths is equivalent to a power ratio of 2:1; a difference of 10 dB equates
to a power ratio of 10:1. Thus the signal loss for an additional hop is about 7 to 10 dB.
The additional loss per hop becomes significant at greater distances. For a simplified
example, a distance of 4,000 miles can be covered in two hops of 2,000 miles each or in four
hops of 1,000 miles each. For illustration, assume the loss for additional hops is 10 dB, or a 1/10
power ratio. Under such conditions, the four-hop signal will be received with only 1/100 the
power or 20 dB below that received in two hops. The reason for this is that only 1/10 of the twohop
signal is received for the first additional (3rd) hop, and only 1/10 of that 1/10 for the second
additional (4th) hop. It is for this reason that no more than four or five propagation hops are
useful; the received signal eventually becomes too weak to be heard.
The second important point to be recognized in multihop propagation is that the geometry of
the first hop establishes the geometry for all succeeding hops. And it is the elevation angle at the
transmitter that sets up the geometry for the first hop.
It should be obvious from the preceding discussion that one needs a detailed knowledge of
the range of elevation angles for effective communication in order to do a scientific evaluation of
a possible communications circuit. The range of angles should be statistically valid over the full
11-year solar sunspot cycle, since the behavior of the Sun determines the changes in the nature of
the Earth’s ionosphere. ARRL did a very detailed computer study in the early 1990s to determine
the angles needed for propagation throughout the world. The results of this study will be
examined later, after we introduce the relationship between antenna height and the elevation
pattern for an antenna.
Horizontal Antennas Over Flat Ground
A simple antenna that is commonly used for HF communications is the horizontal half-wave
dipole. The dipole is a straight length of wire (or tubing) into which radio-frequency energy is
fed at the center. Because of its simplicity, the dipole may be easily subjected to theoretical
performance analyses. Further, the results of proper analyses are well borne out in practice. For
these reasons, the half-wave dipole is a convenient performance standard against which other
antenna systems can be compared.
Because the earth acts as a reflector for HF radio waves, the directive properties of any
antenna are modified considerably by the ground underneath it. If a dipole antenna is placed
horizontally above the ground, most of the energy radiated downward from the dipole is
Page 5
reflected upward. The reflected waves combine with the direct waves (those radiated at angles
above the horizontal) in various ways, depending on the height of the antenna, the frequency, and
the electrical characteristics of the ground under and around the antenna.
At some vertical angles above the horizon, the direct and reflected waves may be exactly in
phase—that is, the maximum signal or field strengths of both waves are reached at the same
instant at some distant point. In this case the resultant field strength is equal to the sum of the two
components. At other vertical angles the two waves may be completely out of phase at some
distant point—that is, the fields are maximum at the same instant but the phase directions are
opposite. The resultant field strength in this case is the difference between the two. At still other
angles the resultant field will have intermediate values. Thus, the effect of the ground is to
increase the intensity of radiation at some vertical angles and to decrease it at others. The
elevation angles at which the maxima and minima occur depend primarily on the antenna height
above ground. (The electrical characteristics of the ground have some slight effect too.)
For simplicity here, we consider the ground to be a perfectly conducting, perfectly flat
reflector, so that straightforward trigonometric calculations can be made to determine the relative
amount of radiation intensity at any vertical angle for any dipole height. Graphs from such
calculations are often plotted on rectangular axes to show best resolution over particularly useful
ranges of elevation angles, although they are also shown on polar plots so that both the front and
back of the response can be examined easily. Fig 3 shows an overlay of the polar elevationpattern
responses of two dipoles at different heights over perfectly conducting flat ground. The
lower dipole is located a half wavelength above ground, while the higher dipole is located one
wavelength above ground. The pattern of the lower antenna peaks at an elevation angle of about
30º, while the higher antenna has two main lobes, one peaking at 15º and the other at about 50º
elevation angle.
Fig 3–Comparison of elevation responses for two

dipoles: one ½-wavelength high, and the other

1-wavelength high.

In the plots shown in Fig 3, the elevation angle above the horizon is represented in the same
fashion that angles are measured on a protractor. The concentric circles are calibrated to
represent ratios of field strengths, referenced to the strength represented by the outer circle. The
circles are calibrated in decibels. Diminishing strengths are plotted toward the center.
Page 6
You may have noted that antenna heights are often discussed in terms of wavelengths. The
reason for this is that the length of a radio wave is inversely proportional to its frequency.
Therefore a fixed physical height will represent different electrical heights at different radio
frequencies. For example, a height of 70 feet represents one wavelength at a frequency of
14 MHz. But the same 70-foot height represents a half wavelength for a frequency of 7 MHz and
only a quarter wavelength at 3.5 MHz. On the other hand, 70 feet is 2 wavelengths high at
28 MHz.
The lobes and nulls of the patterns shown in Fig 3 illustrate what was described earlier, that
the effect of the ground beneath an antenna is to increase the intensity of radiation at some
vertical elevation angles and to decrease it at others. At a height of a half wavelength, the
radiated energy is strongest at a rather high elevation angle of 30º. This would represent the
situation for a 14-MHz dipole 35 feet off the ground.
As the horizontal antenna is raised to greater heights, additional lobes are formed, and the
lower ones move closer to the horizon. The maximum amplitude of each of the lobes is roughly
equal. As may be seen in Fig 3, for an antenna height of one wavelength, the energy in the lowest
lobe is strongest at 15º. This would represent the situation for a 14-MHz dipole 70 feet high.
The elevation angle of the lowest lobe for a horizontal antenna above perfectly conducting
ground may be determined mathematically:
− 0.25 
θ= sin 1 
 h 
θ = the wave or elevation angle
h = the antenna height above ground in wavelengths
In short, the higher the horizontal antenna, the lower is the lowest lobe of the pattern. As a
very general rule of thumb, the higher an HF antenna can be placed above ground, the farther it
will provide effective communications because of the resulting lower radiation angle. This is true
for any horizontal antenna over real as well as theoretically perfect ground.
You should note that the nulls in the elevation pattern can play an important role in
communications—or lack of communication. If a signal arrives at an angle where the antenna
system exhibits a deep null, communication effectiveness will be greatly reduced. It is thus quite
possible that an antenna can be too high for good communications efficiency on a particular
frequency. Although this rarely arises as a significant problem on the amateur bands below
14 MHz, we’ll discuss the subject of optimal height in more detail later.
Actual earth does not reflect all the radio-frequency energy striking it; some absorption takes
place. Over real earth, therefore, the patterns will be slightly different than those shown in Fig 3,
however the differences between theoretical and perfect earth ground are not significant for the
range of elevation angles necessary for good HF communication. Modern computer programs
can do accurate evaluations, taking all the significant ground-related factors into account.
Beam Antennas
For point-to-point communications, it is beneficial to concentrate the radiated energy into a
beam that can be aimed toward a distant point. An analogy can be made by comparing the light
Page 7
from a bare electric bulb to that from an automobile headlight, which incorporates a built-in
focusing lens. For illuminating a distant point, the headlight is far more effective.
Antennas designed to concentrate the radiated energy into a beam are called, naturally
enough, beam antennas. For a fixed amount of transmitter power fed to the transmitting antenna,
beam antennas provide increased signal strength at a distant receiver. In radio communications,
the use of a beam antenna is also beneficial during reception, because the antenna pattern for
transmission is the same for reception. A beam antenna helps to reject signals from unwanted
directions, and in effect boosts the strength of signals received from the desired direction.
The increase in signal or field strength a beam antenna offers is frequently referenced to a
dipole antenna in free space (or to another theoretical antenna in free space called an isotropic
antenna) by a term called gain. Gain is commonly expressed in decibels. The isotropic antenna is
defined as being one that radiates equally well in all directions, much like the way a bare
lightbulb radiates essentially equally in all directions.
One particularly well known type of beam antenna is called a Yagi, named after one of its
Japanese inventors. Different varieties of Yagi antennas exist, each having somewhat different
characteristics. Many television antennas are forms of multi-element Yagi beam antennas. In the
next section of this paper, we will refer to a four-element Yagi, with a gain of 8.5 dBi in free
space, exclusive of any influence due to ground.
This antenna has 8.5 dB more gain than an isotropic antenna in free space and it achieves that
gain by squeezing the pattern in certain desired directions. Think of a normally round balloon
and imagine squeezing that balloon to elongate it in one direction. The increased length in one
direction comes at the expense of length in other directions. This is analogous to how an antenna
achieves more signal strength in one direction, at the expense of signal strength in other
The elevation pattern for a Yagi over flat ground will vary with the electrical height over
ground in exactly the same manner as for a simpler dipole antenna. The Yagi is one of the most
common antennas employed by radio amateurs, second in popularity only to the dipole.
Putting the Pieces Together
In Fig 4, the elevation angles necessary for communication from a particular transmitting
site, in Boston, Massachusetts, to the continent of Europe using the 14-MHz amateur band are
shown in the form of a bargraph. For each elevation angle from 1º to 30º, Fig 4 shows the
percentage of time when the 14-MHz band is open at each elevation angle. For example, 5º is the
elevation angle that occurs just over 12% of the time when the band is available for
communication, while 11º occurs about 10% of the time when the band is open. The useful range
of elevation angles that must accommodated by an amateur station wishing to talk to Europe
from Boston is from 1º to 28º.
In addition to the bar-graph elevation-angle statistics shown in Fig 4, the elevation pattern
responses for three Yagi antennas, located at three different heights above flat ground, are
overlaid on the same graph. You can easily see that the 120-foot antenna is the best antenna to
cover the most likely angles for this particular frequency, although it suffers at the higher
elevation angles on this particular propagation path, beyond about 12°. If, however, you can
accept somewhat lower gain at the lowest angles, the 70-foot antenna would arguably be the best
overall choice to cover all the elevation angles.
Page 8

Fig 4—Elevation response patterns of three Yagis at
120, 70 and 35 feet, at 14 MHz over flat ground. The
patterns are overlaid with the statistical elevationangles
for the path from Boston to continental Europe
over the entire 11-year solar sunspot cycle. Clearly, the
120-foot antenna is the best choice to cover the low
angles needed, but it suffers some at higher angles.
Other graphs are needed to show other target receiving areas around the world. For
comparison, Fig 5 is also for the 14-MHz band, but this time from Boston to Sydney, Australia.
The peak angle for this very long path is about 2º, occurring 19% of the time when the band is
actually open for communication. Here, even the 120-foot high antenna is not ideal. Nonetheless,
at a moderate 5° elevation angle, the 120-foot antenna is still 10 dB better than the one at 35 feet.
Fig 4 and Fig 5 have portrayed the situation for the 14-MHz amateur band, the most popular
and heavily utilized HF band used by radio amateurs. During medium to high levels of solar
sunspot activity, the 21 and 28-MHz amateur bands are open during the daytime for longdistance
communication. Fig 6 illustrates the 28-MHz elevation-angle statistics, compared to the
elevation patterns for the same three antenna heights shown in Fig 5. Clearly, the elevation
response for the 120-foot antenna has a severe (and undesirable) null at 8°. The 120-foot antenna
is almost 3.4 wavelengths high on 28 MHz (whereas it is 1.7 wavelengths high on 14 MHz.) For
many launch angles, the 120-foot high Yagi on 28 MHz would simply be too high.
The radio amateur who must operate on a variety of frequencies might require two or more
towers at different heights to maintain essential elevation coverage on all the authorized bands.
Antennas can sometimes be mounted at different heights on a single supporting tower, although
it is more difficult to rotate antennas that are “vertically stacked” around the tower to point in all
the needed directions. Further, closely spaced antennas tuned to different frequencies usually
interact electrically with each other, often causing severe performance degradation.
Page 9

Fig 5—Elevation responses for same antennas as Fig 4,
but for a longer-range path from Boston to Sydney,
Australia. Note that the prevailing elevation angles are
very low.

Fig 6—Elevation angles compared to antenna responses
for 28-MHz path from Boston to Europe. The 70-foot
antenna is probably the best overall choice on this path.
Page 10
During periods of low to moderate sunspot activity (about 50% of the 11-year solar cycle),
the 14-MHz band closes down for propagation in the early evening. A radio amateur wishing to
continue communication must shift to a lower frequency band. The next most highly used band
below the 14-MHz band is the 7-MHz amateur band. Fig 7 portrays a 7-MHz case for another
transmitting site, this time from San Francisco, California, to the European continent. Now, the
range of necessary elevation angles is from about 1° to 16°, with a peak statistical likelihood of
about 16% occurring at an elevation of 3°. At this low elevation angle, a 7-MHz antenna must be
very high in the air to be effective. Even the 120-foot antenna is hardly optimal for the peak
angle of 3°. The 200-foot antenna shown would be far better than a 120-foot antenna. Further,
the 35-foot high antenna is greatly inferior to the other antennas on this path and would provide
far less capabilities, on both receiving and transmitting.

Fig 7—Comparison of antenna responses for another
propagation path: from San Francisco to Europe on
7 MHz. Here, even a 120-foot high antenna is hardly
optimal for the very low elevation angles required on
this very long path. In fact, the 200-foot high antenna is
far better suited for this path.
What If the Ground Isn’t Flat?
In the preceding discussion, antenna radiation patterns were computed for antennas located
over flat ground. Things get much more complicated when the exact local terrain surrounding a
tower and antenna are taken into account. In the last few years, sophisticated ray-tracing
computer models have become available that can calculate the effect that local terrain has on the
elevation patterns for real-world HF installations—and each real-world situation is indeed
Page 11
For simplicity, first consider an antenna on the top of a hill with a constant slope downward.
The general effect is to lower the effective elevation angle by an amount equal to the downslope
of the hill. For example, if the downslope is −3° for a long distance away from the tower and the
flat-ground peak elevation angle is 10° (due to the height of the antenna), then the net result will
be 10°− 3° = 7° peak angle. However, if the local terrain is rough, with many bumps and valleys
in the desired direction, the response can be modified considerably. Fig 8 shows the fairly
complicated terrain profile for Jan Carman, K5MA, in the direction of Japan. Jan is located on
one of the tallest hills in West Falmouth, Massachusetts. Within 500 feet of his tower is a small
hill with a water tower on the top, and then the ground quickly falls away, so that at a distance of
about 3000 feet from the tower base, the elevation has fallen to sea level, at 0 feet.

Fig 8—Terrain profile from location of K5MA, Jan
Carman, in West Falmouth, MA, towards Japan. This
is a moderately complicated real-world terrain on one
of the highest hills on Cape Cod.
The computed responses toward Japan from this location, using a 120- and a 70-foot high
Yagi, are shown in Fig 9, overlaid for comparison with the response for a 120-foot Yagi over flat
ground. Over this particular terrain, the elevation pattern for the 70-foot antenna is actually better
than that of the 120-foot antenna for angles below about 3°, but not for medium angles! The
responses for each height oscillate around the pattern for flat ground  all due to the complex
reflections and diffractions occurring off the terrain.
At an elevation angle of 5°, the situation reverses itself and the gain is now higher for the
120-foot-high antenna than for the 70-foot antenna. A pair of antennas on one tower would be
required to cover all the angles properly. To avoid any electrical interactions between similar
antennas on one tower, two towers would be much better. Compared to the flat-ground situation,
the responses of real-world antenna can be very complicated due to the interactions with the
local terrain.
Page 12

Fig 9—Computed elevation responses of 120- and 70-foot
high Yagis, at the K5MA location on Cape Cod, in the
direction of Japan and over flat ground, for comparison.
The elevation response of the real-world antenna has
been significantly modified by the local terrain.
Fig 10 shows the situation for the same Cape Cod location, but now for 7 MHz. Again, it is
clear that the 120-foot high Yagi is superior by at least 3 dB (equivalent to twice the power) to
the 70-foot high antenna at the statistical elevation angle of 6°. However, the response of the
real-world 120-foot high antenna is still up some 2 dB from the response for an identical antenna
over flat ground at this angle. On this frequency, the local terrain has helped boost the gain at the
medium angles more than a similar antenna 120 feet over flat ground. The gain is even greater at
lower angles, say at 1° elevation, where most signals take off, statistically speaking. Putting the
antenna up higher, say 150 feet, will help the situation at this location, as would adding an
additional Yagi at the 70-foot level and feeding both antennas in phase as a vertical stack.
Although the preceding discussion has been in terms of the transmitting antenna, the same
principles apply when the antenna is used for reception. A high antenna will receive low-angle
signals more effectively than will a low antenna. Indeed, amateur operators know very well that
“If you can’t hear them, you can’t talk to them.” Stations with tall towers can usually hear far
better than their counterparts with low installations.
The situation becomes even more difficult for the next lowest amateur band at 3.5 MHz,
where optimal antenna heights for effective long-range communication become truly heroic!
Towers that exceed 120 feet are commonplace among amateurs wishing to do serious 3.5-MHz
long-distance work.
Page 13

Fig 10—Elevation response on 7 MHz from K5MA
location towards Japan on 7 MHz. The 120-foot high
Yagi is definitely superior to the one only 70-feet high.
The 3.5 and 7-MHz amateur bands are, however, not always used strictly for long-range
work. Both bands are crucial for providing communications throughout a local area, such as
might be necessary in times of a local emergency. For example, earthquakes, tornadoes and
hurricanes have often disrupted local communications—because telephone and power lines are
down and because local police and fire-department VHF/UHF repeaters are thus knocked out of
action. Radio amateurs often will use the 3.5 and 7-MHz bands to provide communications out
beyond the local area affected by the disaster, perhaps into the next county or the next
metropolitan area. For example, an earthquake in San Francisco might see amateurs using
emergency power providing communications through amateurs in Oakland across the San
Francisco Bay, or even as far away as Los Angeles or Sacramento. These places are where
commercial power and telephone lines are still intact, while most power and telephones might be
down in San Francisco itself. Similarly, a hurricane that selectively destroys certain towns on
Cape Cod might find amateurs in these towns using 3.5 or 7.0 MHz to contact their counterparts
in Boston or New York.
However, in order to get the emergency messages through, amateurs must have effective
antennas. Most such relatively local emergency situations require towers of moderate height, less
than about 100 feet tall typically.
Antenna Height and Interference
Extensive Federal Regulations cover the subject of interference to home electronic devices. It
is an unfortunate fact of life, however, that many home electronic devices (such as stereos, TVs,
telephones and VCRs) do not meet the Federal standards. They are simply inadequately designed
to be resistant to RF energy in their vicinity. Thus, a perfectly legal amateur-radio transmitter
may cause interference to a neighbor’s VCR or TV because cost-saving shortcuts were taken in
Page 14
the design and manufacture of these home entertainment devices. Unfortunately, it is difficult to
explain to an irate neighbor why his brand-new $1000 stereo is receiving the perfectly legitimate
transmissions by a nearby radio operator.
The potential for interference to any receiving device is a function of the transmitter power,
transmitter frequency, receiver frequency, and most important of all, the proximity of the
transmitter to the potential receiver. The transmitted field intensity decreases as the inverse
square of the distance. This means that doubling the height of an antenna from 35 to 70 feet will
reduce the potential for interference by 75%. Doubling the height again to 140 feet high would
reduce the potential another 75%. Higher is better to prevent interference in the first place!
Recently enacted Federal Regulations address the potential for harm to humans because of
exposure to electromagnetic fields. Amateur-radio stations rarely have problems in this area,
because they use relatively low transmitting power levels and intermittent duty cycles compared
to commercial operations, such as TV or FM broadcast stations. Nevertheless, the potential for
RF exposure is again directly related to the distance separating the transmitting antenna and the
human beings around it. Again, doubling the height will reduce potential exposure by 75%. The
higher the antenna, the less there will any potential for significant RF exposure.
It should be pretty clear by now that designing scientifically valid communication systems is
an enormously complex subject. The main complications come from the vagaries of the medium
itself, the Earth’s ionosphere. However, local terrain can considerably complicate the analysis
The main points of this paper may be summarized briefly:
The radiation elevation angle is the key factor determining effective
communication distances beyond line-of-sight. Antenna height is the
primary variable under control of the station builder, since antenna
height affects the angle of radiation.
In general, placing an amateur antenna system higher in the air
enhances communication capabilities and also reduces chances for
electromagnetic interference with neighbors.
Page 15

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Those New QST Propagation
With LUF curves now shown in the monthly graphs, you can
intelligently choose the bands and the times of day for the best
probable propagation conditions to the DX areas of your choice.
By Jerry Hall, K1TD
Associate Technical Editor (Retired)
181 Brimfield Rd
Wethersfield, CT 06109-3309
eginning with this issue, the propagation-
prediction graphs appearing
in the How’s DX? column convey
some different information than has appeared
in the past. You should find the new
information very helpful when you’re
choosing the bands and the times to use
during a contest, for going after that DX
country you’ve been trying to snag, for
making a schedule, or for just making a
general contact with a particular distant
As anyone who frequently uses the HF
bands knows, propagation conditions
change with the time of day and often from
one day to the next. Propagation also
changes from month to month and with the
so-called 11-year solar cycle. Soon we’ll
see the close of Solar Cycle 22, which began
in September 1986; present indications
are that it will bottom out and end late in
1995 or sometime in 1996. With the decline
in solar activity, band openings on 10,
12 and 15 meters will become fewer and
farther between. During the solar minimum,
bands at the higher end of the HF
spectrum may never come alive for weeks
on end. In these coming times, information
from QST’s How’s DX? charts will help
answer the recurring question, “Is the band
dead, or is there just no one out there transmitting?”
Propagation Predictions
Short-term changes in propagation cannot
be accurately predicted far in advance,
and that’s where listening to WWV or
WWVH will bring you up to date on current
conditions. How to use that information
is discussed in more detail later in this
article. Long-term changes—variances
with month and with the level of solar activity—
are taken into account by each of
many computer programs that are available.
IONCAP, one of the most sophisticated
programs, is used at ARRL Headquarters
to prepare the How’s DX? charts.1
1Notes appear on page 30.

Figure 1—Curves showing propagation
probabilities from Mid-USA to Central Asia
during the period from mid-October to mid-
November 1994. The vertical axis
indicates frequency in MHz, and the
horizontal axis, Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC). The curves at A (HPF/median
MUF/FOT) are those appearing in
previous issues of QST, while those at B
(HPF/median MUF/LUF) appear beginning
with this issue. See text for details on
these and other changes.
All IONCAP results are based on probabilities.
Propagation charts have appeared in
QST since January 1977.2 See Figure 1A,
depicting the style of charts that were
adopted in September 1977. This chart
shows propagation estimations for the path
from Mid-USA (Kansas City) to Central
Table 1
Path Terminal Points

table with 2 columns and 15 rows
General Location
Actual Location*
West Coast
San Francisco, CA
Kansas City, MO
East Coast
Washington, DC
South America
Asuncion, Paraguay
Central Asia
New Delhi, India
Southern Africa
Lusaka, Zambia
Western Europe
London, England
Eastern Europe
Kiev, Ukraine
South Pacific
Pago Pago, Samoa
San Juan, Puerto Rico
table end

*Latitudes and longitudes used for the actual
locations are those appearing in Table 4-3 of
The ARRL Operating Manual, 4th edition.
Asia (New Delhi, India). The uppermost
curve shows the highest possible frequency
or HPF. Based on probabilities, the ionosphere
will support these frequencies on
10% of the days of the propagation period,
or about 3 days of the mid-October to mid-
November prediction period. The middle
curve shows the median maximum usable
frequency or median MUF. The ionosphere
will likely support these frequencies on
50% of the days, about 15 days of the splitmonth
period. (A word of caution here:
Don’t be misled when the word median is
dropped in referring to this curve, as is often
done. The median or 50% MUF is not
the same as the true MUF, which is the
maximum frequency that will be propagated
via the ionosphere between the two
end-points of a given path at a given time.)
The lower curve in Figure 1A shows the
frequency of optimum transmission or
FOT. Propagation at these frequencies will
probably be supported by the ionosphere
for 90% of the days, about 27 days of the
period. By implication, you should almost
be guaranteed a QSO if you attempt con-
From October 1994 QST© ARRL
tacts at times and frequencies indicated by
the FOT curve, right? This is the “optimum”
frequency, so how can you go
wrong? Let’s follow up on this idea while
referring to Figure 1A; it looks as if a great
opportunity to work Central Asia from
Mid-USA is on 40 meters between 0400
and 1000 UTC (10 PM to 4 AM CST). The
FOT curve is relatively flat during this time
period, and it hugs the broken line representing
the 40-meter amateur band all the
Lowest Usable Frequency, the LUF
But have we overlooked something? Is
40 meters from 0400 to 1000 really the best
choice of band and time? As we’ll see
shortly, NO! (Actually, it’s about the worst
choice!) Why is this? To comprehend the
reason, we need to understand that the three
curves of Figure 1A tell us only that, based
on probabilities, the various frequencies
will be supported by ionospheric propagation
when indicated. But those curves tell
us nothing of signal strengths. To get another
piece of the best-propagation puzzle,
we also need to consider the path losses
between the transmitter and the receiver. A
big contributor to losses is absorption in
the ionosphere, particularly the D region.
Some other losses are from dispersion of
the transmitted energy in space and signal
scattering at intermediate reflection and/or
refraction points. When all these losses are
added up, they can knock the signal from a
1500-W transmitter down to an S-1 level
and even lower. So while the signal may be
propagated via the ionosphere, it might be
too weak to be heard at the receiving end of
the path.
This means that at times, especially on
longer paths, signals at the FOT or “optimum”
frequency may be unusable because
of path losses. The lowest usable frequency
or LUF indicates the frequency below
which signals will be too weak to be usable.
The LUF may be calculated by taking many
variable factors into account, such as all
the path losses, the transmitter power, the
transmitting and receiving antenna gains,
the noise level at the receiver site, and even
the bandwidth of the signal. To illustrate
how some of these variables affect the LUF,
consider that a weak signal from a 1.5-kW
transmitter can get through the noise at
times when the signal from a 1.5-W rig
would never make it. Similarly, a CW signal
will often get through the noise when an
SSB signal will not.3
The New QST Charts
IONCAP and a few other computer programs
support LUF calculations by taking
all the path losses and many other variable
factors into account. Figure 1B shows the
new style for the QST charts. You’ll see
right away that the FOT curve of Figure 1A
has been replaced by a heavy broken line.
This is the LUF curve, shown as heavy and
broken for distinction. The chart of Figure
Table 2
Parameters Used for IONCAP Calculations
Transmitter power: 1500 W
Antennas at each end of the path:
Data is read from an external binary antenna file created especially for preparing these
QST propagation charts. The data is based on dipole and Yagi antenna elevation
patterns, modified for a constant gain at elevation angles above the peak response of
the lowest lobe in the patterns. (Of course the peak angle changes with frequency and
with antenna height.) The constant-gain characteristic at the higher angles avoids
“holes” in the data that occur because of nulls in the patterns of real antennas. From the
standpoint of gain and antenna height, this file emulates 8 separate monoband
The basic antennas for each amateur band are:
80, 40 and 30 m: Horizontal half-wave dipoles, 100 ft high
20 and 17 m: 3-element Yagis, free-space gain 5.5 dBd, 100 ft high
15, 12 and 10 m: 4-element Yagis, free-space gain 7 dBd, 60 ft high
Ground characteristics at each end of path: “Average” ground
Dielectric constant: 13
Conductivity: 5 millisiemens per meter
Minimum radiation angle: 1.0°
Manmade noise level in a 1-Hz bandwidth at 3 MHz at receiver site:
–148 dBW (typical for rural areas)
Required reliability: 50%, half the days of the month
Required SNR: 30 dB, for CW bandwidth (10 log 100 + 10 = 30). For SSB the required
SNR would be 10 log 2100 + 10 = 43 dB, 13 dB higher.
1B is actually one of the 30 How’s DX?
charts appearing in this issue, but shown at
a larger size. At first the curves that cross
over each other in Figure 1B may appear
confusing, but the explanation that follows
should eliminate any confusion.
To use the new charts effectively, it is
important to keep one thing in mind—the
old adage that frequencies slightly below
the MUF are always the best to use. That’s
because the signals are reflected back at
shallow angles from the ionosphere, giving
them a longer skip distance, and because
they suffer the least absorption, yielding
stronger signals. Depending on the day-today
propagation conditions, the actual
MUF may be near the HPF curve of the
chart, it may be near the median-MUF
curve of the chart, or it may be below the
chart’s median-MUF curve.
If you go lower in frequency from the
actual MUF, the path losses increase, and
with this the received signals will become
weaker (all else being held equal). The
lower you go in frequency, the weaker the
signals become, until eventually you reach
the LUF. This means that there is a frequency
window for making contacts on a
given path at a given time. That window
includes all frequencies between the MUF
and the LUF.
As propagation changes during the day
the frequency window changes, and often
even closes for a time on the longer paths.
This happens when the MUF equals or goes
below the LUF, indicated by a crossover
of the curves. When the frequency window
is closed, it will be difficult or impossible
to make contacts on any frequency. In
Figure 1B the median MUF goes below
the LUF during two time periods, 0300 to
1100 and 1700 to 1900 UTC. So now, what
about 40 meters between 0400 and 1000,
as we originally selected from Figure 1A?
No good at all, as we can now realize from
Figure 1B! The LUF is higher than the
median MUF for the entire period. It’d be
better to get some sleep, and try at another
As the MUF depends on day-to-day
propagation conditions, so does the LUF.
As solar activity increases, so do path
losses from absorption, and the lowest usable
frequency becomes higher. In other
words, on exceptionally good days when
propagation conditions support the HPF,
the LUF will also rise somewhat. So the
frequency windows can shift up and down
as propagation conditions change from one
day to the next. But the MUF and the LUF
do not always “track” each other. Another
factor that greatly affects the LUF is the
earth’s geomagnetic activity, indicated by
the K and A indices broadcast by WWV
and WWVH. As these values increase, the
LUF also increases. The QST charts assume
the earth’s geomagnetic activity is low.
QSO Windows
Refer again to Figure 1B. With the preceding
information, we now see that on an
average propagation day there will be two
frequency windows during the forecast
month for the Mid-USA to Central Asia
path, from 1100 to 1600 and from 1900 to
0300 UTC. With the new charts, finding
the best times and amateur bands for making
schedules or for seeking DX contacts is
simply a matter of selecting a big frequency
window from the chart (a large separation
From October 1994 QST© ARRL

Figure 2—Curves showing propagation
probabilities from Hawaii to the West
Coast for mid-October to mid-November.
The horizontal axis indicates Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC) and the vertical axis
frequency in MHz. The curves at A show
HPF/median MUF/FOT, while B shows the
new chart style with HPF/median MUF/
LUF curves. Note in B that the frequency
window is open around the clock. See text
for determining the FOT from the new
chart style.
between the median-MUF and the LUF
curves) and choosing the band nearest the
median MUF—a QSO window, if you will.
We see in Figure 1B that on average there
will be a brief 20-meter band opening
around 1400 UTC. (On exceptionally good
days this may develop into a 17-meter band
opening from 1400 to 1800.) We also see
that the chances for a 30-meter band opening
are good from 2200 to 0200 UTC. The
best propagation during the 24-hour period
is likely to be during the brief 20-meter
QSO window at 1400, as the LUF is below
12 MHz.
If you’re looking for a longer QSO window,
then try 30 meters from 2300 to 2400;
the median MUF is not far above 10 MHz
and the predicted LUF is below 9 MHz. If
you are making a schedule, it’d be wise to
have alternative bands to allow for shortterm
propagation changes. Twenty meters
between 2300 and 2400 would be a good
second choice, as the HPF is above the
20-meter frequencies.
Among all the charts in the How’s DX?
column you’ll see several paths where the
frequency window is open all day long. The
Hawaii to West Coast path is one example,
shown in Figure 2B. Choosing the best band
for use at a particular time of day is simple;
just take the one nearest the median-MUF
curve, keeping in mind that day-to-day
changes may have some effect.
FOT Values from the New Charts
Just because the FOT curves will no
longer be appearing in QST, you should not
assume the FOT information has no value.
Indeed, the FOT will almost always provide
consistent “armchair copy” on short
paths, and on any path when the FOT is
significantly above the LUF. The FOT information
is very helpful in point-to-point
communication where 90% or higher reliability
is required. Say that you live on the
West Coast (San Francisco) and want to
maintain continuous reliable contact with
Hawaii (Honolulu) for an extended period
of time. Figure 2 shows the probabilities
for this path. Figure 2B indicates the frequency
window is open all day long with
the LUF significantly below the median
MUF, so amateur bands near the FOT
would be a wise choice.
Even though the FOT data is not included
in the new chart, you can still obtain
FOT values to a good approximation by
taking 80% of the median MUF.4 For example,
note the median MUF in Figure 2B
at 0600 UTC. The value there is 13.0 MHz.
Taking 80%, FOT = 13.0 ´ 0.8 = 10.4 MHz.
For comparison of this result, see the
FOT value plotted in Figure 2A. At
0600, IONCAP predicts the FOT will be
Let’s look at another time, 1600 UTC.
The median MUF is 14.0 MHz. The approximation
is FOT = 14.0 ´ 0.8 = 11.2
MHz, whereas the value from IONCAP is
about 11.5 MHz. Although there may be
some slight difference between this approximation
and more precise calculations,
the appropriate amateur band should be
easy to discern from the approximations.
For this path, Hawaii to West Coast, the
FOT results indicate the 30-meter band
should provide communications for at least
90% or 27 days of the prediction period
from about 0400 to 1600 UTC.
Specific Path Terminal Points
The 30 charts in the How’s DX? column
cover as many paths as possible within a
reasonable amount of page space for all the
readers of QST. For a particular geographic
area, the number of those to use is reduced.
If you’re in the western, central or eastern
part of the US you’ll find charts to South
America, Central Asia, Southern Africa,
Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan
and Australia. There are two charts to South
Pacific from the US, Mid-USA and East
Coast, and one chart from the West Coast
to the Caribbean. In addition, there are two
charts for Alaska showing probabilities for
the East Coast and Western Europe, and
three charts for Hawaii to the West Coast,
East Coast, and Western Europe. A chart
for the East Coast to West Coast completes
the set.
In earlier issues of QST a chart was included
for the West Coast to the South
Pacific. Beginning with this issue, that
chart has been replaced by the popular path,
Hawaii to the West Coast. If you are interested
in data for the the West Coast to the
South Pacific, you can linearly interpolate
the sets of curves for Hawaii to the West
Coast and the West Coast to Australia. The
results will be quite accurate, as the bearings
are essentially identical and Pago Pago
(the South Pacific terminal point) is very
close to being halfway between Hawaii and
Another change in the charts is the terminal
point in Australia. Now the charts
use Sydney, rather than the former
Melbourne. This change better covers New
Zealand, and also facilitates the interpolation
for West Coast to South Pacific, mentioned
in the previous paragraph. Another
minor change is a name change only for the
path from the Caribbean to the West Coast,
formerly shown as Puerto Rico to the West
From these statements it becomes obvious
that the labels for the charts give generalized
geographic areas. The actual locations
for all terminal points are listed in
Table 1. If you are located some distance
from an actual terminal point, you can make
some correction based on latitude. The general
rule is that the higher the latitude, the
lower will be the median MUF.
The results from all IONCAP calculations
pertain to a calendar month that is
specified when the program is run. Because
the QST prediction period straddles two
calendar months, some extra steps are taken
at ARRL Headquarters to provide information
for the QSTprediction period. Two sets
of calculations are run—one for the first
calendar month and one for the second. The
means of the results (averages, in common
parlance) from the two months are then
used to prepare the charts.
The technical data that goes into
IONCAP for the calculations are summarized
in Table 2. The legal power limit
(1500 W) for the calculations is used, not
because everyone will be running this
power, but because the LUF can be adjusted
upward for lower levels. Similarly for the
antenna gains; the LUF can be adjusted
upward if you have antennas with lower
gains than those used for the calculations,
or adjusted downward if you have super
antennas with greater gains.
Short-Term Propagation Changes
As mentioned previously, the actual
MUF may be near the HPF curve of the
chart, it may be near the median-MUF
curve of the chart, or it may be below
the chart’s median-MUF curve. To get a
report of current propagation conditions,
listen to the WWV propagation broadcasts
at 18 minutes past the hour or WWVH
From October 1994 QST© ARRL
at 45 minutes past.5 Daily observed
2800-MHz solar flux values are given in
the broadcasts. Compare this number with
that in the caption for the How’s DX?
curves. If the flux number for the day is
higher than that used to prepare the charts,
the frequency windows will generally shift
to higher frequencies. The higher frequency
bands will usually open earlier and
close later than predicted. Conversely, if
the daily flux value is lower than that used
for the charts, the frequency windows will
be lower; the higher frequencies will open
later and close earlier than indicated.
Higher frequency bands showing only brief
openings in the charts may not open at all.
Also pay attention to the A and K indices,
indicators of the Earth’s geomagnetic
activity as measured at Boulder, Colorado.
The A index is calculated from the previous
day’s K index values,6 so it tells you
mainly how yesterday was. As the A index
rises, so does the LUF. The K index is updated
every 3 hours in the WWV/WWVH
broadcasts. The absolute values are meaningful,
with values of 3 or 4 and above indicating
unsettled geomagnetic conditions,
but the trend of the 3-hour periods also
conveys useful information. Rising values
mean the LUF will be going higher still,
while falling values mean the LUF will be
Another way to learn about current
propagation conditions is to spend a few
moments tuning the bands and comparing
what you hear against appropriate charts in
QST. Observations for paths to not-too-dis
tant locations from your area can be applied
to the really long-haul paths. Listen
for areas where there is usually a lot of
amateur activity.
If a chart says you should have a good
QSO window to an area less than roughly
5000 miles away and signals are booming
in from that area, this means conditions at
the time are close to those predicted in the
charts. On the other hand, if you hear only
a few weak signals from there, chances are
that the LUF is higher than predicted. If
you hear no signals at all from there, then
either the LUF is significantly higher or
else the MUF is lower than predicted. A
way to help determine which is to listen on
the next-higher frequency band. If you hear
any signals from the same area on this band,
then the LUF is higher; if you again hear
nothing from the area, the MUF could be
lower, but also the LUF could be considerably
higher because of geomagnetic activity.
This all assumes the QST chart indicates
a good QSO window. If you hear very
little or no activity on any bands at times
when the charts indicate good QSO windows,
then the LUF is considerably higher
than predicted.
In Summary
With the LUF curves present in the
monthly How’s DX? charts, it’s easy to see
the very best times and bands for making
schedules or for seeking DX contacts—just
pick the time when the widest gap or frequency
window exists between the MUF
and the LUF curves (with the LUF curve on
the bottom!), and choose the band nearest
the MUF.
It’s also easy to see what paths will be
difficult, no matter what the time of day or
what band is used. Knowing when none of
the amateur bands may be usable becomes
important on the longer paths.
Is the band dead, or is there simply no
activity? With QST’s new monthly propagation
charts and a knowledge of current
propagation conditions, now you can determine
the answer to that question.
1IONCAP was written by the Institute for Telecommunication
Sciences and its predecessors
in the US Department of Commerce. For
more information see J. Hall, “Propagation
Predictions and Personal Computers,” Technical
Correspondence, QST, Dec 1990, pp
2See D. Sumner, “Chart Your Way to Better
DX,” QST, Jan 1977, pp 58-60. (HPF curves
were not included during the first 8 months of
chart appearance in QST.)
3For additional information on the LUF and
some practical examples, see J. Hall, “Propagation
Predictions for HF—A New Look,”
QST, Feb 1992, pp 48-50.
4The rule for earlier manual methods of predicting
propagation was to take 85% of the predicted
MUF to obtain the FOT, but taking 80%
of the median MUF from the QST charts produces
results closer to those of IONCAP.
5For additional information on interpreting the
data from the broadcasts, see R. Healy,
“Propagation Broadcasts and Forecasts
Demystified,” QST, Nov 1991, pp 20-24.
6G. Jacobs and T. J. Cohen, The Shortwave
Propagation Handbook, 2nd ed. (Hicksville,
NY: CQ Publishing, Inc, 1982), p 110.

From October 1994 QST© ARRL

Post 256 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Saturday, 31-May-2008 19:56:07

An Analysis of Stress in Guy-Wire
Systems (Mar/Apr 2006)
On page 42 of my article, the pressure on
a round cross-section is defined as
P = 0.0025 V2. I shouldn¡¯t have stated that
FW = Area ¡Á Pressure ¡Á Coefficient of Drag
= WW ¡Á RD ¡Á P ¡Á Cd, since the coefficient
of drag (0.0025) is already incorporated into
the pressure value. In fact, that is true wherever
the pressure appears in an equation. The
attendant computer program is correct.
In an equation on page 43, one character
was omitted. The equation is dT = y ¡Á dF = y
¡Á P ¡Á dA = lever arm ¡Á pressure ¡Á width ¡Á y
(the last term should be dy rather than y). I
missed that on the proof copy.
73, Bill Rynone, Ph.D., P.E., PO Box 4445, Annapolis, MD, 21403
RF Power Amplifier Output
Impedance Revisited
(Jan/Feb 2005; Letters, Mar/Apr 2006)
Hello Doug,
This letter is in response to your challenge
to the readers of Letters to the Editor in the
March/April issue of QEX, and to the two contributors
in that issue debating the topic of RF
power amplifier output impedance for solidstate
PAs, that certain assertions previously
advanced on these pages remain unchallenged,
and that further experiments are needed. I
would like to remind you that an overwhelming
series of experiments to convince readers
that when a PA tuned for maximum power
output, and operating within the design recommendations
by the manufacturer of the
tubes used, is indeed conjugately matched to
its load.1 My response refers to your comments
on the load variation method to measure the
output impedance of a power amplifier, refuted
by Warren Bruene, W5OLY, ¡°Letters to the
Editor¡±, Jan/Feb 2001 QEX, pp 59-61.
I do not intend to rebut that letter. My purpose
is to convince you that Mr. Bruene is
wrong, based on experiments previously reported.
Tom Rauch, W8JI, (a co-author of the
referenced paper) improved the test procedure
devised by W5OLY, which is involved
with feeding a small reverse generator signal
back into an operating amplifier via a
high-power attenuator, and measuring the
reverse generator¡¯s voltage level along a
50-ohm transmission line. This test once
again agreed with the results I obtained using
the test setup identical to Mr. Bruene¡¯s,
but the new test¡¯s ability to determine the
direction of change resulted in conclusions
very much contrary to Bruene¡¯s earlier measurements.
Mr. Rauch¡¯s measurements revealed that,
for some 14 amplifiers of widely varying types,
maximum efficiency could be obtained by tuning
the output network while solely observing
the reverse mismatch change! As the tank network
was adjusted to present a 50-¦¸ load to
the reverse power generator (reverse generator
voltage equal at every point along the
50-¦¸ line), maximum efficiency and output
power was obtained. As a matter of record,
Rauch noted it was much more difficult to obtain
optimum efficiency using the meters on
the amplifier and the power output indicator
than it was by watching the mismatch for the
reverse power generator (RPG).
Amplifier output impedance (referenced to
the output terminals of the PA) is certainly nondissipative;
power generated is available for
transfer. Assuming a low-loss transmission
line, the impedance of the transmission line is
a non-dissipative impedance. The antenna
itself has a measured (or calculated) input impedance,
which for efficient antennas is a nondissipative
impedance. Power is not absorbed
by the resistive component of this impedance,
power input to the antenna is transferred to the
propagation medium. Finally, since the input
impedance of antenna systems measured at the
input to the transmission line feeding the antenna
is generally not a resistive impedance
equal to 50 ¦¸, an antenna system tuning unit
(ASTU) is used, the purpose of which is to
provide a conjugate at the output terminals of
the ASTU, and hence a conjugate match referenced
to the input terminals (the transmitter
side of the ASTU).
John S. (Jack) Belrose, VE2CV, ARRL Technical Advisor,
Hi Jack,
Thanks for your letter. We had to shorten
it a bit so we could focus on two fundamental
assertions you mention that appear to us
to be mutually incompatible.
You¡¯ve consistently stated that maximum
power transfer occurs when a conjugate match
is achieved. Yet, you indicate that under the
conditions you claim to constitute such a
match, no power is dissipated at the tube end
of a network from the reverse power injected
during the Bruene experiment (non-dissipative
resistance), even though Mr. Rauch measures
the s22 of the amplifier to be 50 + j0 ¦¸.
In that case, you imply on the one hand
that no power transfer is occurring from load
to source and on the other, that no reflections
occur anywhere. We just don¡¯t see how you
can have it both ways.
Were amplifier output impedance com
pletely non-dissipative, you would not measure
an s22 of 50 + j0 ¦¸. You would instead
measure a pure reactance. If you say that the
s22 isn¡¯t the same as the amplifier output impedance,
then you don¡¯t have a conjugate
match by definition.
Doug Smith, KF6DX, QEX Editor,
In Search of New Receiver
Performance Paradigms
(Empirical Outlook, May/June 2006)
Dear Doug:
Your plaints concerning measured IMD
shortcomings are well understood if not
widely recognized. More specifically:
The voltage gain of nonlinear, black-box
components (such as receivers, transmitters,
A/D converters, etc) can be expanded in a
power series when input level does not cause
significant change in component operating
point. For typical low-distortion components,
that power series can often be truncated, retaining
terms only up to the third order.
Straightforward trigonometric expansions of
two-tone response then yield the often useful
concepts of second- and third-order ¡°intercept
points.¡± These points permit a rapid
estimation of useful black-box dynamic
range. It is quite easy to show that these estimates
are seriously in error when:
1) More than two sinusoids are applied to
the input (complex waveforms, multiple interferers,
2) Truncated terms above third order are
significant (such as A/D converters, class-C
transmitters, etc).
3) Black-box operating point is a function
of input level.
In those instances, detailed and often messy
calculations are required, based upon both the
actual voltage-gain function and the phase relationships
among the multiple input
sinsusoids. I know of no simple ways of overcoming
these inherent drawbacks to the use of
IMD in characterizing black-box performance.
Neal Eddy,
Hi Neal,
Thanks for your comments. My main
point, of course, was that we continue to report
figures that don¡¯t comply with the defining
equation. Something has to give.
Doug Smith, KF6DX, QEX Editor,
1J. S. Belrose, W. Maxwell and C. T. Rauch,
¡°Source Impedance of HF Tuned Power
Amplifiers and the Conjugate Match,¡±
Fall 1997 Communications Quarterly,
pp 25 - 40.

Jul/Aug 2006 61
Measuring Height With a Poor Man¡¯s
Gizmo (Tech Notes, May/June 2006)
Last week, I mused (honestly!) about the
many times I have heard hams state the
heights of their antennas. All of them apparently
used the elusive ¡°eyeball algorithm¡± to
establish their measurements. I¡¯ve never
heard anyone say that the height was measured
with an instrument of known accuracy.
Kudos to William Rynone and QEX for
the ¡°Poor Man¡¯s Gizmo.¡± Print and sell a
bunch of reprints and publicize the gizmo in
QST and on the ARRL Web site. Finally, reflect
on the wisdom of Henry St. John (1716):
¡°Truth lies within a little and certain compass,
but error is immense.¡±
73 de Jim Olsen, Jr, W3KMM,
Uniform Current Loop Radiators
(May/June 2006)
NP4B has written an interesting article.
What a novel idea to segment a piece of twinlead
like this ¡ª very clever. I don¡¯t think the
theoretical explanation is correct though.
First, the sinusoidal distribution of current
along a conventional wire antenna is not due
to wire inductance as the article says. It is due
to propagation delay, and reflection from the
ends of the wire in the case of a dipole. The
current distribution is a standing wave along
the antenna, caused by the interaction of forward
and reverse waves. That is covered in The
ARRL Antenna Book and elsewhere.
Also, the model for the segmented line
shown in Figure 2B doesn¡¯t seem to be correct.
It appears that the inductors represent the
alternating wire segments and the capacitors
represent the overlap between the segments.
The overlap is almost the entire portion of the
line, however, and not only is there capacitance
in this region but the wires are magnetically
coupled, too. For the entire overlap, in fact,
the structure remains the original transmission
line with its original distributed capacitive and
inductive coupling between the wires.
I think the model for the segmented line
is more complex than the author has indicated.
The results are interesting and obviously
the antenna works, but I don¡¯t think
the explanation is correct.
Gerrit Barrere, KJ7KV,
Dear Doug,
I accept the criticism of KJ7KV on my
simplistic explanation as due to wire inductance
alone. The model of Figure 2B is a
lumped model of a distributed system. The

Figure 1 ¡ª Detailed EZNEC modeling of the uniform current loop antenna with closely
spaced overlapping wire segments. For ease of modeling, eight sections are used in this
model.The driving source is in the center (current maximum) of element #1.

Figure 2 ¡ª This diagram shows how a resonant section of the loop is split in the center
to accept the feed line.
complete distributed system has been modeled
on EZNEC as in Figure 1 of this
letter. Note the (essentially) triangular distribution
of current on each wire segment;
summing the current in adjacent wires yields
a net uniform current, as proposed and realized.
While KJ7KV is technically correct in that
the wire segments are also magnetically
coupled, this coupling is lower than the electrical
coupling by a factor of ¦Ì0 (approximately)
and may be ignored.
I look forward to further discussion in QEX
regarding this antenna.
By the way, my article contained an error
in Figure 9, the SWR plot. The vertical scale
should be corrected to run from 1.0 to 6.0.
Also, several readers wrote to ask how the
feed line is connected and where. Figure 2 in
this letter shows how a resonant section is split
in two to accept the feed line.
73, Bob Zimmerman, NP4B,
Dual Directional Wattmeters (May/
June 2006)
There were a few minor errors in my
DDW article, and I would like to issue a correction
or clarification in an upcoming issue.
In Figure 6B the wattmeter readings
should have been 43.5 W and 143.5 W for
PREF and PFWRD, and in Figure 6C they should
read 5.5 W and 105.5 W.
In Figures A1, A2, and A3, I used an alternate
notation for the forward and reverse
voltage with V+ used for VFWD and V¨C for
73, Eric von Valtier, K8LV,

62 Jul/Aug 2006

Post 257 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Saturday, 31-May-2008 19:59:45

Youth@HamRadio.Fun: Jamboree On The Air 2001!

By Brian Mileshosky, N5ZGT
Contributing Editor
October 2, 2001

Scouting's major Amateur Radio event--Jamboree On The Air--is the weekend of October 20-21. It's a great opportunity for amateurs to expose young people
to ham radio.

2001 JOTA Patch/Logo

Logo and patch design of the 2001 Jamboree On The Air

Amateur Radio operators, clubs, scout groups (Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Cub Scouts, Brownies and all other scout groups around the globe) and thousands of
youth not yet involved in scouting are gearing up for Amateur Radio's best opportunity to expose our awesome hobby to the younger generations! This all
takes place in an event called Jamboree On The Air--or JOTA.

The purpose of Jamboree On The Air is to teach youth all about Amateur Radio through fun activities, including allowing them to contact other young people
all over the world on the various bands and modes we enjoy. Ultimately, I believe this event should leave younger participants wanting to study and get
their own Amateur Radio license!

Jamboree On The Air 2001 always takes place on the third weekend of October. This year's event will begin at 0001 local time on Saturday, October 20, and
continue through 2359 local time Sunday, October 21. As many as 400,000 Scouts, Scout leaders and other young people took to the bands during the 2000
Jamboree On The Air, and more are bound to do the same this year!

We need to point out that JOTA is not a contest. There are no points, no scorekeeping--JOTA is just a fun, educational and relaxed weekend experience. Stations
participating should call "CQ Jamboree" (or "CQ JOTA" on CW) and answer stations doing the same. JOTA calling frequencies have been established (see JOTA
calling frequencies, below), and activity tends to cluster around those frequencies, but any frequency for which the control operator has privileges will
work too.

If you do make contact on or very close to one of the JOTA calling frequencies, however, you should move off to another clear frequency to continue your
QSO. Please be courteous and lead by example!

Youth Participants Needed for JOTA

JOTA is the perfect opportunity to expose youth to our hobby

Jamboree On The Air is the perfect opportunity to expose youth to our hobby. Mark your calendar now.

Whether or not you are a Scout or a licensed ham radio operator, you are encouraged to participate in JOTA. Imagine spending time during a weekend learning
about ham radio and what it has to offer in the way of fun and enjoyment. Imagine talking to another Scout or young person a world away and sharing ideas
and stories with him or her. Imagine meeting new and interesting people who will help you get your ham radio license afterwards, or if you are already
licensed, your upgrade.

This is what Jamboree On The Air has to offer every October. You can get involved with JOTA in your area by first calling either your Scout council office
(or equivalent) or
nearby ham radio club
and asking if they are planning on hosting JOTA in your area. If they aren't, tell them about Jamboree On The Air and ask them if they would be willing
to put together a JOTA program for the community. If they are planning to take part in JOTA, bring along all of your friends, and get ready for a great

For those who collect and trade patches, the traditional JOTA patch is available for ordering only within the United States from the Boy Scouts of America.
Each patch is $3.25 (plus applicable sales tax) and must be ordered after the event by sending a request and a check to Jamboree On The Air Patches, S221,
1325 West Walnut Hill Ln, PO Box 152079, Irving, TX 75015-2079. You and your friends or fellow scouts will certainly enjoy them for their memories.

I look forward to seeing you on the air during JOTA 2001.

Amateurs and Amateur Radio Clubs Needed for JOTA

Table with 3 columns and 9 rows
JOTA Calling Frequencies


SSB (Voice)

CW (Morse code)

80 meters

3.740/3.940 MHz

3.590 MHz

40 meters

7.270 MHz

7.030 MHz

20 meters

14.290 MHz

14.070 MHz

17 meters

18.140 MHz

18.080 MHz

15 meters

21.360 MHz

21.140 MHz

12 meters

24.960 MHz

24.910 MHz

10 meters

28.390 MHz

28.190 MHz
table end

We all know that Amateur Radio needs more young operators within its ranks. As the average age of radio operators continues to creep upward, it's becoming
more and more important to get youth involved in our hobby. Every ham and every ham club should consider this one of their priorities, and JOTA is a perfect
opportunity to follow through.

The idea behind JOTA is to give youth a positive experience with ham radio. For this to happen, those young folks need a place to go to get on the air.
This is where all hams and especially ham clubs everywhere can play a part.

There's Still Time to Get Ready!

During JOTA 2000, Donald Village, K6PBQ, in San Diego, California, entertained both Boy Scouts and these Girl Scouts at his shack, including these representatives
from Girl Scout troop 1025.

Start today (there's still time) to plan a Jamboree On The Air weekend (either one or both days) for the Scouts and youth in your area. Decide on a convenient
location for the event, which can either be at your ham shack or your club station--even outdoors. Then begin putting together activities that will be
held during JOTA. These activities can include teaching the youth about ham radio, what its uses are for fun and during times of need, letting the participants
get on the ham bands to make contacts, showing off satellite operations, transmitter hunts, ATV, APRS and digital modes, and more.

If a Scout leader is on hand, let him sign off Radio merit badge requirements for any Boy scouts on hand, as appropriate. To take it all a step further,
offer a weekend ham radio class sometime shortly after JOTA, so those fired-up youth can learn what they need to know to get their own Amateur Radio licenses.

No matter what you or your club decides to do, keep in mind that the youth are looking for nonstop fun and excitement. Try to limit the lengthy lectures,
and make sure that the youth are the ones actually getting on the air. You are there to help them make the best of their unique Amateur Radio event and
to be a guide. (Remember that international third-party traffic agreements apply when unlicensed individuals speak with individuals in other countries.
Visit the ARRL Web site for a list of countries with which the US has a
third-party agreement.
Step in as needed, but for the most part you can simply sit back and enjoy it along with your young guests. You are watching members of the future generation
of ham radio operators have the time of their lives.

The Jackson Amateur Radio Club

The Jackson Amateur Radio Club, Jackson, Mississippi, operated in 1998's JOTA as W5PFC from the Camporee site of the Eastern District, Andrew Jackson Council.
The picture shows KC5ZJE at left helping a group of Scouts work other Scouts around the country.

The next step is to promote, promote, promote. Extend an invitation to any young person you know (everyone reading this knows at least one young person).
Visit scouting units and other youth groups in your area and tell them about the fun they'll have at JOTA. You may have planned an excellent JOTA program,
but nobody will show up without good promotion.

You or your club can obtain an excellent Jamboree On The Air information packet from ARRL. Send a request to JOTA, ARRL Field and Educational Services,
225 Main St, Newington CT, 06111-1494 USA; 860-594-0200;
Some of this information is available on the
ARRL Web site.

Have Fun During JOTA!

Whether you are a young person looking forward to learning about the wonders of ham radio, or an adult getting ready to host a fun weekend for the youth,
have a great time during Jamboree On The Air! Some 400,000 others certainly will.

After JOTA 2001 has come and gone, please send the ARRL any photos and a small report of the fun you and your group had. These go to Jean Wolfgang, WB3IOS,
ARRL, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 0611;
Some of your pictures might show up in a future issue of QST or on the Web site. In addition, I'd enjoy seeing your pictures and notes about your experience
and I'll pick one or most to post in next month's

e-mail me
with your topic ideas and suggestions. I'm eager to have them. Now, I know I promised you a column on preparing a youth forum for your club or hamfest,
and I have not forgotten.

Until next time, 73.

Editor's note: ARRL Life Member Brian Mileshosky, N5ZGT, hails from Albuquerque, New Mexico. A 21-year-old senior in electrical engineering at the University
of New Mexico, he was the 1999 ARRL Hiram Percy Maxim Award winner as well as the 1997 winner of the Newsline Young Ham of the Year Award. He was first
licensed in 1992 at age 12 and holds an Amateur Extra class license. Brian enjoys CW, QRP transmitter hunting, satellite operation, digital modes and,
of course, just speaking into the microphone. He's active in the Boy Scouts of America as an assistant scoutmaster and a Vigil Honor member of the Order
of the Arrow. Brian welcomes visitors to his
Web site.
Readers may contact him via e-mail,

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 20:00:20

Salvation Army Still Needs Ham Volunteers in New York City

NEWINGTON, CT, Oct 2, 2001--Although the Salvation Army has cut one shift of radio operators to support the organization's World Trade Center relief operation
in New York City, it still needs fresh Amateur Radio volunteers. "We are still short of people," said Jeff Schneller, N2HPO--who's coordinating the Salvation
Army Team Emergency Response Network, or SATERN, operation.

Schneller said the midnight to 8 AM shift has been suspended, but SATERN still needs six Amateur Radio operators per shift--a total of 12 per day--for the
indefinite future. He said he appreciates the volunteers who have turned out so far to assist the Salvation Army effort, but those there the longest now
"are getting weary," he said.

SATERN needs operators at the Kennedy Airport warehouse with their own base station set up from about 8 AM until about 9 PM--possibly broken into shifts.
In addition, SATERN needs operators to ride with trucks to provide communication. He said the Salvation Army now has three trucks running from morning
till night. He said this effort also can be broken into shifts, but determining exact shift times is difficult because of traffic and loading and unloading
delays. "They try for 4 PM as a shift change time," he said. Operators start and end these shifts at Salvation Army Division HQ on 14th Street in Manhattan,
where SATERN also needs operators.

Schneller said that, if sufficient additional operators are available, they may be deployed to check on canteen sites and/or ride with other vehicles that
are providing Ground Zero support or relief.

"Radio usage is becoming less emergency-oriented and more long-term logistical support oriented as time goes by," Schneller said. "Response from around
the nation and the world has been heart-warming, especially those amateur operators who were willing to put their life on hold, so that they could come
help out for a few days or weeks in NYC."

Schneller said the word he has from Salvation Army is that the organization is happy with the Amateur Radio support they've been getting. "They want us
to keep going," he said. So far, he said, some 40 Amateur Radio operators have turned out to help support the Salvation Army relief effort--some from the
New York City area but others from as far away as Missouri, North Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Schneller requested that potential volunteers contact him directly:

Home: 718-461-0370

Cell : 917-226-1339

Page: 718-939-3939 (give message to operator)

Ham radio: Call N2HPO on the 147.270 repeater (141.3 or 127.3 CTCSS).

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 20:02:48

FCC Enforcement Case Highlights FCC Amplifier Certification Rules

NEWINGTON, CT, Oct 2, 2001--The FCC's Riley Hollingsworth used the occasion of a recent Warning Notice to hammer home the FCC's position on the sale of
RF amplifiers that have not received FCC certification--formerly called "type acceptance." In a September 19 letter to Extra licensee Sidney Lee Martin,
KD4YBC, Hollingsworth reiterated an earlier FCC warning to Martin that he cease commercial marketing of non-certificated external RF amplifiers and amplifier
kits capable of operating below 144 MHz.

In 1978, the FCC banned the manufacture and sale of any external RF amplifier or amplifier kit capable of operating below 144 MHz without a grant of certification
from the FCC. The rules specifically prohibit manufacture and sale of amps that operate between 24 and 35 MHz as a means to stem the flow of illegal Citizens
Band amplifiers.

The case arose from a February 11, 2000, warning to Martin from the FCC's Detroit office as a result of a classified ad Martin had run in QST. The ad featured
the sale of external Amateur Radio RF amplifier kits for HF and 6 meters. The FCC letter admonished Martin that selling or offering such units for sale
violated §2.815 of the FCC's rules.

Martin--who operated a one-man business called RF Electronics in South Carolina--countered with his interpretation that he was allowed, under FCC Part 97
Amateur Service rules, to sell such kits as one amateur to another under an exception to the certification rules. Martin argued that §97.315 of the Amateur
Service rules permitted his licensed customers to purchase from him--as another licensee--and construct or modify one model of a non-certificated RF power
amp or kit per calendar year for that licensee's personal use.

The FCC rejected that analysis, however. Hollingsworth emphasized that §2.815(c) of the FCC's rules requires all external RF power amplifier kits that can
operate below 144 MHz after assembly be FCC-certificated before they can be made, sold, leased, marketed, imported, shipped or distributed. He noted that
other provisions of §2.815 apply only to certain already fabricated amplifiers and do not exempt amplifier kits, particularly those capable of operating
between 24 and 35 MHz after assembly.

Hollingsworth said §97.315 also "specifically prohibits the use in the Amateur Service of an amplifier that the operator had constructed from a non-certified
kit." He also noted that, in addition to kits, Martin's RF Electronics Web site had been selling non-certificated, assembled RF power amplifiers for use
below 144 MHz. Hollingsworth said at least three of the assembled models were advertised as operational between 24 and 35 MHz.

Hollingsworth said FCC rules permit an individual amateur to construct or modify a non-certificated RF power amplifier once per calendar year for use at
that amateur's own station--although the unit may not be built from a kit--and the amateur may then sell the amplifier to another licensee or dealer. The
rules do not provide for mass marketing or manufacturing and marketing kits or assembled amplifiers as part of a business, Hollingsworth said.

"Any and all marketing of external RF power amplifiers or amplifier kits capable of operation below 144 MHz must be in strict compliance with §2.815 of
the Commission's rules," Hollingsworth warned. He said the FCC would prosecute any violations and take enforcement action against Martin's amateur license.

Martin's Web site no longer offers any RF amplifiers for sale.

Post 260 of 367

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 20:03:21

FCC Inquiries Focus on 160-Meter Band Plan

NEWINGTON, CT, Oct 4, 2001--The FCC recently asked three amateurs to respond to complaints alleging that they deliberately transmitted SSB on top of CW
stations operating in the vicinity of 1820 to 1825 kHz. The FCC has never designated mode-specific subbands in the 160-meter amateur band, so operation
on "Top Band" continues to be governed by a voluntary band plan. The current ARRL band plan, revised this past summer, recommends a lower limit of 1.843
for SSB operation.

In the wake of the complaints, FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth wrote George Wehrung, W5TZ, and Dennis Clauder, KT5S--both
of Texas--and Derrick Vogt, WA4TWM, of Kansas in mid-September. Hollingsworth asked each to respond to allegations from several other operators that their
SSB transmissions deliberately interfered with attempts by others to operate on CW between 1820 and 1830 kHz. Copies of the complaints were sent to all
three operators.

"Band plans are voluntary in nature," Hollingsworth acknowledged in each of the similarly worded letters. He said the FCC depends upon voluntary compliance
because it minimizes the necessity for the Commission to be called in to resolve amateur problems. "Where interference results from band plans not being
followed," Hollingsworth continued, "the Commission expects substantial justification to be shown by the operators ignoring the band plans."

One complainant reported that the SSB operators "started moving up and down the band between 1822 and 1825," ignoring CW operators' pleas that the frequency
was occupied, failing to identify and, at one point, mocking the CW operators. Some complainants sent tape recordings to the FCC.

Hollingsworth requested that Wehrung, Clauder and Vogt each reply to the complaints within 20 days.

Post 261 of 367

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 23:16:05

Michigan Hams Activated Due to Storms and Tornado

Fred Moses, Sr, KC8UMP, of Holly, Michigan, does ARES duty at the Fenton fire station. [Fred Moses, Jr, W8FSM, Photo]

The parking lot at Deerfield Center had lots of downed trees due to the storm. [Fred Moses, Jr, W8FSM, Photo]

On Friday, August 24 at 5:15 PM (EDT), the National Weather Service issued a severe thunderstorm warning for Genesee County. This storm produced two tornados
in the mid-Michigan area that caused severe damage to several towns. The greatest damage occurred in the City of Fenton located just south of Flint. The
NWS confirmed that an EF2 tornado had touched down and had torn a path 26 miles long and up to 0.5 miles wide through Livingston, Oakland, Genesee and
Lapeer County, damaging at least 250 homes and businesses. An EF2 tornado, using the enhanced Fujita scale, is a wind estimate of 110-135 MPH in a three-second
gust. More than 12,000 people lost power due to the storms.

ARES and SKYWARN Activated

Michigan's Genesee County
were activated due to a severe thunderstorm watch. The storm moved into the county with such heavy rain that visibility dropped down to zero at several
points. Funnel clouds were seen in the western part of the county, but these could not be confirmed. The NWS issued a
Tornado Warning
based on confirmed sightings in the adjacent counties to the west, as well as reports from their Doppler radar.

As spotters continued to watch the storm, Randy Bond, N8VDS, spotted the funnel heading for Fenton and reported it to the NWS via his ham radio; Fred Moses
Jr, W8FSM, confirmed the sighting. Moments later, the Genesee County 911 central dispatch center received a call that the roof on the brand new Tractor
Supply Company store in Fenton had caved in and that the tornado had touched down. About half of the Fenton Community Center's roof was blown off, and
debris from the building blew across the road to Fenton United Methodist Church.

Genesee County 911 called out the fire departments and activated their Fire Coordination Plan. Ham radio spotters have an agreement with Genesee County
fire departments to provide supplemental communications for the departments. Hams were providing communications via the SKYWARN net and the Fire Coordination

As the county's fire departments started to move toward the building collapse in Fenton, hams were already on the scene. Bond and Mike Schafer, KB8RVP,
shifted gears from weather spotters to Fire Coordination operators. At the request of the fire chief at the scene, Bond went to the Fenton City fire station
and, using ham radio, assisted their dispatch center; the storm had damaged their radio fire communications tower, so Bond and Schafer started working
dispatch for them using their ham radios until the dispatch center was able to resume normal fire communications.

Jerry Baker, KD8AYL, was next to arrive on the scene at the collapsed building and after meeting with the Incident Commander, Baker was assigned the task
to set up radio communications with more ARES volunteers in the Flint region.

As more reports of damage came in, the Fenton City and Township Fire Department became overloaded; their crippled communications tower did not help matters.
ARES Emergency Coordinator for Genesee County Greg Ybarra, N8HXQ, coordinated the response during this incident and put out a call for help to District
3 Emergency Coordinator Greg Allinger, WA8OGJ. Allinger contacted other ARES units in the state, and Amateur Radio operators from nine Michigan counties
responded to the Fenton area to help.

Evaluation of the damage started immediately after the storm. Baker was reassigned to a relief shelter to aid the Red Cross. What would normally have been
a drive of less then 10 minutes took almost an hour due to trees and power lines down everywhere. "Trees as much as 36 inches in diameter and more than
100 years old had been ripped out of the ground by the storm; regular electric power was out and the damage reports just never seemed to end," he said.

The Genesee County Office of Emergency Management activated their Mobile Command Unit. The MCU has an Amateur Radio station in it, as well as radios for
all public service organizations. The city set up a command post in the parking lot of the Fenton City fire department and began operations from there.
Michigan State Police responded to the area and instituted an 8 PM curfew for everyone. State and local police set up road blocks. Access was restricted
to police, fire, National Guard, Red Cross, Salvation Army or ARES.

ARES volunteers worked with all aspects of the incident. Damage reports and assessments continued until 1:30 AM Saturday morning when the Incident Commander
determined everyone should break until 5:30 AM to get some rest.

Wearing Two Hats

The following morning presented a dilemma for the ARES personnel: They were asked to continue assisting with communications in the clean-up of the tornado,
but they also needed to take care of a prior commitment.
The Crim Festival of Races
was scheduled that day, and ARES traditionally has supplied the communications support, as well as Amateur Radio Television (
for the Race. "The 'Crim,' as it is known locally, is a festival of races that appeals to just about anyone from the world class runners to little tikes
that enjoy the Teddy Bear trot. Each year, ARES volunteers serve in the Med Tent, Command Center, Start and Finish Line, and up to 120 positions through
out the course," Baker said.

In the tradition of Amateur Radio, the ham volunteers found ways to cover both activities. The race went on, with hams manning as many stations as possible
and supplying ARTV pictures both for the race and County and City 911 dispatch. Those not working the Crim (after only a couple of hours' sleep) were back
at the clean-up efforts in Fenton.

The clean-up efforts in Fenton began again at 5:30 AM with ham radio operators joining with fire department members and local utility crews split into eight
task force units that went throughout the city, cleaning up the fallen trees and down power lines. Clean-up efforts continued all day Saturday until 8
PM. By then, the great majority of roads through out Fenton and the immediate neighborhoods had been cleared by the team effort of ARES personnel, power
company workers and the fire department personnel.

One of the informal mottos of Amateur Radio is "Semper Gumby!" -- always flexible. The flexibility of the Amateur Radio volunteers, using their own equipment,
allowed them to respond to the call beginning with a SKYWARN operation, then changing to a Fire Coordination activity, to 911 coverage, then damage assessment
and finally to a clean-up operation. -- Information supplied by Jerry Baker, KD8AYL, Public Information Officer for Genesee County ARES

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 23:16:45


On August 13, the ARRL began sending "specific mitigation reduction numbers" to 122 repeater owners, recommending that they reduce their signal anywhere
from 7 dB to 56 dB, according to ARRL Regulatory Information Branch Manager Dan Henderson, N1ND. These reductions, requested by the US Air Force and the
Department of Defense, only concern those repeaters identified by the DoD as affecting the PAVE PAWS radar system.

"Some reductions are going to be attainable," Henderson said. "You can do 7 dB, but 54?" He said such a reduction would "not be realistic to achieve. While
many of the affected repeater owners may not be able to achieve the required reductions, but that doesn't mean they shouldn't try to meet the goal. Everyone
involved needs to continue trying to meet the DoD's requirements. This gives us the best chance to keep as many of these machines as possible on the air."

Henderson stressed that any order to shut down a repeater will come from the Federal Communications Commission, at the request of the DoD. "This situation
only affects those repeaters on the DoD's list in Massachusetts and California. It does not affect the everyday, casual user of 70 cm. This is not a wide-spread
threat to the 70 cm band."

Citing an increasing number of interference complaints, the US Air Force has asked the FCC to order dozens of repeater systems to either mitigate interference
to the PAVE PAWS radars or shut down. The ARRL has been working with the DoD to develop a plan to mitigate alleged interference from 70 cm ham radio repeaters
to this military radar system on both coasts. According to the DoD, the in-band interference from Amateur Radio fixed FM voice repeaters has increased
to an unacceptable level. PAVE PAWS radars are used for national security functions, including early detection of water-launched missiles. They are critical
to our national defense and are in use 24 hours per day, seven days per week.

The Amateur Radio Service is a secondary user in the 420-450 MHz (70 cm) band, both by the Table of Frequency Allocations and the FCC Part 97 regulations.
As such, Amateur Radio licensees, jointly and individually, bear the responsibility of mitigating or eliminating any harmful interference to the primary
user, which in this case is the Government Radiolocation Service that includes the DoD PAVE PAWS systems.

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 23:17:34

Minnesota Hams Respond to Area Flooding
Cascade Creek in Rochester, Minnesota.
Silver Lake Dam in Rochester, Minnesota.
West River Parkway in Rochester, Minnesota.
Cascade Creek meets the Zumbro River in Rochester, Minnesota.

Record rainfall and resultant flooding and mudslides in southeastern Minnesota over the past week disrupted communications and prompted emergency response
officials to call upon Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES) groups for communications assistance.

Olmsted County ARES was among the first to respond. Their members were rapidly deployed throughout the disaster area. As conditions deteriorated, the call
for additional ARES assistance was made, and Scott County ARES was notified shortly after noon on Sunday, August 26. They were able to send three members
to the disaster area to assist local emergency responders with communications.

Bob Minor, W0NFE, was dispatched to a Red Cross shelter set up in a church in Rochester, Olmstead County’s county seat. He provided a link to the emergency
operations center (EOC) that was operating from an area near the Rochester airport. The shelter was able to suspend operations later Sunday evening.

Jeff Forseth, AC0DH, was sent to Rushford where he set up his radio equipment at the Rushford EOC. Jeff provided communications with the local shelter in
Rushford, as well as a link to another Red Cross shelter at St Mary’s University in Winona. The river flowing though Rushford had jumped its banks and
effectively split the town in two, with the EOC on one side and the shelter on the opposite bank of the flooded river. The staff at the EOC received anxious
inquiries about family and friends and used the Amateur Radio link with the shelters to provide information to calm worried relatives.

Steve Kickert, W0GXO, was asked to go to Winona to help with communications in the Red Cross shelter. In response to a request from the Mayor of St Charles,
he was diverted to provide additional Amateur Radio help -- the city needed to communicate between the EOC set up at the fire station, where Kickert was
assigned, City Hall where disaster planning occurred and the shelters in St Charles and Winona.

Howard went to St Charles to assist with the Red Cross shelter that had been set up in the high school. After checking in with the Red Cross, he set up
operations in his jeep and kept in touch with the Rochester repeater. “When the Mayor of St Charles requested amateur assistance, Howard contacted two
hams to help him out. Kickert went to the fire station and Steve Huntsman, AA0P, went to City Hall,” Howard said. “We set up a simplex net on 146.595 between
us, and I continued to maintain contact with Rochester and Winona. The Mayor was grateful for our presence and said his main concern was that we could
stay in contact with Winona in case he needed help from Winona Police.” – Information provided by Bob Reid, N0BHC, Scott County ARES, and Steve Howard,
AB0XE, Dakota County ARES
All photos by Robert Hart, KC0GND

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Saturday, 31-May-2008 23:18:06

VoIP Hurricane Net Active as Hurricane Felix Makes Landfall in Northeastern Nicaragua

Hurricane Felix
made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane causing significant damage in northeastern
and heavy rainfall into southeastern
The threat from Felix will be moving from significant wind damage to major flooding over the course of the day Tuesday. The
VoIP Hurricane Net
has been active since 0800 UTC Tuesday to gather reports for
the Amateur Radio station at the
National Hurricane Center.
According to the NHC, Felix is now a Category 2 storm and is expected to be downgraded even further soon.

"We have received reports of significant damage in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua to many structures with phone and power outages. The Puerto Cabezas hospital
has been evacuated due to significant flooding, and two ships and 35 fishermen on those ships are missing," said Rob Macedo, KD1CY, Director of Operations
for the VoIP Hurricane Net.

Reports are being relayed form various sources. Carlos Guzman, XE2WCG, of Tampico, Mexico, is relaying reports from the Nicaragua Emergency Net on 40 meters;
he has assisted with Spanish translation of those reports for the Net. Francisco Diaz-Gonzalez, NP3OD, from the VoIP Hurricane Net Control team, and Andoni
Axpe Soto, EB1FGO, from the International Radio Emergency Support Coalition (
helped translate and monitor other sources such as Nicaraguan television for information. "We are trying to relay reports from any means that cannot be
monitored directly from the National Hurricane Center," Macedo said.

WX4NHC has been monitoring the Net and other systems to gather reports and information. Felix is expected to weaken and should be below hurricane strength
by Tuesday night. As Felix weakens, heavy rain will fall over Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Belize, posing a potential flash flood and
landslide threat to the region. Tropical Storm Warnings are now in effect over much of the area.

"We would appreciate any Amateur Radio operators in the affected area to come on the EchoLink *WX-TALK* Node: 7203/IRLP reflector 9219 to give us weather
and damage reports. Amateur operators who have contacts in the affected area that can relay information, as well as amateurs who have propagation on 40
and 75 meters to emergency Nets in the affected area that can get the information to our Net would also help greatly," Macedo said.

Assistant WX4NHC Coordinator Julio Ripoll, WD4R, said, "We request all land-based stations, as well as ships at sea, in the areas affected by Hurricane
Felix to send us weather data (measured or estimated) and damage reports. If you are in the affected area and normally monitor on a local Net on VHF, 40
or 80 meters, we would appreciate your checking into the HWN Net (14.325 MHz) or EchoLink/IRLP Net once per hour to receive the latest hurricane advisories
and to report your local conditions."

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Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 12:52:20

ARLP013: Propagation de K7RA
ARLP013 Propagation de K7RA

Propagation Forecast Bulletin 13 ARLP013
From Tad Cook, K7RA
Seattle, WA March 20, 2008
To all radio amateurs

ARLP013 Propagation de K7RA

ARRL Headquarters is closed for Good Friday on March 21, so this
bulletin is coming out a day early, and on the Vernal Equinox.

We had a few more days with visible sunspots over the past week.
Sunspot numbers on March 15-17 were 12, 12 and 11. Over the past
month we seem to have a single sunspot appear for a few days, then
fade away or rotate out of view, then another pop up after four or
five days. Take a look at sunspot numbers since January 1 at,

Dale Drake, W7GMY of Lake Helen, Florida asks, "Just a curious
question on the cycle numbers. How do they come up with cycle
numbers? Cycle 24 would indicate at 11 years per cycle that it is
253 years in recording the cycles."

Dale was surprised to learn that daily sunspot records do stretch
way back over hundreds of years, and Cycle 1 in fact peaked a
quarter century prior to America's Revolutionary War. Check the
WM7D web site at,
see graphs of Cycles 1-23.

Paul Kiesel, K7CW of Tahuya, Washington sent a fascinating article
translated from the September 2006 issue of Japanese radio magazine
CQ Ham Radio. JE1BMJ wrote about surprising long distance 6-meter
polar propagation from Japan to Europe with sporadic-E at the summer
solstice. He doubts this is multi-hop propagation, even though the
long distance suggests this, because the signals don't seem to be as
dispersed or scattered as one would expect from multiple hops.

Instead, JE1BMJ posits that the mechanism is PMSE, or Polar
Mesosphere Summer Echo, a radar echo phenomenon. Rather than taking
several hops, the signal would be refracted through the E-layer for
a long distance following the curvature of the earth, before exiting
and being heard in Europe.

There was a great deal of mail this week on possible auroral-E
propagation in the summer on 6 meters, when the K index is high and
there is backscatter via aurora. But while the normal auroral
communications sound distorted, E-layer propagation will arise which
is not at all distorted.

K7CW reports an opening from the Pacific Northwest on 6 meters to W4
and W5 on October 20, 2007. There was aurora, but at the same time
this propagation over long distance that did not seem to be via
aurora, sounding very strong and clear. K7CW wonders if this might
be an example of Snell's Law, which addresses refraction along an
interface between two mediums.

Ray Perrin, VE3FN of Ottawa, Ontario wrote about possible auroral-E
propagation while operating from the arctic in Iqaluit, on Baffin
Island at Frobisher Bay in Nunavut at 63.75 degrees north latitude,
68.52 degrees west longitude. Ray made several business trips there
in 1999-2002. Iqaluit is where the VE8BY 6 meter beacon is located,
in grid square FP53.

For 6 meters Ray used a wire dipole tied to a rock thrown from his
bedroom window in his temporary housing, and another dipole made
from two telescoping antennas mounted on his porch.

Ray writes, "I worked many stations in North America using these
simple antennas. For example, during 2 weeks in July and August of
2001, I worked into VO1, VE1, VE2, VE3, W1, W2, W3 and W4 as far
south as NC. I also worked some in W8 and W9 and one station in
Colorado. There didn't appear to be a distinct skip zone. And
about 40% of the evenings, I heard the OX3SIX beacon (on 50.012 MHz
or so) for about 45 minutes at 0000Z. It would roll in on auroral E
-- no distortion. I always called CQ when I heard the beacon, but
no QSOs. I later received a report from a station in northern
Scotland saying he thought he had heard me. It is likely he did as
I was calling CQ at the time. Again, this was all auroral E -- no
'buzz'. In Feb 2002, I worked SP2NA on F layer using the wire

Ray's last trip to Iqaluit was November 2002. He used a 2-element
Yagi for 6 meters. He says, "During that trip I worked OX3SA on
auroral E. Later, I also worked into VE6 (DO33) on auroral E. BTW,
the evening I worked VE6 (a Saturday), I was hearing beacons in VE6,
VE4 and northern W0 for about 3 hours, but I was only able to dig up
one QSO! I was simultaneously calling CQ on 144 MHz, but nothing
heard. At noon the next day (Sunday) the band opened briefly on F
layer to southern Florida -- about 3000 miles."

Ray continues, "Except for a few QSOs on F-layer, all my contacts
appear to have been on auroral E. The signals were not distorted as
they would have been on straight aurora. I would typically wait for
a day when the K index went up to 5 and the band would often open in
the evening -- especially in the summer. I have heard the VE8BY
beacon many times from Ottawa on auroral E, but never when the band
was open on 'buzz' aurora. And when we do have 'buzz' auroral
signals coming in on 6 meters, I have never heard VE8BY/b."

Ray goes on to say, "So what is the cause of auroral E? Is there
any relationship to the occurrence of auroral E and the sunspot
cycle? Some have suggested that auroral E may occur when the aurora
becomes weaker. If this were so, then one would expect to hear
auroral E on, say, 50 MHz when there is 'buzz' aurora on 28 MHz. In
other words, as the MUF rises, one would first experience auroral E
and then straight 'buzz' aurora. But if this were true, one would
expect to hear auroral E frequently on 50 MHz (at mid latitudes)
when, in fact, I believe it is quite rare at mid latitudes. And one
would expect to observe auroral E quite frequently on 144 MHz when
50 MHz is open on 'buzz' aurora, but it isn't intense enough to
propagate 'buzz' aurora on 144 MHz. Once again, this doesn't wash
as auroral E on 144 MHz seems to be very rare at mid latitudes. I
once thought that ordinary 'buzz' aurora was related to paths that
were more or less east - west whereas my QSOs from FP53 (auroral E)
were predominantly north - south. However, my QSO with OX3SA and
frequent reception of the OX beacon involve east - west paths -- and
they were all auroral E."

K9LA sent a lot of great material about auroral E propagation, but
there isn't room to address it in this bulletin.

But go to Carl's web site at,
and click on the titles
"Alaska to EU on 6m," "More Alaska to EU on 6m" and "Summer 6m Es
Probabilities" to download PDF documents he wrote for his
propagation column in World Radio.

Also, K7CW recommends for 6 meters

and the UK Six Meter Group at,

Also check out a revised article from NASA last week on solar cycle
prediction at

Finally, no room to talk about a very important development for HF
propagation, the first day of Spring, which is today. This is a
great time for worldwide HF propagation, as all of the earth is
receiving a maximum amount of solar radiation, the same in both
southern and northern hemispheres.

Projection for the near term is a planetary A index of 5 for March
20-24, then 10, 20, 25, 20 and 8 for March 25-29. There are similar
returns to a planetary A index of 25 predicted for April 5, April 23
and May 2, but otherwise quiet.

Geophysical Institute Prague predicts quiet to unsettled conditions
for March 21, quiet March 22-24, unsettled March 25, and active
March 26-27.

If you would like to make a comment or have a tip for our readers,
email the author at,

For more information concerning radio propagation, see the ARRL
Technical Information Service web page at,
For a detailed
explanation of the numbers used in this bulletin, see
An archive of past
propagation bulletins is at
propagation charts between four USA regions and twelve overseas
locations are at

Sunspot numbers for March 13 through 19 were 0, 0, 12, 12, 11, 0,
and 0 with a mean of 5. 10.7 cm flux was 69.5, 69.9, 69.5, 70.3,
69.8, 69.6, and 69 with a mean of 69.7. Estimated planetary A
indices were 14, 13, 11, 5, 4, 8 and 6 with a mean of 8.7.
Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 11, 12, 7, 4, 3, 7 and 5, with
a mean of 7.

Post 266 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 12:52:49

ARLP040: Propagation de K7RA
ARLP040 Propagation de K7RA

Propagation Forecast Bulletin 40 ARLP040
From Tad Cook, K7RA
Seattle, WA September 23, 2005
To all radio amateurs

ARLP040 Propagation de K7RA

Solar activity quieted down this week after a recent tumultuous
period marked by aurora and geomagnetic storms. Average daily
sunspot numbers were down over 25 points from the previous week to
46. Average daily solar flux declined by over 9 points to 100.3.

Sunspot numbers are expected to stay low, rising again after October
3. Geomagnetic conditions should also stay low, with unsettled
conditions possible around September 27-29. Geophysical Institute
Prague predicts quiet to unsettled conditions September 23-24, quiet
on September 25-26, active conditions September 27, and unsettled
conditions September 28-29. Autumn has now begun, and despite the
low solar activity, conditions are more seasonally favorable for HF
propagation. The lower geomagnetic activity is a plus for HF

We received more mail on 80 meter propagation at the bottom of the
solar cycle. David Beckwith, W2QM of Delray Beach, Florida believes
that "seemingly better conditions during the low point of the cycle
may be due more to more activity because the higher bands are so
poor." Good point! David should know. He's been on the air since
1938--even during World War II, when he was an infantry radio
operator in Europe. According to his bio at
he has worked 380 countries,
including all except North Korea on the current DXCC list.

Ed Douglass, AA9OZ wrote in again about 80 meter propagation, this
time mentioning the John Devoldere, ON4UN book, "ON4UN's Low-Band
DXing." Ed writes, "ON4UN's explanation for good propagation on 80
and 160 during sunspot minima is that with less solar UV radiation,
there is less density in the D-layer in the earth's atmosphere.
Furthermore, the formation of the D-layer is slower, particularly
during the winter months in either hemisphere.

He continues, "As you know, it is the D-layer that tends to absorb
lower HF signals, most notably preventing the propagation of signals
during local daylight hours. So, in addition to your explanation
that a less active sun will produce less intense disturbances in the
ionosphere and therefore propagation through the auroral zones will
be better, propagation on East-West paths will be better because
there will be longer periods when there is no D-layer.

Ed goes on to say, "Devoldere goes into this much more thoroughly so
his book is worth understanding and following if one is serious
about DXing on the lower bands. And, as thunderstorm activity drops
in the northern hemisphere as we go into winter, the weaker DX
signals can once again be heard."

John Shannon, K3WWP, wrote, "I run 100% CW and 100% QRP here. My
antenna for 80 and 160 is a random wire in my attic. In the two big
160M contests, ARRL and CQ, with my simple setup it was fairly easy
for me to work around 250 QSOs during the sunspot minimum back in
the 90's. That included working WC USA stations. At sunspot maximum
I had to STRUGGLE to make 50 or 60 QSOs and usually gave up out of
frustration at no one hearing me or having to repeat my info many
times over to virtually every station. I couldn't work anyone west
of the Mississippi River at the maximum. On 80 meters I can usually
work EU near the minimum but it is rough near a maximum. So based
on personal experience, I would say low band conditions are
definitely better at or near a minimum."

John has a personal web site devoted to his ham radio interests at,

Russell Hunt, WQ3X wrote in to say that he is still working DX on 10
meters. He writes, "Last night (9/15/05) on 10M SSB I worked CN8KD,
CT4GO and EA1CBX starting at 2200Z. Local time over there was 11PM!
Signals were amazingly strong but the opening only lasted about a
half hour. It was incredible! I was able to hear most of the USA
stations working the DX also."

I ran some path projections using a popular propagation program
mentioned in past bulletins, and found that from his location in
Pennsylvania to Spain, Morocco and Portugal there is still good
likelihood of 10 meter openings ending around the time John made his
contacts. On the web, be sure to check out John's web site devoted
to some work he's done refurbishing classic radio gear at,

Last, we hear from Bill Clark, N0MAM. He writes, "I became licensed
in 1996 when many experienced hams were complaining about the bands.
At that time I had the call KB0TNM. I began working 40 meters on the
novice CW band and many experienced hams complained that it was too
noisy a band to work. I was on every night making domestic contacts.
I worked 30 states that summer and winter, mostly eastern and
western states.

He continues, "I worked Hawaii, Alaska, Mexico, and many Canadian
contacts. It put me well on the way to getting WAS 40 Meter CW. I
didn't know what all the complaints about 40 meters being noisy were
about until 1998 when the bands came up and all the Latin American
AM stations created so much whine that I had to abandon. It was a
lot of fun and good experience for me as a new operator and I didn't
even know that I wasn't supposed to be enjoying myself because the
band was 'down."'

If you would like to comment or have a tip, email the author at,

For more information concerning radio propagation and an explanation
of the numbers used in this bulletin see the ARRL Technical
Information Service propagation page at,
An archive of past
bulletins is found at,

Sunspot numbers for September 15 through 21 were 77, 51, 59, 50, 43,
23 and 19 with a mean of 46. 10.7 cm flux was 119.4, 112, 103.9,
102.2, 91.1, 87.8, and 86, with a mean of 100.3. Estimated planetary
A indices were 43, 18, 12, 12, 8, 6 and 5 with a mean of 14.9.
Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 22, 11, 10, 8, 8, 3 and 3,
with a mean of 9.3.

Post 267 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 12:54:15

The Transatlantic on
2200 Meters
Joe Craig, VO1NA and Alan Melia, G3NYK
here has been much excitement
below our so-called top
band at 1.8 MHz. At less than
one-tenth this frequency, near
136 kHz, you will find many amateurs enjoying
QSOs using a variety of modes. Although
US and Canadian amateurs need
special permission to transmit here, there is
a 2200 meter amateur band in many
European countries and in New Zealand.
Aside from its low frequency, the most striking
thing about the 135.8-138.8 kHz band is
its narrow width—only 2.1 kHz, barely wide
enough to admit a single SSB transmission.
Huge sources of interference are present
in the band. In Greece, the Navy transmitter
SXV operates on 135.8 kHz, and in Canada
another Navy transmitter (CFH) is on 137.0
kHz. Just outside the band is the German
station DCF39 on 138.83 kHz. These stations
have effective radiated power (ERP)
levels in the tens of kilowatts and can be
heard on receivers thousands of miles away.
At 100 kHz, there are the megawatt LORAN
(long range aid to navigation) transmitters
with their perpetual clatter, and above 150
kHz we have the commercial long wave
band with powerful megawatt plus stations.
How then can this band be of any use to the
amateur experimenter?
Amateurs have traditionally overcome
many obstacles in achieving their goals.
When regulators restricted us to the “useless
wavelengths” below 200 meters, we
spanned the globe. Now that we’re slowly
being let above 200 meters again, we have
used some modern technology and old-fashioned
persistence to achieve amazing feats
in this challenging environment on the long
waves. We have even used the high power
interference sources to our advantage.
Propagation at 136 kHz
It is generally agreed amongst the professional
propagation researchers that propagation
between 50 kHz and 150 kHz is
different than both the bands above and below
that region. The lower (VLF) frequencies
are described as propagating by a
waveguide mode between the ground and the
ionosphere. The waveguide mode dies out
mainly above 30 kHz and certainly above
about 50 to 60 kHz. We believe this may
due the wavelength becoming short com-
Longing for the days when amateurs built
their own gear and DX was big news?
They’re back again...on the “top” top band.
pared with the thickness (about 30 km) of
the daytime absorbing D-layer. Unlike HF
frequencies, LF has a substantial groundwave
service area, with the wave front being
bent to follow the curvature of the Earth to
some extent. In daytime, there is an absorbing
ionized region, formed by photo-dissociation,
which corresponds to the D-layer
(50 to 90 km) and, in general, it is considered
that ionospheric propagation is not an
element of daytime signals
Early in 1999 an FSK signal appearing
nightly in the UK at 137.00 kHz was correctly
identified by Alan, G3NYK as that
from the Canadian Naval station, call sign
CFH, near Halifax in Nova Scotia. Rough
early estimates of the path loss suggested
that an amateur transatlantic crossing would
just be possible with the allowed 1 W ERP.
Many were dubious, but only a few weeks
later Dave Bowman, GØMRF made the first
one-way LF crossing to John, VE1ZJ. Then
days later Peter, G3LDO managed a crossband
contact. Both of these events were coincident
with good received signal strength
from CFH. John was located near Big Pond
in north Nova Scotia. Other, regularly heard
calls in the early days of tests was the well
known MF station of Jack, VE1ZZ and the
late Larry Kayser, VA3LK.
Daytime propagation is mainly ground
wave, but at extreme range (in excess of
1500 km) there is a significant daytime
ionospheric component. This has been seen
on the path between CT1DRP (Porto) and
DCF39, a German utility station on 138.83
kHz located near Magdeburg, and also on
certain occasions on the CFH to Europe
path. The peak strength usually coincides
with the solar zenith at mid-path. This is at
approximately 1500 UTC for the CFH to
Europe path, and around 1130 UTC for the
CT to DCF path. The signal enhancement
under normal conditions on the 1950 km
DCF to CT path is about 10 dB. This enhancement
is caused by the sky-bound signal
being returned by the lower region of
the D-layer. Penetration of the D-layer in
daytime subjects the wave to absorption,
so the enhancement is not as high as
seen at night. Also, the apparent reflection
height is sure to be lower.

Figure 1—On December 12, the Marconi and Poldhu radio clubs commemorate
Marconi’s first transatlantic experiment. In 2003 they sent an LF signal from
Newfoundland to England using very slow speed CW with dots 30 seconds long
(QRSS30). Here is a screen capture of that signal received at G3NYK using Argo
software. If you look carefully, you can make out white Morse characters spelling out
VO1NA against the noisy blue background. Argo uses Fast Fourier Transforms to get
very narrow effective bandwidths (fractions of a Hz) and is very popular with the LF
crowd. More information on Argo is available on the Web at
From July 2005 QST © ARRL
Figure 2—Schematic and parts list for
VO1NA’a class E LF transmitter. As
explained in the text, transmitters at
this frequency tend to be unique,
requiring some experimentation.This
transmitter was based on design ideas
of several LF experimenters and
tailored for parts available from
VO1NA’s junk box. A very stable signal
generator or TXCO may be used in
place of the Marconi XH100 receiver.
See the text for component details.
C1—27 nF capacitor.
C2—18 nF capacitor.
L1—88 μH air wound inductor.
L2—0.4 mH air wound inductor.
L3—0.3-1.3 mH variometer.
M1—50 Ω
ΩΩΩΩΩ wattmeter.
M2—RF ammeter, 2 A full scale (see
M3—Drain current meter, 0-5 A dc.
Q1, Q2—NPN small signal transistor,
2N4401 or equiv.
Q3— PNP small signal transistor,
2N4403 or equiv.
Q4—International Rectifier IRF640 N
channel MOSFET.
RFC1—1.5 mH RF choke.
T1—Impedance matching transformer
with 5 primary turns and 13
secondary turns on a ferrite core.
U1—7400 quad NAND gate.
U2, U3—7490 decade counter.
U4—7805 5-V regulator.
At night, the photo-dissociated electrons
in the D-layer decay (or recombine)
quickly, as the darkness removes the ionizing
radiation. The “apparent reflection
level” moves up to the base of the E-layer
at around 90 to 100 km in altitude. The Elayer
is a 24-hour layer, ionized, amongst
other things, by high-energy cosmic rays.
The atmospheric pressure is much lower
than at the D-layer, so the chances of an
electron encountering an atom or positive
ion are much reduced and their “lifetimes”
are extended. Thus, the nighttime wave
has to travel through very little absorbing
material. The ionospheric wave, often
called the sky-wave, becomes stronger
than the ground wave at distances exceeding
about 800 km. Thus, all long distance
contacts are due to ionospherically returned
These seemingly predictable conditions
are altered by the effects of Solar disturbances.
The initial check of the Solar indices
against known good nights drew a blank,
but it was relatively easy to spot potentially
poor conditions. These occurred about 2 to
3 days after a geomagnetic event that lifted
the Kp index to 5 or above. This is about the
same level that leads to substantial auroral
effects. The conditions deteriorated more,
and took longer to recover, the higher the
Kp rose. It is postulated, from the signal
strength plots, that Coronal Mass Ejections
(CME) were responsible for injecting hot
electrons into the ionosphere. After these
had time to diffuse to the D-layer region (the
delay), their presence was felt as long-lived
From July 2005 QST © ARRL
absorbing material in the D-layer, reducing
the nighttime signal strengths. This delay is
reported in a number of professional papers
on Solar disturbance to LF propagation. So
the question remains: How to predict good
A more recent extensive series of DX tests
have confirmed that the lesser-known index,
Dst (disturbance storm time), is a fairly good
indicator. Dst is determined by measuring the
effect of ring of trapped ions and electrons
circulating the equator in the Van Allen belt.
Estimated values are published on the Internet
by a number of observatories. It is thought
that ions and electrons are trapped from the
CME plasma clouds and are gradually exchanged
with the ionosphere over a number
of days. These migrate to the D-layer and
form a long-lived absorbing layer. This would
explain the prolonged period of poor conditions
after a geomagnetic storm, even after
the Kp index has returned to “quiet” conditions
(< 4). Anyone interested in antennas and
propagation should take a look at the vast
resource of papers by Jack Belrose, VE2CV.1
These are straightforward and very practical.
Receiving Longwave Signals
The old adage, “If you can’t copy ’em you
1Notes appear on page 46.

Figure 3—This rack holds the IRF640
power amplifier, power supply, antenna
matching coil and variometer for VO1NA’s
137-kHz transmitter. The variometer (L3)
is the big red coil on the upper shelf next
to the wattmeter. The matching coil (L2) is
above the wattmeter. The power amplifier
is on the next shelf down (with heat sink,
L1, T1 and RFC1). Note that about 2000 V
is present at the feedthrough insulator
during transmissions.
From July 2005 QST © ARRL
can’t work ’em,” is especially true on 2200
meters. Many general coverage amateur
transceivers can receive down to 100 kHz and
some go further, while others stop at 500 kHz.
If you can tune down to 135 kHz, try it and
see what you can hear. If you can hear DCF39
on 138.83 kHz after dark, you are indeed in
luck. If not, then try experimenting with your
antenna. A long wire sometimes works if directly
connected to the antenna jack on the
transceiver. In reality, a 500 foot long wire is
a very short wire (less than 0.1 λ) on 2200
meters. A preferable option is to use a small
loop antenna and a preamp. These loops are
generally about 2 meters in diameter, and a
number of designs can be found on the LF
Web sites. Unlike any practical wire antenna
an amateur can erect, a loop will not take up
much real estate and can be made directional
to reduce interference. Once you have your
antenna up and can receive commercial long
wave stations such as CFH and DCF39, you
have sufficient receiver sensitivity and you
are now well on your way to receiving amateur
signals on LF.
Sensitivity is not the only issue. The others
are selectivity and stability. If you want
to receive amateur signals on 2200 meters,
stability is essential. Modern rigs with DDS
are quite adequate for this, providing the
Hz/hour or better stability required for
receiving amateur LF signals. On the selectivity
scale, a 500 Hz CW filter will do a
good job. The remaining work, narrowing
it down to 0.01 Hz, is taken care of by some
highly sophisticated software that takes the
audio from your receiver and splits it into
tiny bands that can be displayed on a computer
screen. The result is a series of Morse
code dots and dashes across your computer
monitor. It is an amazing marriage of modern
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technology
with 19th century Morse telegraphy. One
example of this software is Argo by I2PHD
and IK2CZL (see Figure 1).
You will probably not hear any distant
amateur signals. In the words of Larry
Kayser, VA3LK, the best thing you can
do with your headphones is unplug them
and put them in the drawer. About the only
thing you will hear is static and power line
noise. You have to let your eyes do the
listening. Connect a patch cord between
your computer and the headphone jack on
your receiver and watch for signals using
some of the excellent software that is
readily available.
Building a Transmitter
Amateur LF stations are typically
unique and often have a combination of
homemade and commercial gear modified
Figure 4—The LF antenna at VO1NA used for several years (including his first
transatlantic QSO) consists of two parallel wires 100 meters long, spaced 1 meter
apart. The antenna is supported at the far end by a 25 meter tower, and the wires
slope down toward another tower near the shack where they are connected together.
The antenna is fed at this point with another 50 meters of wire for a total length of
150 meters and matched with the loading coil and variometer shown in Figure 5.The
antenna has since undergone several involuntary changes as Mother Nature took down
one of the wires and then in January 2005 took the remaining wire and tower during an
ice storm. VO1NA is back on LF with 100 meters of wire about 10 meters off the ground.
Joe was never very comfortable on the top of his tower and is most grateful he was not
there at the time it collapsed. A 30-meter-tall replacement is planned.
for the purpose. Let’s illustrate this with
an example of a simple LF transmitter. The
schematic shown in Figure 2 is based on
designs of several amateurs.
A temperature controlled crystal oscillator
generates a carrier at 100 times the intended
frequency—in this case, 13.77770
MHz. This signal is fed into U1. Logic manipulations
are performed on the carrier oscillator
signal and the keying inputs to
preclude a sustained positive output at the
divider circuit. Such a level would destroy
the final amplifier in microseconds. Additionally,
it prevents any emissions while the
transmitter is not keyed. This is important
during receiving.
The output from U3, a square wave at
137 kHz, is fed to an inverting switch (Q1)
which converts the TTL signal to a 12 V
square wave. This is fed to a low-impedance-
output totem pole driver circuit comprising
Q2 and Q3, which switches the gate
of final amplifier Q4 between 0 and 12 V.
The operation of a class E amplifier is discussed
in detail elsewhere and methods of
final tuning are outlined.2 It is not difficult
to tune properly using a ’scope to check the
waveforms and meters to monitor the input
The final amplifier evolved from a
15 W circuit with a P-channel MOSFET,
but when efforts to increase the power to
100 W at 12 V resulted only in fried FETs
and frustration, a new strategy was sought.
The next step was to try a higher voltage
device, an N channel IRF640.
Using G3NYK’s spreadsheet program to
get approximate values for the tuning components
simplifies the design considerably.
The process entails selecting a power output
and voltage within the specifications of
the MOSFET you wish to use. C1 is calculated
based on the required power output.
The values of the remaining components, L1
and C2, are provided by the spreadsheet, but
will usually require a small bit of adjustment
to achieve optimal efficiency. The output
transformer, T1, can be adjusted by
changing the turns ratio to get the desired
output impedance, usually 50 Ω. The transmitter
signal then goes through a wattmeter
and on to the antenna tuning network
(L2, L3).
High quality capacitors should be used
for C1 and C2. Parallel combinations of silver
mica or pulse rated metalized polyethylene
capacitors are recommended. RFC1
and T1 are both wound on 2.75 inch square
ferrite cores such as those used in flyback
transformers. RFC1 is 28 turns for about
mH of inductance. The number of turns depends on the core material, which should be selected to avoid saturation and excessive heating. L1 was constructed
using two concentric air wound inductors. The inner

Figure 5—After almost two years of
tuning the antenna from inside the shack,
in January 2005 VO1NA moved the
loading coil and variometer outside to the
tower. A smaller variometer, about 60250
μH, was used in series with a tapped
loading coil.This moves the RF and high
voltages away from the house. A standard
50 Ω
ΩΩΩΩΩ coaxial cable runs back to the
transmitter in the shack.
one is 2.75 inches diameter by 6.25 inches
long. The outer one is 3.125 inches diameter
by 2 inches long. You can adjust the
inductance by taking taps and fine tune it
by sliding the coils. L1 conducts large
amounts of current and should be built accordingly
with wire no smaller than no. 16.
The finished transmitter is shown in
Figure 3. Increasing the voltage made it
much easier to get high efficiency. Within a
short time 100 W at about 80% efficiency
was achieved and there seemed little point
in further tinkering. It was very gratifying
to see that the only hot thing on the bench
(besides the soldering iron!) was the dummy
antenna. The MOSFET, mounted on a
heatsink about 3 × 3 × 4 inches, was barely
warm after several minutes of steady carrier.
For those interested in even higher
power, a 700 W transmitter has been described
in QEX.3
Some form of filtering may be needed
at the transmitter output to reduce the harmonic
content of the signal, but it is worth
noting that a properly tuned class-E stage
has less distortion (and harmonics) than a
class-C or class-D stage. Amplifiers are
discussed in Peter Dodd’s excellent Low
Frequency Experimenter’s Handbook.4
The Antenna and
Tuning Networks
Because ¼ λ is more than 500 meters at
136 kHz, it is not likely that you will have
the good fortune to be able to erect a reso
nant antenna. A large amount of capacitive
reactance and a very small radiation resistance
are the facts of life for any practical
LF antenna.
The first step in tuning the antenna is to
cancel the capacitive reactance by inserting
a large amount of inductance, often several
millihenrys, in series with the antenna. This
is simplified by using a variometer (L3),
which allows a continuous variation of inductance.
Next, the remaining resistive component
has to be transformed to the output
impedance of the transmitter, which is normally
50 Ω. This is usually achieved by using
an autotransformer (L2) to step up the
resistance, or if you are fortunate, to step it
down. The ultimate goal is to get the efficiency
of the transmitter and the antenna
current as high as possible at the same time.
It’s a little more challenging than erecting
an antenna and running coax from it to the
rig as we do so easily on the wavelengths
below 200 meters.
The inductance needed to achieve resonance
is obtained from
1L =
[Eq 1]
where C is the antenna capacitance, which
can be roughly estimated as 5 pF per meter
of antenna length. For example, if your antenna
is 100 meters long, its capacitance will
be about 500 pF and the total inductance
needed is about 2.7 mH. Fine tuning is done
by adjusting the variometer and matching
transformer for maximum antenna current.
The LF antenna that VO1NA used for the
transatlantic experiments is shown in Figure
4. The antenna is about 150 meters long,
including 100 meters of horizontal wire and
another 50 meters of wire between the shack
and feed point acting as a feed line. The use
of two parallel wires increases the antenna
capacitance and efficiency.
To match VO1NA’s parallel-wire
antenna, L2 is air wound, with 100 spacewound
turns for a total inductance of about
mH. It is tapped for the best resistive match.
L3 is the tuning variometer with an inductance
range of about 0.3 to 1.3 mH. The
variometer is wound with 12 gauge insulated
copper wire. The insulation is used as a convenient
means of spacing the turns to reduce
A good ground connection is very important
and this will take some experimentation.
The ground resistance can be
estimated from
Rg =
[Eq 2]
where P is the power of the transmitter
and I is the antenna current. At VO1NA it
is about 40 Ω.
From July 2005 QST © ARRL
Danger: High Voltage! Please note that
there are very dangerous voltages present
on the antenna end of the tuning coil and
the antenna itself. Special precautions are
necessary to prevent electric shocks and
burns, as well as arcing. Low frequency
RF can be deadly lethal when it uses your
body as the ground lead.
Getting the Message Out
on the Long Waves
Keying the transmitter can be done in
several ways. For slow speed CW (0.04
WPM) one has to be very persistent for
manual operation. Most of us aren’t that
patient so we use a diode matrix identifier
or program a computer to do the job.
A matrix (or EPROM/PIC) is very convenient
for beacon operation, but a computer
offers more versatility for making slow
speed QSOs. VO1NA’s IDer is a CMOS
version of the circuit published by Tom
McMullen, W1SL, many years ago.5
A variety of modes is used on LF, but
by far the most popular are FSK or slow
speed CW (QRSS) in which the dots are
sent on one frequency and the dashes on a
slightly higher frequency. For long distance
work, dots are 30 to 60 seconds long,
so the QSOs do not involve the exchange
of a lot of details other than the call signs
and the signal reports.
Transatlantic Experiments on
Long Wave
VO1NA’s initial transmissions were
with a 5 W transmitter used for long wave
experiments on 180 kHz in 1992. He retuned
it for 136.269 kHz and coupled it to
a 30 meter wire antenna. Signals were
heard 7 km away. Next he built a 15 W
class E transmitter using a P-channel
MOSFET. Contacts were had with several
members of the Marconi Radio Club of
Newfoundland including VO1FB,
Signals were finally radiated outside
the country when the 150 meter wire antenna
shown in Figure 4 was raised and
signals were detected by John Andrews,
W1TAG in Holden, Massachusetts, about
1600 km away. This success encouraged
the attempt to span the Atlantic, and the
100 W transmitter described earlier was
built from parts in the old junk box.
Arrangements were made between
G3NYK and VO1NA based on Alan’s predictions
of conditions. After a few tries,
signals were finally copied and the Atlantic
spanned for the first time from VO
land. Alan used an indoor 1.25 meter loop
made out of 16 turns of 25-pair telephone
cable, tuned and amplified with the simple
preamp shown on his Web site.
On June 12, 2003, 1011/2 years after
Marconi spanned the Atlantic, a two-way
QSO was completed with Jim Moritz,
From July 2005 QST © ARRL
These Web pages offer a wealth of

additional information about Ama-

teur Radio LF experiments, hard-

ware, software and propagation.

Argo Software

CT1DRP Web site


G3NYK Web site

KL1X Web site

Long Wave Club of America

NOAA Space Environment Center

ON7YD Web site


VE7SL Web site


W1TAG Web site

W3EEE Web site

W4DEX Web site

Web Pages for the LF


MØBMU, near London—more than 3700
km away. Jim used a 2 meter loop to receive
Joe’s very slow CW signals on
Other transatlantic contacts have been
completed, including a couple with
G3LDO. To date, the best DX from
VO1NA has been RN6BN at 6600 km.
We’ve copied each other’s signals and are
still hoping for a two-way QSO. A long
wave listener, Hartmut Wolff in Germany
has copied VO1NA’s 137 kHz signals a
number of times, as well as his QRP (5 W)
beacon on 189.81 kHz. Closer to home,
and at even higher CW speeds Frank
Davis, VO1HP, while operating the
Marconi Radio Club station VO1MRC,
completed the first two-way conventional
CW QSO in Canada by working VO1NA
at 20 WPM. With a recent reception by
Hartmut of a 10 W signal, transatlantic
experimentation promises to be very interesting
and gratifying for upcoming winter
seasons. More information on our
experiments appeared in The Canadian
Before transmitting on the 2200 meter
band, please note that Canadian amateurs
are required to obtain a Letter of Authorization
(LOA) from Industry Canada. This
can be done through Radio Amateurs of
Canada. American amateurs are required
to obtain an experimental license under
Part 5 of the FCC Regulations. We hope
that this band will be allocated to the ama
teur service on a worldwide basis.
Amateurs who seek technical challenges
and new excitement have a fascinating new
frontier at 2200 m. With the aid of the
Internet, you can become part of a growing
fraternity with some very competent and
knowledgeable fellow amateurs. State-ofthe-
art software has been developed and
made readily available for all to use. New
developments are surfacing all the time.
We wish to acknowledge the support
of members of LF community, Radio
Amateurs of Canada, the Marconi Radio
Club of Newfoundland and the Radio Society
of Great Britain for their LF Internet
1J.S. Belrose, W.L. Hatton, C.A. McKerrow
and R.S. Thain, “The Engineering of
Communications Systems for Low Radio
Frequencies,” Proc. IRE, Vol 47, No 5,
May 1959, pp 661-680.
2N. Sokal, “Class E Power Amplifiers,” QEX,
Jan/Feb 2001, pp 9-20.
3A. Talbot, “A 700 W Switch-Mode Transmit
ter for 137 kHz,” QEX, Nov/Dec 2002,
pp 16-26.
4P. Dodd, The Low Frequency Experimenter’s
Handbook (Radio Society of Great Britain,
5T. McMullen, “A Low Cost CW Identifier,”
QST, Apr 1975, pp 34-36.
6J. Craig, R. Dodge and R. Peet, “LF In New
foundland and Labrador,” The Canadian
Amateur, Sep/Oct 2004, p 39.
Photos by Joe Craig, VO1NA, unless otherwise
Joe Craig, VO1NA, was first licensed in 1976. He
is the son of VO1FB, husband of VO1RL, and
father of Julia. Joe completed his Bachelors and
Masters degrees at Memorial University of Newfoundland
and works with the Government of
Canada as a physicist. He has lectured at the
University and at conferences in radio and physical
science and has authored dozens of technical
and research papers as well as several publications
in the primary literature. Joe is a member
of the Baccalieu and Poldhu Amateur Radio
Clubs, the Marconi Radio Club of Newfoundland,
Radio Amateurs of Canada and a life member
of the Quarter Century Wireless Association.
He has both CW and 160 meter DXCC. Joe also
enjoys swimming and fitness, music, traveling,
photography and astronomy. He can be contacted
Alan Melia became interested in Amateur
Radio at school about 1955 and obtained his
license, G3NYK, while at Liverpool University
in 1960. He graduated with a BSc (Hons) in
Physics in 1961 and joined the then Post Office
Research Department (later British Telecom Research
Labs) where he worked for 30 years on
transistor and IC test and reliability. He then
joined a small local two-way radio company,
retiring 5 years ago. He started on 160 m, and
has become addicted to LF, particularly propagation
effects. He is a member of the RSGB
Propagation Studies Committee, and still holds
membership in the Institute of Physics as
a Chartered Physicist. He can be contacted
at 67A Deben Ave, Martlesham, Heath,
Ipswich IP5 7QR, UK or alan.melia@

Post 268 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 16:28:40

ARLS003: AO-40 Command Team Plays Waiting Game
ARLS003 AO-40 Command Team Plays Waiting Game

Space Bulletin 003 ARLS003
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington, CT February 4, 2004
To all radio amateurs

ARLS003 AO-40 Command Team Plays Waiting Game

Ground controllers for the now-dark AO-40 satellite are waiting for
something to break aboard the spacecraft. Specifically, they want
one of the cells of the main battery bank to open up and "unshort"
the power bus. That open circuit then could mean the command team
would be able use the auxiliary batteries--now tied in parallel with
the main battery bank--to restart the satellite. The command team
hypothesizes that a failure within the main battery is clamping the
bus voltage low. The command team meanwhile continues to signal the
satellite to turn off the main batteries and turn on the auxiliary
batteries and the 2.4 GHz "S2" downlink transmitter.

"If we have approximately 10 V on the main bus, then these commands
should be making it through," said ground controller Stacey Mills,
W4SM, "but the S2 transmitter was not designed to run below 20 V and
is not coming on."

AO-40 has been silent since January 27 (UTC), in the wake of a
precipitous voltage drop. The satellite's controllers believe that
one or more shorted battery cells are at the root of the problem.

Mills said the AO-40 command team assumes the bus voltage aboard
AO-40 is lower than 12 V, and that the onboard IHU-1 ("internal
housekeeping unit") computer, the command receivers or the battery
changeover relay have insufficient power to operate.

There's some conjecture that the current problem may be related to
the near-catastrophic incident that occurred onboard AO-40 in
December 2000 less than a month after its launch during testing of
the 400-newton propulsion system. That mishap destroyed some of the
spacecraft's functionality and may have caused other damage that's
only now coming to light. Following the 2000 incident, the AO-40
command team was able to restore some of the satellite's

Updates on the AO-40 situation are being posted on the AMSAT-DL Web
site at
additional information on AO-40 on the AMSAT-NA Web site,


Post 269 of 367

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Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 16:29:21

Youth@HamRadio.Fun: JOTA 2003, Free Money and More

By Andrea Hartlage, KG4IUM
Contributing Editor
December 30, 2003

This time we'll hear about some experiences from JOTA 2003 and check out some other youth-related events and activities.

The Scouting-Amateur Radio activity Jamboree On The Air (
takes place each fall during the third weekend of October. It's not a contest but a great opportunity for young people active in Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts
and Venturing Crews--licensed or not--to get acquainted with their peers in other cities--sometimes in other countries--via Amateur Radio. Of course, JOTA
can be a bit of a ham radio recruiting tool too. Each fall, many Scout groups participate. Here are a couple of the JOTA 2003 experiences we heard about.

Getting on the Air: JOTA 2003 at KI3DS. [Andrew Kelly, K3ASK, Photo]

KI3DS JOTA Operation Involves Cub Scouts

On October 18 in Maryland, a team of several hams set up the Anne Arundel Radio Club Jr
operation at a farm in Harwood.

"When asked to do a public service event with the Webelos this year, I couldn't pass it up," said Andrew Kelly, K3ASK. Webelos den members are Cub Scouts--mostly
fourth and fifth graders--who are making the transition to Boy Scouts. The KI3DS JOTA 2003 was an effort to involve the Webelos youngsters in a major scouting
activity and possibly pique their interest in Amateur Radio.

Each person at the KI3DS JOTA site had a job, whether it was greeting guests, acting as a control operator or venturing into the field with a handheld transceiver.
The radio operation consisted of both HF and VHF gear plus a laptop to simulate satellite passes and, of course, informational handouts.

The KI3DS JOTA included a ham radio game for the youngsters. K3ASK served as control operator for Webelos den members equipped with 2-meter handhelds. Meanwhile,
several participating hams, also with handhelds, spread out around the farm, making sure to stay out of sight of the main shelter.

Although the Webelos members didn't know where the other operators were, the "hidden operators" could see the Webelos players and tell them their shirt
or hat color over the radio. "This was a fun game to play," Andrew explained.

On 40 meters, many scouts talked to JOTA groups in New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland. Bob and Brenda Rose, AA3RR and KB3ATI, discussed various aspects
of Amateur Radio with the scouts.

"Before we knew it, it was getting near quitting time," Andrew said. In all, some 175 Webelos members visited KI3DS, and Andrew said it was a pleasure to
help introduce them to ham radio. "Being 13 and working with kids near my age is a lot of fun, and I would encourage other kids to help out in next year's
JOTA event," he added.


Scouts Kyle Kleppe (left) and Scott Richardson work Bermuda on 20 meters during the Waleska, Georgia, Fall Camporee. [Larry Richardson, N4UJO, Photo]


Inside the Georgia Convention. [Mark Spencer, WA8SME, Photo]


Some of the young people attending the Georgia Convention Youth Forum: (L-R): Andrea Hartlage, KG4IUM; Jamie Bruce, KG4SKK; Eric Snellgrove, KF4YUD; Alan
Hough (unlicensed); Connie Cote, N4CAC; and Elizabeth Harper, AK3H. [Scott Hartlage, KF4PWI, Photo]


Youth loungers at the Georgia State Convention: (Top to bottom): Andrea Hartlage, KG4IUM; Connie Cote, N4CAC; Geoff Franklin, KE4IGD; Jamie Bruce, KG4SKK;
Barbara Franklin, KI4BQT. [Scott Hartlage, KF4PWI, Photo]

The Troop 94 Experience

Mike Laney, AG4MY, of Acworth, Georgia, reports that Troop 94 hosted its annual Fall Camporee at Reinhardt College in Waleska on JOTA weekend. Nearly 130
scouts participated in JOTA.

Cherokee County Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) was on hand with its emergency response trailer to demonstrate how they assist with communications
during emergencies. The Boy Scout "Radio" merit badge was taught, and four radios were set up.

ARRL Georgia State Convention Features Youth Theme

The youth theme featured at this year's ARRL Georgia State Convention turned out to be a success. Throughout the weekend, many young people hung out in
the "Youth Lounge," where there were snacks, drinks, board games and--best of all--radios. These were complete with control operators to assist nonhams
who might want to give Amateur Radio a whirl.

Nine young hams and prospective licensees turned out for the youth forum, which I moderated. We began our forum with an "icebreaker" activity you might
want to try if you're ever called upon to be a youth forum speaker. We gave each person a cup of electrical components--resistors, capacitors and other
devices. The object of the game is to end up with all of the same types of components by trading with others--after exchanging names and call signs, of

Eric Snellgrove, KF4YUD, from Venture Crew 73--an Amateur Radio Scouting Group--told us a little bit about Venturing. Participants then took turns answering
the question, "What makes Amateur Radio fun to you?" I delivered a PowerPoint presentation about youth involvement in Amateur Radio that included a few
photos from this column.

ARRL Education and Technology Program ("The Big Project") Coordinator Mark Spencer, WA8SME, also attended.

After the forum, we held a Youth Fox Hunt. In this type of "fox hunt," competitors attempt to locate hidden transmitters. We hid two foxes--one under a
lawn chair in the flea market and the other in a moving golf cart. Connie Cote, N4CAC, found the first one, but no one managed to track down the mobile
fox. The Boy Scout "Radio" Merit badge class at the hamfest was also a success.

Connie said she really enjoyed the hamfest because it was the first time she had been around other young hams. "I met a whole lot of new friends this weekend,"
she said. It also was her first foxhunt, and she got to try PSK31. She's now interested in starting a radio club at her school to get more youth involved.

Connie also said she'd like to see the Morse code requirement (Element 1) eliminated from Amateur Radio testing. She believes Morse code is hard for some
people to learn and doesn't think that should be a roadblock to getting on HF.

Let me know about your club's youth-oriented hamfest activities.


The "Sundancer" competed in the Seventh World Solar Challenge in Australia. Many of the young team members are Amateur Radio licensees. There are more photos
on the
World Solar Challenge 2003
Web site.

World Solar Challenge 2003

Remember the team of young people whose solar-powered car, the "Sundancer," won the
Dell-Winston Solar Car Challenge
for the third year in a row earlier this year? Several members of the Houston, Mississippi, Vocational Center's solar-powered car race team earned their
ham tickets this past summer so they could use Amateur Radio to coordinate race activities. Ham radio, they'd discovered, worked much better than the Family
Radio Service units they had been using for race communication.

In October, the "Sundancer" competed in
World Solar Challenge 2003
in Australia. Although the Mississippi team didn't win, they tried their best, which is what really counts. Great job!

New EchoLink, IRLP Nets

We've received word of a new youth net on EchoLink--the Onondaga County Youth Radio Amateur Net in New York. The net is called on the 145.350 MHz WW2N EchoLink
repeater node #64224 in Pompey, New York. Stop by and say hello on Sundays at 7 PM Eastern Time.

In Southern California, Bob Schneider, KC9AJY, reports the IRLP New Ham Trivia Net takes place on a linked 440-MHz repeater system and on IRLP node 3500.
Checkin is at 7 PM Pacific Time on Fridays.

Kid's Day 2004

Kid's Day 2004 is Sunday, January 4. This event offers a fun way for kids of all ages, licensed or unlicensed, to learn about Amateur Radio while having
fun. By participating, you can earn a colorful certificate. More
information, times and frequencies
are on the ARRL Web site.

Former Youth Editor Resurfaces in Adult World

Former Youth@HamRadio.Fun Editor Brian Mileshosky, N5ZGT, reports: "I'm currently working as a member of the technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories,
doing electrical engineering. Married life is treating me well, as Katelyn is a wonderful wife and very supportive of my addictions--ham radio and Scouting."

Brian also plans to go back to school to get his master's degree. "I've been accepted to Georgia Tech's master's program to get my MSEE, and I will be taking
my first class this spring via distance learning," he reports. He hopes to complete his graduate degree at Georgia Tech in Atlanta starting in August.

Brian also notes that he's been elected president of the Upper Rio FM Society, New Mexico's largest ham radio club with 700 members. The Upper Rio maintains
one of the nation's best VHF/UHF linkable repeater systems and APRS networks. "Other than that," he adds, "I'm trying to stay as active as possible within
the hobby!"

Free Money!

The Foundation for Amateur Radio Inc (
a non-profit organization headquartered in Washington, DC, plans to administer 59 scholarships for the 2004-2005 academic year to assist radio amateurs.
FAR invites Amateur Radio licensees planning to pursue a full-time course of study beyond high school and now enrolled in or accepted for enrollment at
an accredited university, college or technical school to compete for these scholarships.

Awards range from $500 to $2500. Preference in some cases goes to residents of specific geographical areas or to those pursuing certain programs of study.
FAR encourages Amateur Radio clubs--especially those in Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin--to announce these
scholarship opportunities at meetings, in newsletters, during training classes, on nets and on Web pages.

Additional information and an application form is available by sending a letter or QSL card postmarked prior to April 30, 2004, to FAR Scholarships, PO
Box 831, Riverdale, MD 20738.

ARRL Hiram Percy Maxim Award

The ARRL invites nominations of exceptional young Amateur Radio operators for the ARRL Hiram Percy Maxim Memorial Award. Nominations are due to ARRL section
managers by March 31, 2004. The HPM Award goes each year to an enthusiastic and active amateur licensee aged 21 or younger whose contributions to Amateur
Radio and to the community are of the most exemplary nature.

An ideal nominee may be involved in recruiting new hams through demonstrations as well as by example to his or her peers; on the air and/or public service
activities; employing technical ingenuity to further Amateur Radio; public relations activities; and organizations on a local, state or national level.
The HPM Award winner receives an engraved plaque and a check for $1500.

Complete information is available on the ARRL
Hiram Percy Maxim Memorial Award
Web page, which includes a link to the nomination form. Those nominating HPM Award candidates should include their contact information and forward the form
to their
ARRL Section Manager.
Section managers also may nominate young hams for this award. For additional information, contact
Jean Wolfgang, WB3IOS.

Winter Break Reading
List of 9 items
• The Amateur Radio Crossword Puzzler
(Dec 21, 2003)
• German School Group Enjoys Successful ARISS Contact
(Dec 19, 2003)
• School Club Roundup 2003 certificates are in the mail
(Dec 17 "In Brief")
• Scouts helped in Isabel response
(Dec 17 "In Brief")
• Kid's Day is Sunday, January 4!
(Dec 17, 2003)
• ISS Commander Talks with German Student-Amateurs
(Dec 9, 2003)
• ARRL Web youth columnist invited to do youth column for YLRL
(Dec 3 "In Brief")
• High school program yields dozens of new hams
(from Dec 3 "In Brief")
• Expedition 8 Commander Enjoys First School Group QSO
(Nov 25, 2003)
list end

Remember To . . .
List of 7 items
• Check into the EchoLink Connecticut Amateur Radio League of Youth (CARLY) Net Sunday evenings at 7:30 Eastern Time, on the K3KID link.
• Try the ARRL
Youth Sked Database
to set up on-air schedules with other young hams.
• Visit the North American Youth Net (NAYN) on Mondays and Fridays at 2300 to 2330 UTC on 14. 329 MHz.
• Check out the
(Youth) Web page.
• Take practice Amateur Radio tests on
• Attend a local
(Amateur Radio convention):
• But most of all, get involved! No excuses!
list end

Final Comments

Thank you to everyone who has contributed items for possible use in this column. I'm gratified to see so many each month. That's outstanding!

Although I may not be able to include your contribution immediately, I will attempt to use it in the future.

A safe and happy new year 2004 to all!

Editor's Note: Fourteen-year-old Extra-class operator and ARES Member Andrea Hartlage, KG4IUM, resides in Grayson, Georgia. Her Amateur Radio activities
include public service, kit building, hamfesting, and operating SSB, CW and digital modes. Amateurs with youth-related news and photos are invited to contact
via e-mail
with the subject line "Youth Column." See previous Youth@HamRadio.Fun
on the ARRL Web site

Post 270 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Sunday, 01-Jun-2008 19:58:00

Changes in the Procedure for Downloading
Topographic Maps for Use with HFTA
We thank Pete Smith, N4ZR, for kindly contributing this information.
Since the 20th Edition of The ARRL Antenna Book was released, there have been some
changes made in the Web sites that are recommended for downloading topographic maps
and other files for use with HFTA.
Seamless DEMs (Digital Elevation Models)
The URL remains unchanged at,
but USGS has changed the
web site somewhat. When you arrive, the first screen now looks like this:

Click on “View and Download United States Data”. The next screen has some subtle
changes. In particular, the “Define Area By Coordinates” text link has been replaced by
the right-hand of the two buttons under “Downloads” in the lower left margin. Before
you click on it, you need to determine which “layers” of data to be downloaded. Click the
Download tab in the right margin and when it appears, click on the triangle to the left of
the word Elevation. That will drop down a list of the various elevation choices that are

You want to check the “1’ NED” box. You should also click on the “Land Cover”
triangle and uncheck the default “NLCD 1992 Land Cover” box.
Now click on the download icon. This will bring up a new browser window, which
should look familiar. Complete this screen as outlined in pages 6 and 7 of the current
HFTA instructions to center the downloaded area on your tower location, then and click
on the “Add Area” button.

The next screen is newly formatted, but conveys the same information about what
you have set to download. Here, as before, you need to click the “Modify Data Request”
button. When you do that, a completely new (and confusing) screen appears:

Make sure the NED 1 Arc Second box is checked. Go to the Data format drop-down
in that line, and select GeoTIFF instead of ArcGRID. Scroll down to the bottom of the
page and click on “Save Changes and Return to Summary.” Now you’re back at the
previous screen, but with the format of the download changed and updated.

Make sure the dataset and output format are as shown. This is also a good time to
check the coordinates one last time. Then click the “Download” button and follow the
instructions on page 8 of the original HFTA instructions to save the zip file that results.
We’re done with USGS, but the fun isn’t quite over yet, because if you run
MicroDEM at this point, pick “Open DEM” and try to open the zip file you just created,
you will get an error. What you now need to do is to extract from the zip file (use WinZip
or whatever you want) the file with the “tif” extension into the MapData|DEM
subdirectory. When you open this *.tif file, voila! You’ll have your topo map open and
ready to work on. You can then save it as a DEM with a descriptive name (like your call
sign, for example), and open it directly once to be sure it’s OK. At this point you can
delete the *.tif file and the associated zip file, because you won’t need them any more.
Adding Tiger Data (Roads, Rivers, Etc)
This step adds considerably to the utility of the maps in MicroDEM, by helping you
be sure that your terrain profiles are drawn from the correct point. But again the
government IT types have been playing with things. The good news is that they have
made retrieving Tiger data easier. Instead of the process outlined in the HFTA manual,
follow along with this: Go to
and look up
the 5-digit FIPS code for your county.
When you have the code (you’ll only need to do this once), go to
and find your state. Click
on it and then download the appropriate numbered zip file. Follow the procedure on
pages 13-14 of the HFTA manual to overlay the geographic data on the topographic DEM
you already created. And there you are (or rather here is the N4ZR QTH). Cool, isn’t it?

Post 271 of 367

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 0:18:18

ARLB028: FCC proposes two new amateur bands!
ARLB028 FCC proposes two new amateur bands!

ARRL Bulletin 28 ARLB028
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT May 10, 2002
To all radio amateurs

ARLB028 FCC proposes two new amateur bands!

Good news for ham radio this week! FCC has proposed going along with
ARRL's request for a new domestic (US-only), secondary HF allocation
at 5.25 to 5.4 MHz. The FCC also is ready to permit operation on a
136-kHz ''sliver band'' in the low-frequency (LF) region. And, in
response to a third ARRL request, the FCC has proposed elevating
Amateur Radio to primary status at 2400 to 2402 MHz.

''I'm just as tickled as I can be,'' ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP,
said upon hearing the news. ''This is a classic example of our ARRL
at work.''

The FCC voted unanimously May 2 to adopt the Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking in ET Docket 02-98. The Commission released a Public
Notice May 9, and the NPRM is expected to be released soon. A
comment deadline will be announced as soon as it's available.

The FCC said the new 5-MHz band would help amateurs ''better match
their choice of frequency to existing propagation conditions.'' The
band, if approved, would be the first new amateur HF allocation
since World Administrative Radio Conference 1979 gave amateurs 30,
17 and 12 meters--the so-called ''WARC Bands.'' Assuming the 5-MHz
band eventually is authorized, it could be a few years before it
actually becomes available.

The League said its successful WA2XSY experiments demonstrated that
amateurs can coexist with current users and that the band is very
suitable for US-to-Caribbean paths. In comparisons with 80 and 40
meters, the WA2XSY operation also showed the 60-meter band to be the
most reliable of the three. The ARRL also argued that a new 150-kHz
allocation at 5 MHz could relieve periodic overcrowding on 80 and

If allocated to amateurs on a secondary basis, hams would have to
avoid interfering with--and accept interference from--current
occupants of the spectrum, as they already do on 30 meters. The band
5.250 to 5.450 MHz now is allocated to Fixed and Mobile services on
a co-primary basis in all three ITU regions.

The ARRL asked the FCC for two LF allocations in October 1998--135.7
to 137.8 kHz and 160 to 190 kHz. The FCC said its action on one part
of that LF request proposes changes that would enhance the ability
of amateur radio operators to conduct technical experiments,
including propagation and antenna design experiments, in the 'low
frequency' (LF) range of the radio spectrum.''

Several countries in Europe and elsewhere already have 136-kHz
amateur allocations. The first amateur transatlantic contact on the
band was recorded in February 2001.

Hams would be secondary to the Fixed and Maritime Mobile services in
the 136-kHz allocation. The League said its engineering surveys
suggest that hams could operate without causing problems to power
line carrier (PLC) systems already active in that vicinity or to
government assignments. Unallocated Part 15 PLC systems are used by
electric utilities to send control signals, data and voice.

The FCC said its proposal to upgrade the Amateur Service allocation
at 2400 to 2402 MHz to primary ''seeks to protect current amateur use
of this band.'' Hams have shared their other 2.4 GHz spectrum on a
secondary basis with government users.

Amateurs already are primary at 2390 to 2400 and from 2402 to 2417
MHz. The ARRL has said primary status in the intervening spectrum
slice was needed ''to provide some assurances of future occupancy of
the band segments for the next generation of amateur satellites.''

The ARRL has expressed its belief that hams can continue to
accommodate Part 15 and Part 18 devices at 2.4 GHz.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 0:18:57

ARRL Going to the Mat on 70-cm Band Threat

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 28, 2002--ARRL officials have met with FCC staff members as part of the League's effort to stave off a band threat on 70 cm. ARRL General
Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, and Technical Relations Manager Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, delivered an ex parte presentation to Hugh van Tuyl and Karen Rackley of
the FCC's Office of Engineering and Technology staff on January 14. At issue was SAVI Technology's plan--already tentatively agreed to by the FCC--to deploy
unlicensed transient RF identification devices between 425 and 435 MHz at much higher field strengths and duty cycles than Part 15 rules now permit for
such devices.

"We told them that this was the worst possible choice of bands for these RFIDs," Imlay said. "Besides, there's no technical justification for that choice
of frequencies." The request to use 70 cm has more to do with economics than technology, he said, because SAVI needs to bring down the cost of RFIDs in
order to make a profit. United Parcel Service (UPS) has supported SAVI's proposal in comments, although the company is not yet using the technology.

Imlay added that the ARRL would "do whatever it takes" to stave off the threat, and that could include further direct appeals to FCC staffers. The ARRL
plans to file "strongly worded" comments on the SAVI petition by the February 12 comment deadline. Reply comments are due by March 12, 2002. Imlay said
that van Tuyl and Rackley assured him that SAVI's request "was not a done deal."

RFIDs are used for what's called "asset tracking." Among other applications, the RFID tags could be used to track and inventory parcel shipments and vehicles.
The US Department of Defense already uses SAVI's RFID tags to identify what's in shipping containers.

The FCC acted on the SAVI request last October in an FCC Notice of Proposed Rule Making and Order (ET Docket 01-278) aimed primarily at reviewing and updating
portions of its Part 2, 15 and 18 rules. The ARRL argued in comments filed last March that the field strengths and duty cycles SAVI proposed for its RFID
tags as Part 15 "periodic radiators" were unreasonable and "would undoubtedly seriously disrupt amateur communications in one of the most popular of the
Amateur Service allocations," particularly for weak-signal enthusiasts.

The RFID tags are interrogated by a hand-held device. "You can imagine, in a warehouse, there might be multiple interrogation devices, and these RFIDs could
be going off all the time," Imlay said. "It could be constant." Not only that but RFID tags on the move could generate interference that could be impossible
to pinpoint.

The ARRL's January 14 ex parte presentation was complemented by an interference study prepared by ARRL Lab Supervisor Ed Hare, W1RFI, and ARRL Senior Engineer
Zack Lau, W1VT. The presentation supported the ARRL's assertion that "the signal levels proposed for RFID systems at the duty cycles proposed to be permitted
in this proceeding will cause substantial interference to amateur stations in excess of 1000 meters from the RFID transmitter."

The League not only maintains that the RFID tags could result in significant interference to amateurs, it believes the FCC lacks the statutory authority
to permit them under its Part 15 rules in the configuration SAVI has requested. At the field strengths requested--a maximum field strength of 11,000 uV/m
and a peak level of 110,000 uV/m at a distance of three meters--current FCC rules permit only very short data bursts with significant time out between
subsequent transmissions. SAVI has proposed permitting continuous transmissions of up to two minutes plus retransmission in the case of an error. The ARRL
argues that under the Communications Act of 1934, such devices with substantial interference potential must be licensed.

"There's no exclusion for Part 15 devices," Imlay said. "What the FCC is proposing is a wholesale abandonment of the rules governing periodic radiators."
The ARRL has argued that the FCC does not have the authority to put such Part 15 devices just anywhere and has suggested that SAVI pick one of the Industrial,
Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands instead of 425-435 MHz. Imlay says SAVI wants 70 cm, however, because it can most economically obtain devices for that
band from Europe, where 433.92 MHz is an ISM band in some countries.

Other financial factors may be involved as well. Imlay pointed to an article about SAVI that appeared in the December issue of American Shipper magazine,
a copy of which was supplied to ARRL by Rick Wheeler Jr, N4JGU. The article noted SAVI's long-term relationship with the US Defense Department. It also
pointed out that the privately held SAVI--with some 300 employees around the world--has received financial backing from UPS's Strategic Enterprise Fund,
as well as from other venture capital investors. The article quotes Strategic Enterprise Fund Director John Wilson as saying that UPS might turn to RFIDs
"as the price comes down."

For more information, read the QST "It seems to us . . .
Unlicensed to Kill"
editorial by ARRL Executive Vice President David Sumner, K1ZZ, and visit the
Threats to our Amateur Bands page.
Amateurs are invited to comment on this proposal via the FCC's
Electronic Comment Filing System
(ECFS). When searching, enter "01-278" in the "Proceeding" box in the "Search for Filed Comments" window.

A copy of the
ARRL Ex Parte Presentation
interference study is available on the ARRL Web site "Band Threats" page.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 16:37:59

August 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 8
Back to Basics
From shopping for your first radio to putting up your first antenna, here is some tried and
true advice.
By Dave Miller, NZ9E
7462 Lawler Ave
Niles, IL60714-3108
It’s that confusing place where we’ve all been at one time or another. Advertisements and catalogs are spread in
front of you. There’s some money burning a hole in your pocket. You’re about to invest in your first Amateur Radio station
and you don’t know which way to go!
Forty years ago, when I entered the hobby, my choices were relatively limited. There were probably fewer ham
equipment manufacturers and, as I remember, less variety. I certainly took the time to peruse the catalogs and ads, but
most ham stations in those days started small, perhaps just a basic receiver, a two-tube transmitter and a wire dipole
antenna. The bands were less crowded then, so you could count on making copious contacts with simple equipment.
Too Many Features?
I’m somewhat relieved that I’m not starting in the hobby today. Although there is more to do these days, there’s also
considerably more information to plow through. Making a purchase decision you can live with isn’t easyespecially if you
fall victim to “feature overload.” Allow me to explain.
I have one 2-meter H-T that, for the life of me, I can’t remember how to program. It has too many functions for my
needs. I don’t use it often enough to keep the logic of its programming current in my mind. I should have taken a hint
before I bought it; a friend of mine had the same H-T and had to carry the instruction book at all times. My friend’s
experience should have told me something, but I couldn’t resist. It was such a neat-looking radio.
I have another H-T that doesn’t do nearly as much, but it does what I want. The buttons and programming logic
make much more sense to me, so I end up using the simpler radio most of the time. I should probably sell the complicated
rig but it’s such a neat-looking radio!
What’s the moral of this story? Overlooking the sanity question, don’t buy more than you need, or think you’ll need in
the future. Resist the temptation to swoon over a nice exterior design or a laundry list of bells and whistles. Not all features
are good features. At times they can be traps.
I once owned a cellular phone with way too many features. One day I managed to get it into the “locked” mode.
That’s the mode you use if you want to keep someone else from playing with your phone while you’re not around. I never
used the lock feature, so I didn’t know how to unlock it. I didn’t have the manual with me at the time, so the phone was
useless. It couldn’t have happened at a worse moment. It was a cold January night in northern Illinois and my car was
acting up. (No, I didn’t have my basic H-T.)
I recently saw a packet message from a poor fellow who was pleading for instructions on how to reprogram his H-T.
He was on vacation, had neglected to bring along the manual and couldn’t figure out how to reset the programming. No
doubt he tried dozens of combinations, before sheepishly sending that packet bulletin. I didn’t laugh when I read it. I knew
exactly how he felt. Unfortunately, I couldn’t help him. He had a different too-many-features-for-its-own-good H-T than
Talk to Your Fellow Hams
Do your homework up front. Before you order a piece of equipment, talk to as many current owners as you can.
Don’t accept just one opinion. Try to get a number of opinions and decide from the total tally instead. I’ve found that most
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August 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 8
hams are willing to share information on their experiences with different products. These personal experiences will often
tell you more than a manu-facturer’s brochure.
Dealing with Dealers
Let’s suppose that you’ve decided to buy new gear for your first station. Look for a dealer you can trust to give you a
fair market price, and who will help you with any questions you may have down the road. Make sure the dealer will accept
returns within a reasonable period of time.
The dealer should be the interface between you and the equipment manufacturer for at least the original shakedown
time of the warranty period. If you’re lucky, you’ll find a dealer who can also provide repair services.
If you expect reasonable treatment from a dealer, it pays to be reasonable yourself. Dealers operate on tight profit
margins, so don’t expect them to devote untold hours to your particular installation problemsespecially if they aren’t
strictly equipment-related. No dealer can be expected to provide detailed design and troubleshooting information for your
particular station. And they definitely do not make house calls!
And if you decide to return your purchase, don’t be upset if the dealer charges a restocking fee. Put yourself in his
shoes. By accepting your return, the dealer must take a loss and resell the gear as usedwhich is exactly what it is. The
restocking fee helps him recover a little of his lost margin while he tries to keep you happy.
What About Used Equipment?
In my opinion (and remember, this is only one opinion!), you should avoid large investments in used equipment. The
exception is when you can buy your gear from a reputable dealer who’ll stand behind it for at least 60 days. Sometimes it
takes that long for problems to show up. Besides, busy hams may not be able to fully test their purchases sooner than
If you’re a whiz at fixing electronic circuitry, or have a commitment from a good friend who is, you’re in a different
category. There are plenty of used-equipment bargains out there if you’re willing to take the gamble.
But for a beginner who may not have an in-depth knowledge of radio circuitry, buying expensive rigs at a hamfest, or
from a private party with no guarantee, is risky at best. Hams have excellent reputations as honest peddlers of
second-hand gear. Even so, there are exceptions to the rule. I’ve been told that something was working “just fine,” only to
discover that the seller was exaggerating quite a bit! Once I had to throw away a large item that I’d purchased at a
hamfest. After trying to make it work, I discovered that it was damaged beyond the cost of fixing. I’ve also put in some very
long hours repairing other bargains.
Some hams sell pristine gear because they need to raise money for one reason or another. If they’re sufficiently
desperate, a bargain may indeed be yours for the taking. But there are those other times when the items they’re offering
for sale may not be up to par. Even if a radio looks beautiful, the seller might “forget” to tell you that it’s been through a
flood, fire or lightning strike.
Many of the items that I’ve bought at hamfests were working, after a fashion, but didn’t meet their original
specifications. I suppose you could say the radios were “just fine” as far as the seller is concerned. “Just fine” is a pretty
relative term, isn’t it?
High On Antennas
After you’ve probed your fellow hams for advice on the equipment you’ll need inside, the conversation usually shifts
to what you’ll need outsidethe antenna, of course! That’s good, because talking to as many people as possible will help
clear away some of the dust you raised by furiously leafing through all the antenna catalogs!
Antenna decisions are formidable, even for experienced hams. There really is no best antenna for every situation.
Reading through a couple of ARRL antenna publications is a good start, though much of what you’ll read is more than you
need to know at the moment (later on in your ham career, this might not be true). Try to determine your operating needs
as far as frequency coverage is concerned. Then, take a good look at your available space and see what will fit.
Page 2 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
August 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 8
A Basic HF Antenna
For a simple, multiband HF antenna, it’s hard to beat a wire dipole. Simply make it as long as possible, feed it in the
center with 450-Ù ladder line, buy an antenna tuner with a balanced output and you’re in business (see Figure 1). You can
make this antenna yourself, or buy it premade if you’re short on time. A 130-foot dipole of this type should be usable on
almost every HF band. Shorter versions will also work, but you may not be able to load them on every band.
Ladder line, by the way, earns its moniker because it resembles a ladder in appearance. (Some hams call it “window”
line, which is a more accurate description.) I recommend it for this simple dipole because it has very low loss at HF, even
when the SWR is moderately high. This advantage allows you to use the antenna for each band regardless of the
matching conditionsas long as you have a decent antenna tuner.
What most hams and ham manufacturers call an antenna tuner is really an antennamatching network. It doesn’t
tune the antenna in the literal sense. Instead, it matches your 52-Ù radio to your antenna system, which may be at an
impedance considerably different than 52 Ù.
Try to install the dipole as high as possible. If a horizontal dipole is too close to the ground, most of your signal will be
going skyward at a steep angle. Without wading chest deep into propagation analysis, the bottom line is that a high
radiation angle is generally not good for long-distance communication. Don’t lose too much sleep over your antenna
heights, however. Raise the antenna as high as you can and change the subject when you’re asked about it. You’ll still
make lots of contacts.
No doubt you’ve been impressed by the tall towers and glittering aluminum that makes up some HF antenna
systems. Although they’re terrific performers, you don’t need these expensive antenna farms to get on the air. Start simple
and dream of greater things to come. You’ll be happier in the long run.
After you get on the air with your basic HF antenna, you’ll get plenty of recommendations for the ideal antenna for
your “dream station.” You’ll find that hams are keen on antennas, each having their own favorites. The topic of antennas is
always a great ice breaker at the beginning of a conversation. Just ask, “What’s your favorite HF antenna and why?” Then
stand back!
What About VHF/UHF Antennas?
If you intend to put up a VHF or UHF antenna, you’ll find that the choices are much easier. Again, try to decide how
many bands you’d like to cover, then look in the catalogs or talk to other hams. If you’re only interested in FM voice or
packet, you’ll be looking for a vertically polarized antenna, from a simple 1/4-wavelength ground plane to a multiband
model. You have your choice of omnidirectional antennas (good for all directions), or various beam designs, which focus
your signal in a particular direction. However, an effective beam antenna also requires an antenna rotator. That means
extra cost and complication.
If you’re setting your sights on SSB or CW operation, invest in a horizontally polarized antenna. Beams are the rule
herethe bigger the better.
VHF/UHF antennas are pretty straightforward to install. They’re normally lightweight, which means you can get by
with heavy-duty TV antenna mounting hardware for the installation. Get the antenna as high as you safely can, and feed it
with low-loss coaxial cable. Don’t forget to follow the safety information that always accompanies new antennas. Enlist the
aid of an experienced ham when it’s time to do the installation. A veteran ham can give you many time- and
headache-saving tips, in addition to providing an extra pair of hands.
Some Final Thoughts
There’s much more to learn, of course, but that will come in due time. Getting a basic station up and running is your
first priority.
You can make lots of worthwhile contacts now and take your time learning and planning your next moves. If you
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August 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 8
follow some of the tips I’ve outlined, and seek input from others, you’ll be well on your way to earning your Old Timers
award. That’s rightsomeday you’ll be the veteran lending a helping hand. That’s the way it works in Amateur Radio!

Figure 1Cut a long length of multistranded copper wire into two equal pieces. Attach the pieces to each end of a plastic
or ceramic insulator and place two more insulators at the two ends. Attach 450-Ù ladder line at the center and run it back
to your antenna tuner. Secure ropes to both ends and raise the antenna as high as you can. You now have a dipole
antenna that you can use on several HF bands.
Page 4 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved

Post 274 of 367

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 16:39:19

March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3
Try Building Your Own Equipment
Getting the Parts
The first step is to carefully read the schematic diagram and compile a complete parts list. Parts lists in most articles
typically describe only the less-than-ordinary parts being used. So read the parts list carefully, to be sure you understand
exactly what each part must be.
Once you know what you need, you have to figure out where to get the parts. It took me about a month of thumbing
through ham radio and electronics magazines to find sources for all the parts I needed. Finally, between a couple of very
well-stocked QRP kit companies3 and a local electronics surplus store, I acquired all the parts.
Wes (W7ZOI) and Roger (KA7EXM) Hayward encourage the use of “ugly” construction techniques.4 But, because I
was new to building, I opted for PC boards that were offered by FAR Circuits.5 My rationale was twofold: First, I felt that I
could more easily diagnose a problem in a circuit that was neatly laid out. Second, I estimated there would be fewer
component-insertion mistakes with a clearly marked PC board (FAR’s component overlays make part placement easier).
Those are two primary considerations for the beginning builder. Finally, I wanted the finished product to look good and
operate well.
Populating the Boards and Initial Testing
Once I had the PC boards, the building started. Being a complete novice to such a venture, I built all three boards in
a weekend, without thought of testing each subsection. (My education continued: I later learned to build a small section of
a board and test it before going on to the next one, so problems can be localized as they occur). Besides, what would I
test for anyway? How was I supposed to know what the output of a correctly operating oscillator should look or sound like?
I went back to the article to find out what to do next. The next logical step, it said, was to test each section as it was
being built. Oops! It was a little late for that. This makes a very good point: Before you start work, read the article (or
instruction sheet) thoroughly and repeatedly, to be sure you understand everything you should do, such as when to stop
building and perform intermediate testing!
“Testing should begin with the oscillator board.” Okay, I can hook up a 12-V supply and listen for an 800-Hz tone at
MHz on my Kenwood rig. This is one of many little tricks I learned along the way: using another radio to test the radio under construction. I powered up
the board, tuned my rig to 7.000 MHz and began turning the air-dielectric variable capacitors hooked to the oscillator board. But alas! No signal! What
happened? How could this be? I did everything according to the instructions!
I went back and immediately began looking for obvious mistakes. Okay, I did solder the main inductor into the
oscillator incorrectly, grounding the wrong end. I found another mistake, a transformer wound with the incorrect number of
turns. I hooked the power back up, and began tuning the oscillator, while listening on the Kenwood rig for a 7-MHz signal.
Still nothing!
At this point, I enlisted the help of other hams I knew. As you would expect, each one had a different piece of advice.
One thought that the oscillator was just being finicky, and maybe if I replaced the transistor in it, it would work. Another
suggested that the original circuit might be incorrect. I followed through with these suggestions, testing the circuit yet again
and determined that the VFO still would not oscillate!
To put it mildly, I was very frustrated. Reading the construction articles made everything sound so easy, and here I
was with about $50 worth of parts that did nothing! I decided to start at square one and rebuild the oscillator. I purchased
another oscillator board (by now, the original had several lifted traces caused by the several times I had placed, removed
and replaced parts).
From reading the various QRP books, I was able to figure out which part of the board was the oscillator circuit (my
education was paying off!). I put the 10 or so components on the board, powered it up and listened with my Kenwood for a
Page 1 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3
signal. Still nothing! I was really discouraged at this point; 10 little components were defeating me! I decided to yet again
replace those components, one by one. I did this, checking for oscillation after each new part was installed.
I had replaced all but two disc-ceramic capacitors, yet the board still didn’t function. The capacitors were clearly
marked with the correct value and coefficient, so I didn’t question their integrity. As a last resort, I decided to change them
anyway, using components from another parts source. I powered up the oscillator board and it immediately started
oscillatingsuccess at last! And another lesson learned: Never assume that a componenteven a new componentmust
surely be okay.
The next step was to connect the oscillator board with the transmit buffer/amplifier board. This went well. With the
buffer/amplifier, I heard a much louder signal in my receiver. Then I connected the receive board to the oscillator and
buffer/amplifier boards. Using the calibration feature, I was able to tune the lower end of the oscillator to exactly 7.025
MHz. The calibration feature allows you to tune in a known frequency with your radio, and use that as a reference as you
tune the VFO. I set the band edge to 7.025 MHz with the VFO tuning capacitor in the fully meshed position; then as I
turned the VFO capacitor clockwise, the operating frequency increased. The rig operates from 7.025 to just above 7.100
MHza nice frequency spread for CW operating. The frequency reference used is strictly according to which part of the
band you are licensed for. I could have easily set the lower band edge to 7.100 MHz, for the Novice/Technician part of 40
meters, or to 7.000 MHz for the Amateur Extra Class portion of the band.
First QSO
Before putting the Ugly Weekender into an enclosure, I hooked up my multiband vertical, and eight NiCd D cells,
trying eagerly to make my first contact with the newly finished rig. Propagation was poor, though, and I was unable to
make a contact that evening.
I woke early the next day and began calling CQ about 6 AM. Rick, AC4WB, answered my call. We chatted for a few
minutes and then signed off. I was ecstatic! I’d made a good contact with only about 1.5 W from Rochester, New York, to
North Carolina! The thrill of contacting another ham with a low-power signalon a rig you’ve built yourselfis a great
About the time Rick’s QSL card for that contact arrived, I also received a card from an ARRL official observer (OO). I
had heard of OOs, but never had any direct experience with them. The OO, an amateur not far from Rick, had heard my
signal and sent me a card notifying me that my signal sounded chirpy. I thought about the report and realized that the
eight NiCd batteries weren’t sufficient to power my new rig. I added another two cells, to bring the voltage up from 10 V to
V, and the chirp problem was solved.
Putting the Rig in a Box
After the excitement of the initial QSO, I started work on how to integrate the three circuit boards in an enclosure. My
search for an enclosure started at the local electronics surplus store. They had an aluminum chassis without a bottom
plate (or, in the manner I used it, no top plate), but I could resolve that matter at a later date.
I wanted to build a home-station-size rig, so there wasn’t a need to squeeze the project into a miniature enclosure. I
may have opted for the latter if I had planned on taking the rig backpacking. My next step was to build a sub-enclosure for
the oscillator board, which would also contain the two air-dielectric variable capacitors. The enclosure isolates the VFO
from the other circuits and minimizes any changes in capacitance caused by nearby objects (the operator’s hand, for
I built this inner enclosure from some single-sided printed circuit (PC) board (see Figure 1). I cut the pieces of PC
board by scoring them with an X-acto knife, then snapping the board along the scored line. Very carefully, I soldered each
of four sides onto the bottom of the sub-enclosure, which would be bolted to the main enclosure later in the assembly. I
used hot-melt glue to secure a threaded standoff in each of the four corners. This permits the oscillator enclosure to be
bolted, not soldered, to the top of this inner enclosure. I could have soldered the entire unit, but that would have made
Page 2 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3
access to the circuitry difficult if a problem arose in the future.
Planning the Control Layout
After building an enclosure for the oscillator and bolting the board and variable capacitors into it, I considered how to
arrange the controls on the enclosure’s front and rear panels. There are no right or wrong ways to lay out the panels.
However, I didn’t want the controls so close together that I would accidentally nudge one while adjusting another. I wanted
the controls arranged in the most user-friendly fashion, from my point of view. Wow! I had progressed from being an
equipment builder to being an ergonomics engineer!
The photos show how I chose to place the tuning knobs, calibration, on/off, spotting, and audio output functions on
the front of the rig. The power, key, and antenna jacks are on the rear panel. Based on the location of these controls, I
placed the two boards and oscillator enclosure into the aluminum enclosure, trying to minimize lead lengths between the
boards. From the photo you’ll see that I placed the receiver board on the left, the oscillator enclosure in the center, and
the transmit buffer/amplifier board on the right. Before installing any boards, I first made a template of the holes I needed
to drill in order to accommodate the controls on the rig, as well as what would go inside it.
I used a pencil to carefully mark the aluminum enclosure so as to ensure that the holes were aligned with each
other, and that they were a comfortable distance from one another. I didn’t want the volume switch too close, for example,
to the tuning knobs. Again, I wasn’t trying to build the world’s tiniest radio, so ease of use was a higher priority than
minimizing the package size. Next, I drilled the holes. Using a drill press, I started with a 1/8-inch-diameter hole
everywhere a hole was called for. When larger holes were needed, I drilled several times, increasing the drill-bit size each
time. This procedure produces a neater hole than trying to blast a 1/2-inch-diameter hole from the start.
Finishing the Enclosure
I sanded the enclosure to remove any burrs resulting from the drilling. Next, I washed the enclosure in soapy water
and rinsed it well to remove any oil or grease. I painted the enclosure, first with a primer coat, followed by several coats of
gloss black enamel. Be sure to follow the paint manufacturer’s instructions! In my haste to paint, I applied a coat of paint
before the previous coat was curedthe result was an enclosure with an unwanted wrinkle finish! That mistake sent me
back to the enclosure-sanding phase! Now, I let the paint dry for 48 hours (drying times differ with paint brandsread the
label!) before applying another coat
After the paint was dry, it was time to letter the controls. I purchased dry transfer letters from the local college
bookstore. These transfers come in a variety of sizes and type faces, both in black and white. White letters were fine for
my black enclosure. The method for putting these letters on an object is simple: Just put the page of letters on the surface
of the project and using a pencil, apply gentle and uniform pressure over the surface of the letter to be transferred, by
drawing lines across it. The pressure of the pencil point makes the letter stick to the object. Aligning the letters is crucial; I
used pieces of Post-It paper as a guide line for alignment of the letters. Another trick I learned was to begin lettering a
label with the middle letter of the label. This character goes directly above the control. Next you add letters working from
the middle character toward both ends. The result is neat and aligned labels on the rig’s controls! Once the lettering was
complete, I coated the enclosure with several applications of clear gloss enamel, to protect the labels from being chipped
or rubbed off. Be careful when applying the clear coat (apply it sparingly), as any damage to the black undercoat or
lettering will send you back to the enclosure-sanding phase.
Mounting the Boards and the Controls
Once the enclosure was ready, I bolted the two boards and oscillator enclosure into the main enclosure,
reconnecting the boards with wires that were just the right length. Next, I mounted all the controls and jacks on the
enclosure, being careful not to scratch or damage the finish. All that was left to do was to figure out what to use as a top
for the enclosure. I thought it would be neat to put a transparent cover on the rig, so the viewer could see how the rig was
Page 3 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3
put together. So I put a piece of 1/8-inch acrylic plastic on the top of the enclosure. In order to secure the panel to the
enclosure, I again used the hot-melt glue gun to affix threaded standoffs into the upper corners of the enclosure. Using
countersunk bolts, the top is attached to the enclosure. A strip of rubber, about 1/16×3/8 inch, acts as a gasket between
the enclosure and the acrylic. Four rubber feet on the base keep my desk from getting scratched.
The End Product
I took great pains to plan and align the controls and jacks, was careful to ensure a smooth paint finish, and used the
label aligning and centering technique described to ensure a neat job. The result is a rig for which I have received many
compliments on both its appearance and its on-the-air signal.
In the process of building and debugging this project, I learned a lot. Since this rig was built, I have met other hams
who, as I am, are excited about home brewing their own station equipment. We have exchanged information on rig
building, and this has also increased my knowledge. I have even made several circuit boards after Brad Mitchell,
WB8YGG, showed me how easy it was.
My bench now sports a 30-meter QRP (milliwatt) transmitter project, a Neophyte receiver, and a version of the Ugly
Weekender for 30 meters.
There is an upsurge in the number of hams who are becoming interested in learning how radios work, using the
hands-on technique of learning by doing. I can remember how I would read The ARRL Handbook, QST and other ham
radio books and magazinesI would think I was understanding things, but then I couldn’t assimilate it. I couldn’t put it in
practice. When you build something, troubleshoot its problems, and make all the necessary adjustments to get it to work,
you finally start to understand all those words you read!
With patience and careful attention to detail, you can home brew a rig that looks as good as the available kitsand
may look as good as some of the commercially built radios. As a bonus, you’ll take pride in operating a radio that you
made yourself!
Many thanks to Wes and Roger Hayward for their effort in designing, building, and writing the articles for the Ugly
Weekender. I also thank N2HZK, KB3W, WD4RDZ, WK2A, and WA2N for their help and encouragement during the
debugging phase of my Ugly Weekender (which turned out so well they call it the Professional Weekender).
Gary M. Diana, Sr, was first licensed in 1989, and is currently an Amateur Extra Class. He is employed at Harris/RF
Communications, in Rochester, NY, as a lead software engineer. Gary received his BS in computer science from the
SUNY Institute of Technology, Utica, New York, in 1985. In 1990, he earned his MS in computer science at the Rochester
Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York. His other interests, in addition to home brewing ham radio equipment,
include hunting, fishing, and woodworking.
Some examples of recommended background reading are as follows: QRP Classics, 1990; W1FB’s QRP Notebook, 1991; W1FB’s Design Notebook: Practical Circuits
for Experimenters, 1990 (all ARRL: Newington). G-QRP Circuit Handbook, 1983 (G-QRP Club: Rochdale, Lancaster, UK, 1983). Wes Hayward, W7ZOI, and Doug DeMaw,
W1FB, Solid State Design for the Radio Amateur, (ARRL: Newington, 1986).
Roger Hayward, KA7EXM, and Wes Hayward, W7ZOI, “The Ugly Weekender,” QST, Aug 1981, pp 18-21. (The Ugly Weekender also appears on pages 30-33 to 30-36 of
the 1994 and several earlier editions of The ARRL Handbook . Also Roger Hayward, KA7EXM, “The Ugly Weekender II: Adding a Junk-Box Receiver,” QST, Jun
1992, pp 27-30. (This second article describes a receiver and a method of interfacing it with the Ugly Weekender transmitter article.)
Page 4 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3
Oak Hills Research, 20879 Madison St, Big Rapids, MI 49307; tel 800-842-3748. 624 Kits, 171 Springlake Dr, Spartanburg, SC 29302; tel 803-583-1304. Dan’s
Small Parts and Kits, 1935 S 3rd W, No. 1, Missoula, MT 59801; tel 406-543-2872. It is just happenstance that these are the suppliers I used; there are
many other suppliers of equal quality. Check the ads in QST for the many possible parts sources, and ask local hams for their suggestions along these lines.

“Ugly” construction is a method in which the builder solders components directly to a single or double-clad PC board of selected size, without etching the
board and usually without drilling any component-mounting holes. “Dead bug” construction is frequently used synonomously with ugly construction because
the components (such as ICs) are often secured to the PC board with a dab of glue, their leg-like leads erect, resembling a dead bug with its legs in the
FAR Circuits, 18N640 Field Court, Dundee, IL 60118.
Why Would I Want To Home Brew My Own Equipment?
The main reason for wanting to home brew your own equipment is that it is fun; what’s more, you can learn a great
deal. If you thought your first contact using ham radio was fun, you won’t believe the feeling of accomplishment you get by
doing the same with a radio you built yourself!
Don’t let your current class of license discourage you from a home brew project, even those for the HF bands. You
can build an HF transceiver and use it in the receive mode to build your code speed to upgrade your license class. W1AW
transmits code practice on many ham bands every day (see the W1AW Schedule in this issue for details of time and
There are resources out there to help you with your project. If you have Internet access, you can read the
newsgroups that relate to home brewing (ie,, or you can subscribe to the QRP listserver
(mail, subscribe qrp-l).
There are several excellent QRP newsletters that offer information on home brewing: the Northern QRP Club, QRP
ARCI, MI QRP Club, G-QRP Club, etc. There may even be some hams in your town that have experience building their
own equipment. Join or start your own club for home brewers.

The front panel of N2JGU’s Ugly Weekender.
Page 5 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3

Looking through the clear plastic top cover into the N2JGU “pretty” version of the Ugly Weekender.
Page 6 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3

Figure 1The oscillator sub-enclosure, fabricated from pieces of single-sided PC-board material.
Page 7 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved
March 1995 QST Volume 79, Number 3

A collection of N2JGU’s home brew QRP gear, showing that home brew doesn’t have to be homely!
Page 8 - Copyright © 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All rights reserved

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 17:24:54

ARRL Urges FCC to Nix Part 15 Petition Affecting 420-450 MHz

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 6, 2001--The ARRL is urging the FCC to deny or dismiss a petition that seeks to boost the field strength and duty cycle of RF identification
systems deployed as unlicensed Part 15 devices in the 420-450 MHz band. The League filed comments March 1 in a petition by SAVI Technology Inc.

The petition, made public January 30 and designated RM-10051, asks the FCC to change certain Part 15 rules affecting unlicensed, periodic, intentional radiators.
SAVI, which markets radiolocation and wireless inventory control products, says it needs the rules changes to satisfy customer demand for increased RFID
system capabilities.

The ARRL argues that the field strengths and duty cycles SAVI proposes for its RFID tags "are completely unreasonable and would undoubtedly seriously disrupt
amateur communications in one of the most popular of the Amateur Service allocations."

SAVI wants the FCC to permit operation of its devices, centered on 433.9 MHz, at field strengths of 110,000 uV/m measured at three meters to communicate
over paths of 100 meters (approximately 328 feet). The company also wants to employ duty cycles of up to 120 seconds with only a 10-second silent period
between transmissions.

Current Part 15 rules governing these types of periodic radiators provide for fields strengths at that frequency of less than 5000 uV/m and duty cycles
of less than a second.

The League contends that SAVI's method of determining that a signal level of 110,000 uV/m would be permitted under Part 15 rules is flawed. "Signals levels
of that order could be heard for kilometers, or more, with even low-gain antennas," the ARRL said, adding that existing Part 15 rules adequately provide
for communicating over a range of 100 meters.

The League suggests that, if SAVI cannot get the necessary data throughput without employing extremely high field strengths and lengthy duty cycles, the
company ought to explore operation under other sections of Part 15 that don't include the kinds of limits periodic radiators must abide.

The ARRL characterized SAVI's petition as another in a long series in which manufacturers of unlicensed RF devices seek to liberalize rules regarding permitted
field strengths for such devices in bands allocated to the Amateur Service. And the League suggested that SAVI would be better off deploying the devices
in the 902-928 MHz band. "The frequency band chosen by SAVI was obviously done without interference avoidance in mind," the League said. "It is among the
worst choices SAVI could have made from that perspective."

The ARRL said SAVI not only has failed to show that its unlicensed devices could operate at the requested field strengths and duty cycles on an itinerant
basis without unduly risking harmful interference to amateurs, it hasn't shown why it needs such extremely high field strengths to communicate over paths
of 100 meters.

"Because RFID tags are itinerant and mobile, there is absolutely no chance whatsoever that interference between Amateur stations and RFID tags could be
mitigated once the devices are deployed," the ARRL asserted. "The interference potential of these devices is thus completely unpredictable and cannot be
remedied easily."

The League pointed out that the Communications Act of 1934 lacks authority to allow unlicensed devices with substantial interference potential. "Such devices
must be licensed," the ARRL concluded. Unlicensed Part 15 devices must not interfere with licensed services and must tolerate interference received from
licensed radio services in the same band.

The ARRL said limited anecdotal studies by ARRL of noise levels from unlicensed devices in certain metro areas indicate that manmade RF noise "is substantially
increasing." The League also pointed to a noise-level study planned by the FCC's Technological Advisory Council. The TAC has suggested that rapid degradation
of the noise environment could lie ahead and impact system reliability or even viability. The ARRL warned the FCC to "be extremely careful in evaluating
rulemaking petitions proposing substantial departures from present Part 15 rules."

ARRL's comments in RM-10051 is available on the
A copy of the SAVI Technology Petition is available on the FCC
Web site.

For more information on Part 15 devices, visit the ARRL
Web page.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 17:25:39

ISS Crew Chief to Chat with Alma Mater During ARISS Contact

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 7, 2001--Space Station Alpha Commander William "Shep" Shepherd, KD5GSL, will get a chance this week to chat via Amateur Radio with students
at his high school alma mater in Arizona. The Amateur Radio on the International Space Station, or ARISS, school contact today with students at Arcadia
High School in Phoenix is being squeezed in the waning days of the Expedition 1 crew's tour of duty aboard the International Space Station. The contact
is scheduled to take place from 1453 to 1504 UTC. Shepherd requested that ARISS fit the contact into the schedule.

Since finding out four months ago that Shepherd was an alumnus of the school, Arcadia High School senior Ross Tucker, AC7JO, has spearheaded an effort to
make the amateur contact a reality. Tucker co-founded and currently is president of the Arcadia High School Amateur Radio Club (KD7LAC). The club has attracted
some $3000 in donations, set up a working station, and boasts five new licensees. Tucker has managed to get some media coverage along the way. "The public
response to this project has been truly remarkable," he said.

Response inside the school has been intense as well. "Our school is already thrilled about this adventure," Tucker said. "In fact, the school involvement
has already started from the art department to the science department. The science teachers have all discussed our club in class, and have hosted a contest
for the best questions to ask the astronauts.

The Expedition 1 crew: Commander William "Shep" Shepherd, KD5GSL, is flanked by his Russian flight team, Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR (left), and Yuri Gidzenko.
[NASA Photo]

Among other questions, students at Arcadia plan to ask Shepherd about some of the research projects aboard the ISS, how much the crew relies on mission
control, the impact of the ISS on international relations, and what Shepherd remembers of his days in Arizona as an Arcadia High School student. A dozen
students are tentatively scheduled to pose questions to Shepherd during the approximately 10-minute contact.

Tucker says he's had help from Allen Cameron, N7UJJ, of the Carl Hayden High School ARC in setting up equipment for the contact. "We have been running drills
and simulations for a week now, and everything has gone smoothly."

Tucker says art students at Arcadia have painted a mural of the ISS in orbit that's on display behind the KD7LAC operating position at the school.

Since the Expedition 1 crew arrived aboard the ISS last November, Shepherd has spoken via Amateur Radio with youngsters at schools in Illinois, Virginia,
New York, Texas and Ontario, Canada.

ARISS spokesman Will Marchant, KC6ROL, said he expects it will be sometime in late March--after the Expedition 2 crew arrives--before ARISS school contacts
can resume. The ISS Expedition 2 crew will include two hams, Russian cosmonaut and Commander Yuri Usachev, RW3FU, and US astronaut Susan Helms, KC7NHZ,
in addition to US astronaut Jim Voss.

For more information on the ARISS program, visit the ARISS
Web site.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 17:26:42

W5LUA Documents 24-GHz Moonbounce Echoes; QSO Planned

NEWINGTON, CT, Mar 7, 2001--Noted VHF-UHF and microwave enthusiast Al Ward, W5LUA, reports that he documented echoes from the moon on 24 GHz earlier today.
Although some amateurs have claimed to have heard 24 GHz echoes in the past, it's believed that this marks the first time they have been documented.

Ward says he was able to hear and record the earth-moon-earth echoes on 24192.1 MHz at 0816 UTC today. "This triumphant event came after several years of
optimizing the system and many failed attempts at achieving lunar echoes," Ward said. Ward, who lives in Allen, Texas (EM13), was running 20 W and using
a three-meter dish.

Ward already is looking for another first. He plans to attempt a full-blown 24-GHz EME contact, and he told ARRL that he's confident it will succeed. "We'll
make it," he predicted. On the immediate agenda are listening tests tonight with WA7CJO and VE4MA.

Not only is 24 GHz the highest frequency on which amateur EME echoes have been monitored, the reception was particularly significant because water-vapor
absorption of signals peaks at around 24 GHz. "This is a major technical step for Amateur Radio," said ARRL First Vice President Joel Harrizon, W5ZN--himself
a VHF-UHF aficionado.

Ward says his three-meter Andrews dish is rated to 30 GHz with proper back structuring to optimize the dish's surface, and that made all the difference.

"The dish really began to perform when I added a back structure which looks like a tic-tac-toe board mounted to the backside of the dish," he said. "The
eight points of the back structure allowed me to optimize the dish's surface by pushing or pulling on the back of the dish to enhance the accuracy of the
dish's surface."

His LNA is a two-stage homebrew design using a pair of Agilent Technologies PHEMT devices that offer 2.25 dB system noise figures.

Ward used Realtrak software to track the moon, and AF9Y DSP software to copy the echoes. He also made sound recordings.

A fixture in the VHF-UHF and microwave standings, Al Ward, was the recipient of the 2000 ARRL Microwave Development Award.

Ward says he'll post the audio and PC screen shot files later today. Additional details are on the North Texas Microwave Society
Web site.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 20:13:22

Hello" Campaign Finale to Showcase Ham Radio's Past, Present and Future

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden

Allen Pitts, W1AGP

ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP, seen here at Dayton Hamvention 2006, conceived the "Hello" campaign.

Fessenden's National Electric Signaling Company site in Brant Rock, Massachusetts.


Fessenden (right) in his Brant Rock laboratory with two colleagues. [North Carolina Division of Archives and History Photo]

Katie Breen, W1KRB

ARRL Membership Manager Katie Breen, W1KRB, will be running a real-time blog -- called "
Hello -- Live!" --
that will include both photos and video.


The Machrihanish antenna mast and site.


The GB1FVT special event QSL card.

ARRL staffers and volunteers will put W1AW on the air for the "Hello" finale December 29-30.

NEWINGTON, CT, Dec 22, 2006 -- Amateur Radio past, present and future will be the focus as the ARRL's "
campaign concludes with on-the-air events Friday and Saturday, December 29 and 30. Aimed at putting a friendly face on Amateur Radio, "Hello" also has celebrated
"100 years of voice over radio worldwide." In 1906, Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden transmitted a program of voice and music -- in essence the
world's first radio broadcast -- from Brant Rock, Massachusetts. His original goal had been to make voice radio contact with a station in Machrihanish,
Scotland, but that plan fell through after a storm felled the Scottish station's antenna. ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP, says,
Fessenden, "in true ham radio spirit," switched to "Plan B,"
broadcasting a Christmas Eve program
to ships at sea.

"This month ham radio operators events will complete what Fessenden was unable to do in 1906 with special event stations and a lot more," Pitts says. "Three
primary centennial special events will take to the airwaves December 29 and 30, representing the past, present and future of Amateur Radio."

Special event stations
at Brant Rock -- sponsored by the Peconic Amateur Radio Club (
with Steve Barreres, K2CX, as team leader -- and GB1FVT in
Machrihanish --
with Duncan MacArthur, GM3TNT, heading that effort -- will epitomize Amateur Radio Past (Icom UK and Icom America are supplying equipment for both events).
Hiram Percy Maxim Memorial Station
at ARRL Headquarters will represent Amateur Radio Future. The station will be on the air with all voice modes for the event.

"In addition to the sites showing the past and future of radio, the transmission modes used will also reflect both traditional as well as new and emerging
technologies," Pitts says. "The stations will be operating AM -- an early 20th-century mode -- and SSB and FM -- both later 20th-century modes.
plus digital voice on HF will carry us into the 21st century." The special event will commence at 2000 UTC on Friday, December 29, and continue through
the next 24 hours.

"Hello -- Live!" Special Event Blog

During the W1AW "Hello" event operation, ARRL Membership Manager Katie Breen, W1KRB, will be running a real-time blog -- called "
Hello -- Live!" --
that will include both photos and video.

"This blog will be a way to find out and even see what's taking place at the three keystone stations," Breen said. She hopes to be able to include photos
and video from all three sites. "I hope people will
their thoughts on what Amateur Radio has meant to them, whether they're longtime licensees or newcomers. I want this to be fun and interactive, so the amateur
community can get a real picture of who we are here in Newington!"

Other Stations to Join the Celebration

Hundreds of other ham radio stations in the US and around the globe are also set to participate in the event. The special event participants will use a
variety of modes, reflecting the advances that have been made in radio technology since 1906.
List of 14 items
• The Amateur Radio Light House Society (
will give 100 bonus points for each "Hello" special event station they work to those taking part in its
Lighthouse Christmas Lights
event, which continues until January 1.

• Mel Whitten, K0PFX, and Paul Metzger, KQ6EH, are organizing the digital HF activities for the event and are recruiting stations who use digital forms
like WinDRM. The
Digital Voice Community
will be active for this event with stand alone modems and sound card/open source software (WinDRM). "This is a great way to get involved with other hams
using the latest in high tech digital mode technology in J1E/J2E HF digital voice emission," says DV enthusiast Jason Buchanan,

• The Amateur Radio Military Appreciation Day (

• Ashley Rennie and others will operate from Liberia as EL2AR.

• Ham radio instructor
Gordon West, WB6NOA,
will be on the air from California.

• The Marconi Radio Club's
will operate from a site near the Point Allerton Life Saving Station in Hull, Massachusetts.

• "William Penn" will say "Hello" from Philadelphia from WM3PEN, with help from members of the Holmesburg Amateur Radio Club (
The WM3PEN call sign was obtained in in 1976 to celebrate the US bicentennial, HARC Board Member, Bob Josuweit, WA3PZO, and WM3PEN trustee notes. He adds
that Philadelphians will know about the anniversary as the Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECO) Crown Lights proclaim, "American Radio Relay League:
Celebrating 100 years of voice over radio."

• Air Cadets in the UK will be on the air from several locations using special event call signs. Bill Borland, the Air Cadet's HF Network Manager, says
Air Cadet members of the Communications Flight from the Edinburgh and South Scotland Wing Easter Camp at MOD Machrihanish
made contact last April
with the Civil Air Patrol in the US.

• The Trinity College Alumni Radio Club will join as W1JUD on SSB and FM from 160 meters to 70 cm.

• Alabama's Huntsville Amateur Radio Club station K4BFT will be taking part in from the Space Camp at the US Space and Rocket Center using HF and VoIP modes.
Some 100 space campers will be on hand to say "Hello."

• Members of the
HFpack group
plan to be active.

• DW Dreyer-Juselius, ZS6DJD, Gary Immelman,ZS6YI, and PLA van Tonder, ZR6PD, will operate from South Africa on December 29, using all bands and including
digital modes.

• Marconi Radio Club of Newfoundland (
members will activate VO1MRC using the special call sign CH1MRC to celebrate the work of Fessenden. Among MRCN's honorary members is the author Jack Belrose,
VE2CV, who has written a lot about Fessenden.

• of Connecticut's Radio Amateur Society of Norwich (
N1NW, will be working FM, especially on 2 meters.
list end

If your group would like to be listed on the "Hello" site as event participants,
your station's call sign and location plus a list of voice modes you plan to use.

Fessenden Inspired Early Wireless Hobbyists

Pitts says Fessenden's 1906 broadcast inspired thousands to start playing with radio, or "wireless" -- a term that's come full circle over the decades.
Ham radio evolved from that sort of early tinkering, and ham radio operators have been in the forefront of developing wireless technologies from the start.

"They continue their role in exploring new designs and applications," he notes. "Today's hams use satellites, computers, software defined radio, microwave,
voice over Internet protocol systems and other technologies undreamed of in 1906. But it all started with the word 'Hello.'"

A Salute!

As the "Hello" campaign draws to a close, Pitts took the opportunity to express his appreciation on behalf of ARRL for the time, effort and energy the League's
corps of volunteer public information officers (PIOs) has put into promoting Amateur Radio.

"Dozens of people put in hundreds of hours of hard work, thought and effort in planning, creating, supporting and providing the 'Hello' materials for free
to clubs, groups and hams across the country," Pitts added. "The highest way to say 'thank you' to them was by using these materials well in advancing
Amateur Radio in your area."

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 20:13:51

2005 Ham of the Year Alan Kaul, W6RCL, SK

Alan Kaul, W6RCL (SK)

Alan Kaul, W6RCL (SK) [Courtesy Bill Pasternak, WA6ITF]

Kaul in Kosovo

This photo was taken on a secondary highway in southern Kosovo. NATO planes attacked a Yugoslav army column during the Air War (March-May 1999) and scored
direct hits on the tank in the foreground and the truck in the background. The site was inside the US Sector of Kosovo and Army munitions experts warned
against walking off the road or exploring the inside of the tank because of the probability of unexploded ordnance. [Courtesy Alan Kaul, W6RCL]


Kaul (also known as Sandpainter Silver Wolf) was involved with The YMCA of LaCanada/LaCrescenta. Here he is (back left) with the Y Indian Guides on a 1999
trip to the Santa Monica Air Museum. [Courtesy Alan Kaul, W6RCL]

2005 Ham of the Year
Alan Kaul, W6RCL, of La Canada Flintridge, California, died Friday, December 22 from complications of colon-rectal cancer. He was 64. First licensed as
K7EHW in 1958 while still in high school, he was a founding member of the Shandle Park High School Radio Club. Kaul went on to work at NBC, covering such
stories as the Iran hostage crisis in 1979, the Mt St Helens eruption, the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 and the hijacking of the cruise ship Achille Lauro.
He also spent two years covering O. J. Simpson's murder trial. During the hostage crisis, Kaul provided the only news on Amateur Radio coming from Iran.
At a time when Iran's government had outlawed ham radio, he managed to interview an Iranian radio amateur who was operating despite the ban. He also received
the Edward R. Murrow Award for Excellence in Television Journalism in 1997 for his role in producing NBC's coverage following the death of Mother Teresa.

Kaul is best known to radio amateurs for his work behind the scenes promoting the hobby. He wrote for and reported for Westlink Amateur Radio News, which
later became
Amateur Radio Newsline.
In 1983, he became involved with and produced a 30 minute video, Amateur Radio's Newest Frontier, profiling Dr Owen Garriott, W5LFL; Garriot conducted the
first manned Amateur Radio operation from space.

In 2003, Kaul teamed up with Walter Cronkite, KB2GSD, for
Amateur Radio Today,
perhaps the best known video on Amateur Radio. Released by the ARRL, in a two-day "sneak-peak" online session at the ARRL's Web site, it was downloaded
over 800 times; since then it has been downloaded over 20,000 times. This video has been used by the ARRL in its dealings with Congress and other governmental
regulators. It is also used by ordinary hams who are having trouble with zoning regulations or neighbors, and by ham clubs to explain the Amateur Radio
Service to local governments. It was awarded the Chicago Film Festival's Award of Merit. Kaul also helped produce
The ARRL Goes to Washington,
which documented the documented the League's efforts to preserve Amateur Radio spectrum in the face of threats such as broadband over power line (BPL) Internet

Kaul was interested in many aspects of Amateur Radio, but he focused mainly on QRP, especially QRP CW contesting. He entered his first contest in 1985.
In 2003, he helped establish the Hollywood Hills QRP Contest Club. He was also a member of the ARRL, the ARRL's Public Relations Committee, ARRL's A-1
Operator Club and was a CQ Amateur Radio Hall of Fame inductee (Class of 2006).

He held many foreign call signs as a result of traveling all over the world with NBC: F0FVR (France); G0/W6RCL (Great Britain); W6RCL/6Y5 (Jamaica); W6RCL/HH2
(Haiti), and JY9RL (Jordan). One of the best-remembered news contributions was his report on the death of His Majesty Al Hussein ibn Talal, JY1, King of

To report the passing into history of the king who opened up Jordan to Amateur Radio, Kaul pulled out all of the stops. Working from an intimate knowledge
of King Hussein and knowing the monarch's many ham radio friends, he created a remarkable reminiscence of the "man and his hobby" as seen through the eyes
of those who knew him best. The commercial media (CNN, NBC, CBS and so on.) had the story of the passing of a great political leader. Because of Kaul,
the world's radio amateurs will always remember JY1 as a human being who loved ham radio and was eager to use it as an educational tool to better the living
standard of the people of the troubled nation that he ruled.

Dave Bell, W6AQ, said that Kaul "was first and foremost a very ethical and honest journalist. He had a good appreciation of 'truth telling,' and he was
a wonderful writer. He wrote all the words Walter Cronkite said in Amateur Radio Today. He saved that video from oblivion by getting the right words to
go with the footage. It was a terrific film because of the way he wrote it. In fact, Walter only changed one word in it, a sailing term -- I thought that
was absolutely amazing."

According to Bell, Kaul was very interested in education. "I think Alan would like people to donate to the League in his name, especially the
Education & Technology Fund.
You would never meet anyone more giving than Alan. It was just his nature to be cheerful."

Kaul is survived by his wife Christine, their daughter Alexa and son Ryan, as well as two children from an earlier marriage, Scott and Karen. He had four
grandchildren: Spencer, Austin, Jaclyn and Justin. Funeral arrangements are pending. -- Additional reporting from Amateur Radio Newsline

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 20:14:25

The Amateur Amateur: Three (or Four) Words About ARES

By Gary Hoffman, KB0H
Contributing Editor
December 27, 2006

I just attended the monthly meeting of the
St Louis County Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES) group. We had a social get-together rather than a business meeting. It was a way to unwind, talk to people, meet some long-suffering spouses and
eat some fattening food. For me, it was also an opportunity to reflect on how the group fared this year.


Barry Mayer, KC0QYM, brought this cake to the ARES get-together.


There was a dramatic increase in the number of field stations that we could deploy.

Steve Wooten, KC0QMU

Steve Wooten, KC0QMU -- our leader and our guide.

As it happens, it was a banner year for our ARES group. We increased not only our membership roster, but more important, the number of active people in
the group. We dramatically expanded the number of people who can handle formal traffic. We saw a surge in the number of field stations that we can deploy.
We conducted a record number of exercises, including our first-ever Simulated Emergency Test (SET). In addition, we started serious negotiations with a
potential served agency.

Man, it was a lot of work. But it was a labor of love. And really, it has to be.

I was wondering, though, just how we got it right this year. Three words came to mind: Growth, Team, and Leadership.

Growth may seem obvious, but it's not. We went through a hard, dry spell when it seemed like we would never get another recruit. We thought of all sorts
of promotional gimmicks. I, personally, must have stamped out a gazillion buttons. Every time I heard the crunchy sound of the button-making machine I
would think, "One down, nine hundred ninety-nine to go."

In the end, though, I think it was more subtle things that brought people into the group. First, we were always there. The weekly net ran every Wednesday
evening, even if there were storms, the power was out or it was Christmas Eve. Second, we were professional. I don't want you to think that we were rigid,
but people listening in could tell that our nets and activities were not social events; they were serious. Third, there was no clique at the top of the
group. It had no small "band of buddies" doing all the fun stuff and excluding everyone else. Everyone was encouraged to jump in and try most everything.

Growth also had a second meaning. It meant personal growth.

The initial members of the group had virtually no experience with ARES or emergency communications. At first this seemed to be a big detriment, but in many
ways it has served us well. There was no one in the group who could say, "I know it all, I don't need to learn any more." All of us, including the Emergency
Coordinator, freely admitted that we needed a lot of training. And once we conceded that point, we further realized that we could never stop training.
There was always something else to be learned, some new certificate that had to be obtained, or some course we'd already taken had been updated and needed
to be taken all over again.

Continually training and learning gave us better rapport with new recruits. It's difficult to have an air of superiority when we we're all students.

Team may also sound like an obvious concept, but I think people have different ideas about what it means. I have been involved with far too many organizations
in which "We're a team" really meant, "I'm too important to do this, so you do it."

Often team effort was just a synonym for making the boss look good.

Our group's idea of team was actual cooperation. Group members played to their own strengths, but were always available to teach and help others. That's
one reason that the number of functioning field stations burgeoned, and it's why we are currently seeing a sudden increase in the number of members who
can handle digital modes/formats. We didn't have specialists so much as we had teachers of specialties.

And that leads me to the last word, Leadership.

To many people, leader just means commander. But if you think of a leader as one who leads, you soon grasp that a leader is also one who guides. So a leader
doesn't just give commands, he/she gives guidance.

Is that too subtle? Think about it this way. A leader occasionally gives commands, but is continually giving guidance. He or she does this by setting the
tone for the whole group. Is the leader aloof? If so, the upper echelon of the group will also be aloof, and the lower ranks will be very thin indeed.
Finding new recruits for the group will be all but impossible. If, however, the leader is open and approachable, that attitude will permeate throughout
the group.

The Emergency Coordinator for
St. Louis County ARES
is Steve Wooten, KC0QMU. We've been very fortunate, because Steve, in addition to being a strong leader, has also been a fantastic guide.

And here I will add one final word, which can only come from the top: Encouragement. It has made all the difference in the world.

So now, as we prepare to face new challenges, add more nets, create more difficult exercises, and take the group into the new year, I just have one thought.

Man, it's going to be a lot of work!

Editor's note: ARRL member Gary Hoffman, KB0H, lives in Florissant, Missouri. He's been a ham since 1995. Hoffman says his column's name -- "The Amateur
Amateur" -- suggests the explorations of a rank amateur, not those of an experienced or knowledgeable ham. His wife, Nancy, is N0NJ. Hoffman has a
ham radio-related Web page.
Readers are invited to contact the author
via e-mail.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 20:15:10

It Seems to Us . . ."
We Go to Court

By David Sumner, K1ZZ
ARRL Chief Executive Officer
January 1, 2007

Let's get right to the point: The ARRL is suing the Federal Communications Commission. Here is what led to this decision, why it is the right thing to do,
and how you can help.

As regular readers of this page already know, under former Chairman Michael Powell the FCC cast itself in the role of cheerleader for an over-hyped technology
known as Broadband over Power Line, or BPL. BPL deliberately puts radio frequency (RF) energy on unshielded power lines. As anyone knows who understands
RF, this is likely to interfere with nearby radio receivers using the same frequencies.

The radio spectrum is a priceless asset. BPL, on the other hand, is an unintentional emitter. Any RF energy that a BPL system radiates is simply spectrum

Through careful frequency selection and design, BPL systems can avoid interfering with radio services. Unfortunately, rules for BPL adopted by the Powell
FCC in 2004 allow poorly designed BPL systems operating on inappropriate frequencies -- including amateur bands -- to be deployed. The ARRL and others
petitioned the FCC to reconsider these rules and to give better protection against BPL interference to licensed radio services.

With Powell's departure and the appointment of Kevin Martin as Chairman, we thought that technical evidence once again would trump wishful thinking at the
FCC. But it was not to be. The FCC's reconsideration decisions, adopted on August 3, did not improve things. When the Memorandum Opinion and Order (MO&O)
was released a few days later, we couldn't believe it -- they had made matters worse!

A new FCC rule is aimed directly against mobile stations -- in all services, not just amateur. The new rule, §15.611(c)(1)(iii), exempts BPL operators from
having to do anything to correct interference to mobile operations other than to notch emissions to a level 20 dB (below
30 MHz) or 10 dB (above 30 MHz) below the absolute limit specified elsewhere in the rules. Here's a direct quote from the FCC (emphasis added):

Where an Access BPL operator implements such notching, we will not provide further protection to mobile operations, nor will we require the operator to
resolve complaints of harmful interference to mobile operations by taking steps over and above implementing the "notch."

Consider what this means. If a BPL system blankets an area with interference, the FCC will require nothing of the BPL system operator beyond putting a 10
or 20 dB notch on the frequency used by a complaining mobile operator.

ARRL measurements and studies show that this leaves the interference 25 dB higher than the median values for man-made noise in residential areas and up
to 40 dB higher than the minimum values that amateurs routinely use for reliable communication. And as for other services, if a BPL system prevents a dispatcher
from reaching a fire truck or ambulance -- well, that's just too bad.

This isn't just a proposal. It's a rule that is now in effect. With one stroke, the rights of FCC licensees have been subordinated to those of spectrum
polluters! Never before has an unintentional emitter been given a free pass to interfere with licensed radio services.

Some well-meaning people tell us, "Why worry? As a means of delivering broadband services to consumers, BPL is an inferior technology. According to the
FCC's own figures, the BPL industry has managed to reach fewer than 5000 customers nationwide. BPL is failing in the marketplace, as well it should."

Here's the problem. Even if BPL disappears from the scene tomorrow, the FCC's preference for unlicensed, unintentional emitters over the interests of its
licensees will remain on the books. Bad rules left unchallenged will lead to even worse rules later.

The FCC was heading in the wrong direction under Michael Powell. It's continuing in the wrong direction under Kevin Martin. Reasoned technical arguments
backed up by overwhelming evidence have not altered the FCC's errant course. There was only one thing left that we could do: appeal in federal court. After
carefully considering the costs and consequences, the ARRL Board of Directors concluded that was what we must do.

So, on October 10, 2006 the law firm of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (WilmerHale) joined ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay in filing a Petition
for Review on behalf of the ARRL in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

We are not alone. The Association of Maximum Service Television (MSTV) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) have decided to intervene in support
of the ARRL. Their joint motion states, "MSTV and NAB believe that the regulations under review are arbitrary, capricious, and contrary to law, and will
adversely impact their members by, among other things, permitting unlicensed users of radio spectrum to interfere with licensed uses of the spectrum."

The Court of Appeals will not substitute its judgment for the reasoned decision-making of an expert agency. But this long-established principle does not
give agencies such as the FCC carte blanche. In another recent case, a panel of this Court had this to say about another federal agency: "We therefore
owe no deference to [the agency's] purported expertise because we cannot discern it." When it reviews the FCC's BPL decisions we expect the Court to reach
a similar conclusion.

Mounting a serious challenge to a federal agency is expensive. Attorneys who specialize in this work must be retained -- and the attorneys at WilmerHale
are the best in the business. A careful review of the FCC's records must be performed. Complex technical issues must be made understandable to a panel
of judges who are not telecommunications experts. Exhibits must be prepared. Arguments must be selected and fine-tuned.

Your Board of Directors has decided to take these steps to protect you and your ability to use Amateur Radio frequencies. Your financial support of the
Spectrum Defense Fund is vital to help fund this appeal. If you share our sense of outrage at the FCC's bending its rules to accommodate a polluter of
the radio spectrum at the expense of the licensees it is supposed to protect, please express your support of the ARRL Board's decision with a generous
contribution. Visit
for more information and a donation form.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 20:16:04

Hello" Amateur Radio Special Event Puts Brant Rock Back on the Air

Brant Rock

Brant Rock, Massachusetts, today. [Steve Barreres, K2CX, Photo]

The W1F site

The W1F site, with antenna and trailer. [Photo courtesy of John Dilks, K2TQN]

Bill Fastenua, WB2QG

W1F op Bill Fastenau, WB2QGZ, at the IC-7800 that Icom America loaned for the event. [Steve Barreres, K2CX, Photo]

Dennis Egan, NB1B

Dennis Egan, NB1B, takes a turn at the main W1F operating position. [Steve Barreres, K2CX, Photo]

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 4, 2007 -- In 1906, Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden transmitted a program of voice and music -- in essence the world's first
radio broadcast -- from Brant Rock, Massachusetts. In 2006, Amateur Radio special event
helped to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Fessenden's accomplishment as part of the ARRL "
campaign finale December 29-30. Among those on hand for the occasion was the grandson of Fessenden's assistant Adam Stein Jr -- George A. Stein, NJ3H. Steve
Barreres, K2CX, headed the Peconic Amateur Radio Club (
W100BO/W1F team.

"We operated a very busy group of stations from 160 through 6 meters, conditions allowing," Barreres said. "There is no final QSO tally yet, but it is clear
that we made more than 1000 contacts. Even a short-lived opening on 6 meters improved our count, with contacts from the mid-US and farther west."

Barreres said he and the other Long Island radio amateurs thought the Fessenden centennial would be a great opportunity to blend Amateur Radio today with
wireless history. The Hello finale provided the ideal occasion. The group made plans to set up at the same location Fessenden had used a century earlier
-- in the shadow of the original concrete base that supported the station "BO" (Big Ocean) antenna. One of the first tasks was to gain access to the site.

"We secured permission to use the property in Brant Rock from the Blackman family," Barreres recounted. "They have owned this land for many generations,
and Reginald Fessenden leased a portion of their tract in 1906 for his work." The time of year dictated another consideration. "Most outdoor amateur operations
like Field Day occur during warm weather," Barreres noted. "Since this was winter, we rented a portable business office trailer for shelter and heat."

Fessenden's initial plan was to make a two-way voice radio contact with a station in Machrihanish, Scotland. He undertook his now-legendary Christmas Eve
broadcast after the Scottish station's antenna fell victim to a storm. GB1FVT in
Machrihanish --
with Duncan MacArthur, GM3TNT, at the helm -- and Hiram Percy Maxim Memorial Station
also were on the air for the Hello campaign wrapup. Members of the Amateur Radio industry generously made the necessary equipment available at both sites.

"Support from Icom America, SteppIR, Heil Sound and Dunestar Systems insured a first-quality signal on the air," Barreres said. He also expressed appreciation
for the assistance and cooperation of the Radio Central and Great South Bay Amateur Radio clubs, both also from Long Island. The collaboration, Barreres
said, "demonstrates what can be achieved if all provide a helping hand."

In addition to Barreres and Stein, those who helped put W1F on the air included Frank Moorhus, AA2DR; Bill Fastenau, WB2QGZ; Bob Tolentino, N2MPJ; Bill
O'Hara, N1EY; Bob Greenberg, W2CYK, and his son Jessie, and Dennis Egan, NB1B.

"One hundred years ago, Fessenden transmitted voice from Brant Rock," Barreres said. "One hundred year later, radio amateurs from in and around New England
gathered to celebrate our avocation as Amateur Radio enthusiasts and tinkerers, while also spotlighting the accomplishments of those experimenters of a
century earlier. Having W1AW as the flagship station, along with W1F and GB1FVT's operating in Scotland made the end of 2006 something special too."

To obtain a W100BO/W1F QSL, enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope with your card to Special Event Station W1F, PO Box 121, Plainview, NY 11803.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 21:07:37

ARRL Asks FCC to Investigate Long-Range Cordless Telephone Sales

NEWINGTON, CT, May 30, 2001--The ARRL has asked the FCC to investigate and "take appropriate action" against several companies it alleges have been marketing
so-called "long-range cordless telephones" via the Internet. The ARRL took the action in the wake of numerous complaints from the amateur community about
sales of the devices, some of which operate on VHF and UHF frequencies allocated to the Amateur Service.

"Because these devices operate on Amateur bands and are capable of causing severe interference to ongoing Amateur communications, and because these devices
likely will not meet MPE [Maximum Permissible Exposure] levels for RF exposure, the matter is considered urgent," said the May 29 letter from ARRL General
Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD.

The letter was addressed to FCC Enforcement Bureau Chief David Solomon as well as to Raymond LaForge of the FCC's Office of Engineering and Technology's
Equipment Authorization Division and to FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth.

"ARRL has not been able to locate any FCC certification for these devices and, based on the advertised frequency bands and ranges, it is believed that none
of these devices could be certificated, or legally marketed or sold, under FCC rules," Imlay wrote.

Imlay said the ARRL also is looking into the marketing of products such as 434-MHz video surveillance equipment and other "apparently non-certificated devices"
that use amateur frequencies but are being marketed in the US to non-amateurs.

ARRL Lab Supervisor Ed Hare, W1RFI, said he's received several reports concerning long-range cordless telephone devices advertised for sale on the Internet
and via auction sites such as eBay. "One of the reports, from Bill Erhardt, K7MT, involved actual harmful interference to amateur communications," Hare
said. Erhardt tracked the telephone to a neighbor's home. The neighbor told him he'd bought it on eBay.

Hare said he was glad to see the issue put into the FCC's hands. "All intentional transmitting devices that are marketed in the US must be FCC certificated,
as described in the FCC rules," he said. "At the advertised power levels and frequencies, I do not believe that these phones could have been certificated."

Optima 8810

The Optima 8810, an apparently uncertificated telephone device being sold in the US. This unit uses a 2-meter frequency. [ARRL Photos]

The ARRL was able to obtain one of the long-distance cordless telephones for testing. The device, manufactured in China, bears no FCC identification number
or label. The ARRL technical staff determined that the device--an Optima 8810--operates at an output power of greater than 3 W near 147 MHz. Other such
phones are advertised as having ranges of up to 100 km operating at power levels of up to 35 W on VHF and UHF. Some models use frequencies in the amateur
2-meter and 1.25-meter bands.

The ARRL offered to send the telephone device "and as much information as it can obtain about the eBay seller" to the FCC. In his letter Imlay noted that
the vendor has since disappeared from the auction site.

One of the companies selling the long-range cordless telephones had originally indicated that one such device operated on 147 and 230 MHz. Apparently after
it heard complaints from amateurs, the company altered its Web site listing to indicate that the phone operated at 249 and 375 MHz. The ARRL attached to
its letter a copy of the Web site of another seller that showed the same telephone as operating on 150 and 230 MHz. The League said some of the companies
also may be selling similar wireless products that may operate on amateur or restricted bands.

Hare said some long-range devices are legally certificated to operate on the 900 MHz or 2450 MHz Part 15 bands. "These legal devices are only an issue if
they cause actual harmful interference to the Amateur Service," he said.

Hare requested reports of unlicensed devices causing actual harmful interference to Amateur Radio operation. Reports may be sent to

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 21:08:54

FCC Sets Aside License Grant, Issues Short-Term License

NEWINGTON, CT, May 30, 2001--The FCC has set aside a recent license grant to a Florida man and issued a short-term grant in the case of an Illinois amateur.
The two cases are among several recent FCC enforcement actions.

FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth said the Commission has set aside the Technician license of Joseph E. Mattern, KG4NGG,
of Orlando. A former Tech Plus licensee, Mattern was the subject of past FCC enforcement attention. He was relicensed on May 3.

"He was only back on the air for a few days before complaints started coming in, including one alleging use of a false call sign," Hollingsworth told ARRL.
"He also was asked by the control operator to stay off several repeaters in the Orlando area." The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau set aside his
latest Amateur Service grant on May 15.

Last August the FCC wrote Mattern--then WW4WJD--citing allegations that the licensee had been using repeaters in his area to solicit traffic reports for
his employer--a company that markets the reports. Hollingsworth said at the time that evidence before the FCC alleged that Mattern had been requested to
stop operating on certain repeaters but had refused to do so. The FCC also cited evidence alleging that Mattern may have used area repeaters to discuss
business dealings regarding computer equipment and that he may have indirectly threatened area Official Observers.

In his reply to the FCC, Mattern characterized his traffic-reporting activities as "a hobby" that earned him very little money. He also said he was not
in the computer business and agreed to abide by the wishes of repeater control operators.

In September the FCC required Mattern to retake the Technician Plus exam. Mattern appeared for retesting but failed both elements, and the FCC canceled
his license. Mattern subsequently retested for the Technician ticket and passed.

When the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau granted Mattern's application and issued him a new call sign, KC4NGG, Hollingsworth reminded him that he was
expected to comply with requests from repeater licensees or control operators to refrain from use of their repeaters and to avoid using ham radio for business
purposes. In a May 16 letter to Mattern, Hollingsworth said Mattern's Technician application now reverts to pending status. He said the latest complaints
have been referred to the Enforcement Bureau for evaluation.

"I'm looking at the complaints now," Hollingsworth told ARRL. He said he expected to address the matter within a few days. Hollingsworth has reminded Mattern
that he had no authority to operate radio transmitting equipment.

In an unrelated action, the FCC has issued a short-term license grant to General licensee Reyes Lugo, KB9YDM, of Chicago. Like Mattern, Lugo--who once held
an Extra class ticket, NP3N--has a track record with the FCC's Enforcement Bureau. Last summer, he was requested to retake the Extra exam but passed only
the Morse code element and his license was canceled.

Lugo subsequently retested for Technician and General and was granted KB9YDM. The FCC set aside those grants while it investigated complaints it had received
about Lugo's radio operations as NP3N and KB9YDM. The Commission said those allegations had "raised questions" about Lugo's qualifications to hold an amateur

Among other things, the FCC wanted to know if Lugo had ever transmitted on 26.715 MHz. The Commission asked Lugo to comment on four pages of transcripts
of transmissions monitored on 26.715 and 21.310 MHz alleged to be made by Lugo. The FCC also asked Lugo to detail any complaints about his amateur operation
and what action he took, if any. The FCC also said it wanted to know if Lugo had ever served as a volunteer examiner and if he ever received any compensation
for his VE work.

In his reply to the FCC, Lugo denied making any of the transmissions cited and said he's never transmitted on 26.715 MHz. He also said he was not a VE and
that he had not received any complaints about the operation of his station on the ham bands or any other frequencies.

Hollingsworth informed Lugo on May 10 that the FCC was granting his General application for a one-year period. Violations of any sort on any frequency,
Hollingsworth said, could result in a fine and a revocation and suspension hearing. "If there are no such violations in the one-year period, you may routinely
renew your Amateur license," Hollingsworth concluded.

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 21:09:53

Arkansas Radio Amateurs Assist in Search for Lost Child

By Don L. Jackson, AE5K
May 30, 2001

View of the Ozark National Forest, typical of the area in which the search was conducted. [NAARS Photo]

On Sunday, April 29, 2001, a six-year-old girl hiking with grandparents and several others became lost in the Ozark National Forest near Boxley, Arkansas--about
a hour's drive southwest of Harrison. The area is a heavily forested, beautiful wilderness near the headwaters of the Buffalo National River. There are
high cliffs, hollows, and wildlife, including bear, panther, bobcat and mountain lion.

Haley Zegy had complained that she was tired. She sat on a rock for a few minutes, then took off in another direction. Upon discovering that Haley was not
where they had left her, the group searched for two hours before summoning help. The county sheriff's office responded immediately and set off perhaps
the largest search-and-rescue operation in Arkansas. At least 38 agencies were involved in the search, including the Harrison chapter of the American Red

Using the North Arkansas Amateur Radio Society repeater for communications, James Coats, N0ZJX, a disaster relief worker for the Red Cross, organized the
request for supplies needed to support the search. Coats' wife, Terri, N0ZJW, was at the Red Cross field site in the search area. Terri Coats relates the

"At that time, there were approximately 40-60 people involved in the search. James, Jeremy--our 14-year old son--and I, took food out for 100. When we left
the command post that night, there were only a few bottles of water and a few cold drinks left.

She said the following morning, the McDonald's in Harrison donated food for the volunteers.

"At this point I asked the Search and Rescue team if they needed anything. I will never forget the look in the man's eyes when he responded. 'Ma'am, we
need everything--We needed to make calls, but cell phones did not work in the area.'

Thank the good Lord for ham radio. I contacted James by radio and told him the situation. My signal was weak and communicating was difficult. In no time,
Harrison hams John Eslinger, KD5FKL, William Smith, KB5TZF and Elmo Knoch, K5YWL, brought a J-pole antenna, coax and RF amplifier to the field site so
that I could communicate Red Cross requests back to the town of Harrison via the repeater. Back in Harrison, James began making phone calls to individuals
for help. An employee of KHOZ radio was in our office at that moment and suggested calling the station manager to see if they could help. The request went
out over the airwaves and the donations began pouring in.

As Monday wore on, William Rose, N5VKF, and K5YWL handled several pieces of traffic from workers at the site to their families at home and relayed a request
for equipment to a nearby National Guard unit. The Baptist Disaster Relief group arrived at 1 AM Tuesday, when the Red Cross had expended its resources
for feeding the searchers. "The group really had it together and fixed great food," said David Lafferty, K5DEL--an investigator with the Arkansas State
Police--who was on official duty at the site. Gary Valentine, KD5JKP, also assisted at the search site and Helen Stuart, KD5KPW, got tables from North
Arkansas College. Francis Fisher, KB0PHM, and Vicki Fisher, KB0NGO, also provided much assistance. Several other local hams helped in some way. Any request
for assistance was readily and rapidly filled.

It was KB0PHM who had the honor of announcing "the find"--over the repeater--at 4:25 PM on Tuesday. Two "unofficial" searchers, William Villine and Lytle
James, found Haley at about 2:30 PM on Tuesday as they searched the area by mule.

Young Haley rode out of the woods on the back of Ole Momma, Villine's mule. However, it was about three hours before the word got out, since it took that
long to transport the girl on muleback to the search-and-rescue headquarters.

Last, but not least, very high praise should be given to all the area hams who abstained from using the repeater during this operation, leaving it free
for communications of important nature, and to those who stood by, listening, ready to help if needed.

We will never know who you were and therefore you won't see your call sign in print, but nonetheless, you did the right thing. Everyone who participated
in this event deserves heartfelt thanks. You were all a credit to Amateur Radio! As for the aftereffects to our area hams, it has sort of kickstarted ARES
activity and EC has become active.

Editor's note: Don Jackson, AE5K, is an ARRL life member. Originally licensed in 1953, Jackson is editor of The Heterodyne, the monthly newsletter of the
North Arkansas Amateur Radio Society, . "
I live in the middle of nowhere, on 40 acres of rugged and forested Ozark mountain land, where we raise rocks, ticks, chiggers and copperheads, but have
fresh air, springs and waterfalls, peace and quiet, and no neighbors," Jackson said. "I am interested in nearly all of ham radio, from VLF to 10 GHz, all
modes, and love to design and build." Jackson's wife, Carol, is W5CSJ. Jackson says he's semi-retired, but does some consulting work for microcontroller
projects. N0ZJX, and his wife, N0ZJW are chiropractors in Harrison, Arkansas. While both were attending Palmer College of Chiropractic in Davenport, Iowa,
they obtained their ham radio licenses. Vicki Fisher, KB0NGO, is their office manager. All have received Disaster Relief training from the American Red
Cross. Readers may contact the author at

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Monday, 02-Jun-2008 21:10:38

Round-the-World Ham-Sailor is on the Home Stretch

David Clark, KB6TAM and wife, Lynda

David Clark with his wife, Lynda, before he departed on his round-the-world adventure in 1999. Clark hopes to return to Fort Lauderdale by July.

UPDATE (5/31/2001): David Clark’s wife, Lynda, reports that he arrived May 30 on Fernando de Noronha and said all is well. He expects to resume his sail
in a couple of days and plans to reach Fortaleza--some 350 miles distant--by early next week. Robert Botik, K5SIV, ran several phone patches for Clark
May 27, and Clark spoke with his son. Clark also has been keeping in contact with Frank Martins, ZL1MF, on 15 meters.

NEWINGTON, CT. May 30, 2001--Ham-sailor David Clark, KB6TAM, has departed Ascension Island after a brief stop. Clark now is on the last leg of his quest
to be the oldest person to sail solo around the world.

Clark, who turned 77 on May 17, is hoping to make Fort Lauderdale by early July. He is keeping in touch with wife Lynda and others via phone patches and
some e-mail, although he had Internet server problems for about a week.

Fred Moore, W3ZU, has been running phone patches for Clark while Robert Reed, N6HGG, has also been keeping regular radio schedules with the sailor since
he departed Ascension. Reed reported Moore has been able to make contact and maintain it with Clark when all others failed. Both expect to continue working
Clark short- path, now that he is nearer his Florida target.

Clark survived a disaster in February that sank his original sailboat, the Mollie Milar. His beloved canine companion Mickey was lost during the rescue
efforts. Clark put out a distress call on ham radio that was relayed to maritime authorities. Corporate sponsors and helpful hams in South Africa and elsewhere
got him back into blue water with another sailboat--which he named Mickey in honor of his lost companion.

His ham gear aboard the original sailboat also was lost, but Clark reports has another rig in operation now. He has checked in on a couple of 20-meter nets,
and ham radio apparently continues to be his most reliable communication tool.

The sailing ham is planning a stop in Barbados. Various ham sources in contact with Clark said his craft apparently continues to handle well with no major

Clark and Mickey

Clark with his companion Mickey aboard the Mollie Milar. The dog was lost during the rescue effort after the Mollie Milar sank off Cape Town, South Africa.

Clark's new boat, the 'Mickey'

Clark's new boat, which he named Mickey.

The new sailboat--actually about 15 years old, according to Clark--is somewhat smaller than his original craft. In an e-mail to supporters, Clark described
the vessel as "an excellent yacht and much easier for me to handle than was the Millie Milar."

Clark also reported encountering some rough seas shortly after leaving Cape Town in the Mickey. "I was able to find out first-hand just how tough the little
yacht was," he said. "It went through fine, but the motion was extremely violent and pretty much tossed me all over the boat, so I ended up after the gale
with a few bruises."

While in Ascension Clark picked up a new autopilot provided by sponsor Raymarine and was invited by new friends on a neighboring yacht to celebrate his
birthday, May 17, with a dinner party ashore.

When Clark drops anchor at Fort Lauderdale, he'll be returning to a place he last saw in December of 1999 when he departed on his journey. An earlier attempt
by Clark to circle the globe eight years ago fell short when his vessel was dismasted and sank in the Indian Ocean.

Clark gets support from corporate sponsors, but he has funded much of the trip through Social Security earnings and occasional clarinet gigs. Hams along
the way have provided much needed financial help and solid communication links with the world.

For more information Clark's journey, visit
--Archie McKay, K4GA

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Tuesday, 03-Jun-2008 14:24:46

ARLB026: VECs Struggle with Paperwork Mountain
ARLB026 VECs Struggle with Paperwork Mountain

ARRL Bulletin 26 ARLB026
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT May 12, 2000
To all radio amateurs

ARLB026 VECs Struggle with Paperwork Mountain

Despite an infusion of temporary help, Volunteer Examiner
Coordinators continue struggling to process the huge influx of exam
session paperwork resulting from Amateur Radio restructuring.
ARRL-VEC and W5YI-VEC continue to estimate that it is taking from
three to four weeks from exam session to license grant.

ARRL-VEC Manager Bart Jahnke, W9JJ, and his staff have been putting
in a lot of overtime and weekend hours. Fred Maia, W5YI, cites a
similar situation at his W5YI-VEC. ''We've got mail buckets
everywhere,'' he said.

Jahnke and Maia say processing is proceeding as fast as possible.
They urge amateur applicants to refrain from contacting either their
respective VECs or the FCC to inquire as to the progress of
individual applications.

Applicants wishing to file a vanity call sign application or to
upgrade their Volunteer Examiner status cannot do so without a
license grant from the FCC reflecting the applicant's upgraded
class. In a few cases, applicants are awaiting first-time amateur
licenses and do not even have interim operating authority.

Jahnke says the ARRL-VEC has caught up with the paperwork backlog
from pre-April 15 test sessions. The ARRL-VEC served nearly 35,800
applicants between January 1 and April 14. It continues to deal with
the nearly 16,000 applications logged in from April 15 through April
25. Jahnke points out that while VE teams have 10 days to ship
session paperwork, transit times can be as long as a week.

Once keyed in and sent on electronically to the FCC, most
applications are granted overnight. Jahnke says the care ARRL-VEC
takes in checking VE session paperwork and applications for
''completeness, accuracy and integrity'' pays off in avoiding problems
down the road.

Statistics to date suggest a total of more than 13,000 new Generals
and more than 10,000 new Extra class hams as a result of

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Tuesday, 03-Jun-2008 14:26:07

It Seems to Us . . . Radio Smog

By David Sumner, K1ZZ
ARRL Executive Vice President
September 18, 2002

Editor's note: Typically, only ARRL members get to read the "It Seems to Us ..." editorials that run each month in QST. We're posting this editorial by
ARRL Executive Vice President David Sumner, K1ZZ, that appears in the October 2002 issue of QST in the hope that both ARRL members and nonmembers might
appreciate it and find it informative.

Much in the news in mid-August were reports of a major scientific study of an "Asian brown cloud" of toxic haze hovering over the most densely populated
portion of that continent and threatening other parts of the world. The harmful effects of the haze on health and weather appear to be substantial: respiratory
disease, drought in some areas and flooding in others, acid rain, and reductions in crop yields to name but a few. On a more encouraging note, scientists
also know how to reduce the pollution and its effects: the use of cleaner energy sources and better stoves, and reduced burning to clear fields and forests.

The issue, which is really one of economics, is how to get hundreds of millions of individuals, families, and businesses to make these changes in how they
live when the cost is far more immediate and tangible than the benefit. For an impoverished family, cooking its meal as cheaply as possible is a matter
of survival. If cow dung is available as a "free" fuel it's a rational decision for the family to use it--but when multiplied by one hundred million, one
family's tiny stove becomes an environmental calamity.

There is an obvious parallel between pollu-tion of the Earth's atmosphere and pollution of the radio spectrum. Like the atmosphere, the radio spectrum is
a precious natural resource shared by all. Like pollution, radio waves respect no political boundaries. Like the smog that fouls the air in many cities,
electronic smog fouls the radio spectrum as a consequence of human activity--and like toxic haze, radio smog is an economic rather than a technical issue.
We know how to control it; the debate is over whether it's worth the price to do so, and who should pay.

We're used to hearing public policy debates about air and water pollution. While people may disagree on costs vs. benefits in some instances, no one can
possibly dispute that, for example, the quality of life in London improved dramatically after Parliament curtailed coal-burning in 1956. If someone were
to suggest today that Londoners could save money by switching back, they would not be taken seriously--to put it mildly. The same would be true if someone
were to suggest that their community could save money by dumping its raw sewage into the river. Such thoughts might have been acceptable 100 years ago,
but not today. We've made too much progress, at too great a cost, to go back.

Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of spectrum policy. In some ways we do indeed seem to be going backwards, or having to fight against pressures in
that direction.

Many sources of radio smog are unintentional. Switch-mode power supplies are not designed to generate radio interference. Unfortunately, in some cases they
are not designed not to. They could be, and if either consumers or governments insist on it they will be.

Line noise is a big problem for many amateurs and other radio users. Power lines are not supposed to emit RF energy, and if they do it's a sign something's
wrong. Some power companies care, and know what to do. Others either don't know or don't care (executive bonuses being more important than overtime pay
for linemen, perhaps). The FCC can make them care, and in several recent cases has done exactly that by threatening enforcement action.

Radio smog also results from putting RF where it doesn't belong. RF has this wonderful property: it wants to radiate. And it will radiate from any conductor
you introduce it to, unless the conductor is either shielded or balanced. So, why would anyone deliberately put RF on a conductor that is neither shielded
nor balanced if they didn't want it to radiate? For the same reason that the destitute Asian family uses cow dung to heat its dinner: economics.

What we're talking about here are plans to use power lines to distribute broadband digital signals to homes and offices. The wires are already there, the
reasoning goes, so why not use them? Utilizing existing infrastructure in new and creative ways is good for business and good for society. Offering competitive
choices to consumers lowers prices and improves service. How can anyone be opposed to that?

Here's how. A broadband signal is RF. Sent down an unshielded or imperfectly balanced line, it will radiate. Putting security concerns aside as someone
else's problem, this creates a new and pervasive source of interference to radio reception. In other words, this competitive choice would transfer to all
of society a cost--in the form of reduced utility of the radio spectrum--that is not imposed by other, more environmentally friendly ways of providing
broadband service. Our poor Asian family may not have any choice but to pollute. We do.

Is it possible to do power line communications without causing interference to over-the-air communications? Count us among the skeptics. What may be a fine
transmission line at 60 Hz looks more like an antenna at HF. And that's a matter of physics, not economics.

Writing in the Summer 1994 issue of EPA Journal about London's historic "pea-soup" fogs that gave rise to the term "smog" in 1905, David Urbinato said:
"At the turn of the century, cries to reduce the smoke faced a tough opponent. Coal was fueling the industrial revolution. To be against coal burning was
to be against progress. 'Progress' won out. Not until the 1950s, when a four-day fog in 1952 killed roughly 4000 Londoners was any real reform passed."

New sources of radio smog are no more acceptable than are new sources of the visible kind. At the turn of the new century our policymakers should--no, must--be
able to distinguish real progress from cow dung.

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Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 13:54:57

Ham-Com: Experimenting with Change

By Barry A. Goldblatt, WA5KXX
January 8, 2007

Ham-Com, the "Biggest Hamfest in Texas" traces its roots back to the 1960s. In 1978, a small group of hams in Dallas decided to invest their own money to
build a "ham radio convention." In 2003, Ham-Com celebrated its 25th anniversary. The event has fulfilled the original goal of the founders, gained national
recognition and hosted the ARRL national convention on three occasions.


Nearly 4,000 people filled the Plano Center's 86,000 square-foot facility during Ham-Com 2006. [Photo by WA5KXX]


James Alderman, KF5WT, adds a Ham-Com flavor to the Boy Scout "One-day Radio Merit Badge Program. [Photo by WA5KXX]


What's Important to Attendees [
Larger image]

The first Ham-Coms were held at a hotel in Dallas and, as attendance grew, the event was moved to the Arlington Convention Center. The move was a big improvement
and helped attendance grow from a few thousand to as many as 7,000 in the mid-1990s. The change of location allowed the organizers to increase the scope
of the event to include a bigger tailgate market, more flea market tables, guest speakers, workshops and special interest group meetings. The efforts of
Don Smith, W5DS; Maury Guzick, W5IO; and others helped successfully shape the event during the period from 1980 through 2003.

So what's changed? Ham-Com, like everything else, has been impacted by the Internet. In my opinion, that impact is more positive than negative. The Ham-Com
web site,,
has grown from a few pages to a fully interactive system that provides up-to-date news about the event, online admission sales, program lists, presenter
biographies, venue layouts, maps, classified ads, hundreds of digital photographs from previous events and the full-color "Ham-Com Flyer." In 2005 and
2006, the web site received over 159,000 visitors each year. Visitors viewed an average of six pages, making the total number of "page hits" just over
one million. The web site was visited by hams from 80 countries before, during and after the event.

The "Ham-Com Flyer" has changed, too. Early versions were printed newspaper-style designed for mailing and as hand-outs at the event. As printing and mailing
costs increased it became evident that this would have to change. In 2004, the "Ham-Com Flyer" (38 pp) became an Adobe Acrobat™ PDF document that could
be downloaded or printed via the Internet. The flyer contains complete event information including maps, venue layouts, schedules, special interest group
information, presentation details and presenter biographies. It was downloaded over 48,000 times in 2006, and many attendees brought their copies to the

Over the past several years, event planners placed heavy emphasis on continuing education and youth events. The Ham-Com Board of Directors made the decision
in 2004 to attract more high-quality presentations and increase the number of youngsters at the event. Those efforts paid off. The Programs Director, John
Beadles, N5OOM, and his team scheduled over 100 hours of speakers, workshops and special interest group meetings in 2004, 2005 and 2006. Many of these
presentations included the use of video projectors and computers with high-speed Internet access. The result was classrooms full of hams eager to learn
about the latest innovations in Amateur Radio.

Speaking of 2004, Larry Pollock, NB5X, of the W5YI-VEC came up with an idea to implement "same-day" call sign returns for Ham-Com VE sessions.
New hams who received their CSCEs on Friday received their calls signs before the end of the day.

Also in 2004, a team consisting of Frank Krizan, KR1ZAN; Richard Phillips, KB5YBQ; and James Alderman, KF5WT, developed an innovative one-day program for
the Boy Scout Radio Merit badge. Over 100 scouts received their badge in one day at the 2004 and 2005 events. The 2006 event added another 87 badges to
the growing count. A number of the scouts who participated in those classes have since become Amateur Radio operators.

In 2006, Ham-Com made presentation materials in various formats (PowerPoint, Word, and PDF) available via the web site. So far, there have been over 2,000

In 2007, plans are underway to videotape as many presentations as possible and make them available in RealPlayer™ format via the web site.

Going up! Increases in prices for everything from gasoline to venue rental forced the Ham-Com Board of Directors to re-think how they would produce the
2006 event. The problem was made even more acute when the management at the Arlington Convention Center announced that there were no available dates in
June 2006 for Ham-Com. The only choice was to move the event back to May or forward to July or August. Neither choice was a good one--May is too close
to the Dayton Hamvention and July in Texas is extremely hot. The board looked at several other venues and decided to move the event to the Plano Centre
in Plano, TX. Costs at the old venue had been escalating for several years, and it seemed to make sense to change to a new location if we could lower costs.
By 2005, the cost of producing Ham-Com exceeded $30,000, and there was a definite need to reduce admission, commercial exhibitor and vendor costs. Parking
fees, which had long been a big source of complaints from attendees over the years disappeared plus food prices and hotel room rates were markedly lower
in Plano.

So why do you need a report card if you're not in school? It's an interesting question and one that only an event planner can truly appreciate. Having been
the event chairman since 2004, I felt it very important to establish some sort of metrics. After all, you can't fix something if you don't know there is
a problem. Frankly, I was concerned that with a change of venue, economic factors, high fuel prices and cycle 23 at low ebb, attendance might be affected.
Establishing a baseline could prove very beneficial in the long term. The challenge was whether or not we could measure the dynamics of a very diverse
group of people who come together once a year for a number of varied activities under a single umbrella.

The statesman, Benjamin Disraeli, once said that there are "Lies, damned lies and statistics!" With that in mind and not being either a mathematician or
a statistician, I turned to an Internet site that provided the ability to build an online survey that could be made available to event attendees. It also
graphed the results and delivered a full report on responses as well as the raw data. The cost: Under ten dollars!

The first Ham-Com attendee survey with 20 questions went online immediately after the 2004 event. Nearly 500 people, about 10% of total attendance, took
part in the survey. According to John Fullingim, WN5PFI, a Dallas ham who earns his living as a professional marketing and branding consultant, that number
represents an excellent sample. The results proved very interesting and provided insights as to how we were doing with regard to planning and executing
the event. A similar survey was used after the 2005 event, and it, too, provided interesting results. The Ham-Com Board of Directors used the results from
2004 and 2005 surveys to improve the event.

In 2006, John volunteered to help improve the survey and provide professional interpretation of the results. The Ham-Com Board of Directors was extremely
pleased that someone who engaged in statistical analysis for a living was interested in what we were doing and thought that it was valuable. John added
things that he knew would result in even more valuable insights than we had been able to glean from the previous surveys. The 32-question survey went online
about a week after the 2006 event. This time, nearly 400 people, or about 10% of the attendees, took part. Complete results are available on the web site

"The important numbers," according to John, "really boil down to responses in four distinct areas. They are: overall attendee satisfaction, the likelihood
of the attendee to return, underlying drivers for satisfaction and things that might motivate the attendee to return."

John thinks that the telling number for attendees who are "very satisfied" with the event is quite high at 66%. The group in the "not at all satisfied"
category is only 10%--a number that falls far below the norms that statisticians expect for this type of event. In fact, the results are, according to
John, "enormously positive, especially coming from a group of people who typically have strong opinions."

Will they come back? Arguably, that is the most important question to be answered. The survey showed that 74% of the respondents place themselves in the
"very likely to return" category and only 4% are "unlikely to return." John, WN5PFI, says that "statistically speaking, 74% is an amazing number for any

What's driving satisfaction at Ham-Com? Apparently, quite a few things. The numbers indicate that the single most important driver of attendee satisfaction
for Ham-Com 2006 appears to be the change of venue. In fact, the single most important driver overall appears to be the change of venue. That also turns
out to be a significant motivator for people to attend the upcoming event in 2007. Other significant motivators include: the ability to learn about new
developments in Amateur Radio, the improved tailgate market, the tabletop flea market, guest speakers and special interest group meetings. All of these
things seem to be at work motivating hams to return to Ham-Com.

What about the rest of the survey questions? One of the things that the Ham-Com Board of Directors is concerned about is the number of "first-timers." That
number appears to fairly consistent from 2004-2006 at around seven to eight percent but needs to increase.

Ham-Com obviously has an extremely loyal following. Several respondents reported that they attended their first Ham-Com in 1975, and the average number
of events attended over the years by all respondents is nine.

Getting the word out is important! We learned that over 60% received information about Ham-Com via e-mail (that number has been increasing since we first
charted it in 2004). A little over 17% received a postcard in the mail and 31% got information about the event via a club web site or newsletter. The numbers
add up to more than 100%, which indicates that many attendees received information about the event from multiple sources. This is probably due to the fact
that more than 50 clubs and organizations carry information about Ham-Com in their newsletter or on their web site.

Where do they all come from? Over 26% came from 200 miles or more, 16% from greater than 50 miles. The balance come from the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex
which has a very large concentration of hams. Plano and Collin County are home to nearly 2,000 licensed Amateur Radio operators. Two clubs in Collin County,
the McKinney Amateur Radio Club (MARC) and the Plano Amateur Radio Klub (PARK), provide year-round support for the event.

What's important to attendees? Workshops and special interest group meetings are obviously very important to the event according to 55% of the respondents.
That number has remained consistent throughout the surveys from 2004-2006. Meeting old friends was listed as "very important" to 74% of the respondents.

And, it's not surprising that 83% of the respondents feel that commercial exhibitors and vendors are an important part of the event. That is coupled with
73% of the survey respondents who came to Ham-Com 2006 looking for a specific item and purchased it. We should also add that just over 52% of the respondents
said that they spent more than one day at Ham-Com 2006. The event has its share of "hamfest marines," but many people stick around to experience more than
just the tailgate and flea markets.

The questions that we asked about the tailgate and flea markets show that a majority of the respondents sold at least one item and that they considered
their participation in those activities a reasonable use of their time and money.

So, how does it all add up? Change is inevitable and Ham-Com, like other hamfests around the U.S., will have to adapt to a wobbly economy and shifting demographics.
Now that we have a better idea about what attendees want, we're able to deliver a high-quality event that will keep people coming back year after year.
The last statistic says it all: Over 90% of the hams who responded to the survey said that Ham-Com 2006 provided value "equal to or greater than the cost
of admission." I only wish my high school report cards had been this good...

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Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 13:55:21

FCC Presses Two Utilities to Resolve Power Line Noise Complaints

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 8, 2007 -- The FCC has asked utilities in Oklahoma and Illinois to try harder to resolve longstanding power line noise complaints from
Amateur Radio licensees. Special Counsel in the FCC Spectrum Enforcement Division Riley Hollingsworth recently contacted Oklahoma Gas & Electric (OG&E)
Company and Exelon Corporation (ComEd) in Chicago to follow up on the unrelated cases.

"In your response on behalf of Oklahoma Gas and Electric, dated January 30, 2006, you indicated that you were responding to [the radio amateur's] complaints,"
Hollingsworth wrote Oklahoma Gas and Electric's Senior Attorney Patrick D. Shore. "However, [the complainant] states that the power line hardware noise

Hollingsworth customarily does not identify RFI complainants in public correspondence, but the Oklahoma radio amateur involved -- ARRL Member Hal Dietz,
W5GHZ, of Bethany -- agreed to let the League make his name public. Dietz has sought the ARRL's assistance in resolving the problem. The League has been
working with the FCC for several years to address power line noise complaints from Amateur Radio licensees.

Dietz says the power line noise he's experiencing on occasion has approached 20 dB over S9 on some bands, but it's typically between S5 to S9. "I experience
line noise interference on frequencies as high as 444.100 MHz -- a local repeater that I monitor -- and on all TV channels through 14," he reports. "The
interference is not present on all bands at all times, but it is present on one or more bands all of the time, except when it's raining."

An OG&E has representative visited Dietz but was unable to pin down the interference source. Dietz said the technician came equipped with a log-periodic
dipole array (LPDA) to locate line noise interference. "I have also offered to go with them when they are trying to locate the interference, but they have
declined my help," he added.

On December 8, Hollingsworth wrote John W. Rowe, chairman and CEO of Exelon Corporation, the parent company of utility ComEd.

"We have reviewed your letter dated July 10, 2006, in which you state that you have not been able to locate the source of radio interference because the
noise as reported by [the complainant] is intermittent. [The complainant] disputes that claim, however, stating that the noise is constant and that the
only time that it is not present is during a heavy rain."

The Amateur Radio licensee experiencing the interference has told the ARRL that the noise from ComEd's equipment is nearly always present and 60 dB over
S9 on 160 meters, wet weather excepted. Adding to the mix, the ham recounted last fall, is new noise from a neighbor's Part 15 electronic device. ARRL
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineer Mike Gruber, W1MG, says the complainant for several months has been reporting persistent noise from 160 to 6 meters
from ComEd's system and can even hear it on his car's broadcast radio.

Hollingsworth advised both utilities to review the radio amateurs' complaints and advise his office regarding steps being taken to locate and remediate
the RFI.

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Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 13:55:45

California Radio Amateur Has Role in Rescue at Sea

Mike Morales, KC6CYK

Mike Morales, KC6CYK, at his station in Riverside, California.

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 8, 2007 -- A radio amateur from California played a significant part in an international effort to rescue a US sailor attempting to single-handedly
circumnavigate the globe. Miguel "Mike" Morales, KC6CYK, of Riverside, told ARRL he was able to contact fellow radio amateurs in Chile to obtain and relay
reassuring information to the family of Ken Barnes, whose 44-foot ketch Pivateer was foundering off South America. A Chilean trawler, Polar Pesca 1, rescued
Barnes from his disabled vessel on January 5. Upon learning of Barnes's predicament on January 2, Morales said he contacted the sailor's fiancée, Cathy
Chambers, offering to see if he could make radio contact with Chile.

"She mentioned that the satellite telephone was dying on him over there, so their communication was 30 to 60 seconds at a time," Morales recounted. "I was
lucky enough, I got in touch with some of the Charlie Echo [CE-prefix] stations until I got to someone in Punta Arenas, and then Polar Pesca, the vessel
that did the rescue." Morales speaks fluent Spanish and has visited Chile and knew "the way things operate down there." As a result, he says, he was able
to obtain credible reports via his 10-meter contacts as to what was happening.

Morales said he was able to gather information from Punta Arenas, on the extreme southern tip of South America, and, via his Chilean ham radio contacts,
from the Polar Pesca 1. "I talked to them a couple of times," he recalled, "and relayed information as to when he [Barnes] was going to be rescued, the
latitude and longitude he was at that particular time." Morales said he felt it was important for the family to know Barnes's situation and how the rescue
plans were playing out.

Barnes, who's 47, left Long Beach, California, late last October, hoping to be the first person to sail around the world from the West Coast. A severe storm
dismasted, badly damaged the vessel and soaked his supplies.

The Chilean Navy didn't really want to rescue Barnes, Morales maintains, even though it later took credit for doing so. According to Morales, the Chilean
Navy wasn't eager to send a military vessel to retrieve Barnes because of the potential costs involved, and, in any case, wanted to put off the rescue
until January 7.

The Chilean Navy did dispatch one of the CP3 Orion aircraft Chile uses to patrol its 200-mile-offshore territorial claim, and the plane spotted the foundering
vessel, photographed it and even attempted to drop a life raft that missed its mark. The Chilean Navy coordinated the operation and recruited the Polar
Pesca 1 to undertake the actual rescue, although the US Coast Guard reportedly has agreed to cover the expense, Morales says. At that point he was able
to pass along news to the family that the trawler was en route to Barnes's location.

"The main thing is, Ken Barnes is back, is alive," Morales said. "What I did was on behalf of the US ham radio community, I believe. That's what you're
there for."

Barnes is scheduled to return home to California this week, and Morales will be among those on hand to welcome him. The City of Riverside has announced
plans to honor Morales for rendering assistance, although Morales says he's "a very low-key type of person" who isn't fond of being in the media spotlight.
Nonetheless, Barnes's family and friends, armed with information Morales provided, tipped off the news media, and over the past few days Morales has been
interviewed, photographed and videotaped by reporters from the Los Angeles Times, ABC, CBS, NBC and Telemundo.

Morales also will be a special guest this week of the Riverside County Amateur Radio Club, thanks to Duane Allen, N6JPO, a club officer. A radio amateur
for about 15 years, Morales now is planning to upgrade his license. "I've just been procrastinating about it," he said.

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Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 13:56:07

Space Contacts Compete with Rock Band, Bring Science to Life for Fifth Graders


Ingenious scouts pile hay bales to dampen the sound from a nearby rock concert at AJ2007. [WIA Photo]


A scout asks his question of astronaut Suni Williams, KD5PLB. [WIA Photo]


Exultant AJ2007 contact participants cheer the contact's success. [WIA Photo]


Sherman Elementary School student Garret asks his question of Suni Williams. [Andrea Catena Photo]


A television reporter interviews fifth-grader Zach at Sherman Elementary.


Members of the Rochester Amateur Radio Association handle the station controls as Maya asks her question. [Andrea Catena Photo]

NEWINGTON, CT, Jan 10, 2007 -- Scouts at Australian Jamboree 2007 (
applied their ingenuity January 7 when an on-site rock concert threatened to drown out a scheduled Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (
contact with the campers. They responded by piling bales of hay to create an insulating bunker around the building where the contact with ISS Expedition
14 Flight Engineer Suni Williams, KD5PLB, took place. As a result, the 20 scouts who won a "What would you ask an Astronaut?" competition were able to
ask Williams their questions in comparative quiet. One Scout asked Williams to comment on the possibility of life elsewhere in our solar system.

"I would think with all the stars . . . all the billions of stars out there that there's got to be life somewhere out there," Williams replied from NA1SS.
"So I think we'll be able to find evidence of life at some point in time." She told another Scout that the ISS crew hadn't seen any aliens in space, adding,
"but maybe we will. I'll be up here for another six months."

The contact marked Williams debut in handling an ARISS educational contact from NA1SS. Williams noted that she had been in Girl Scouts herself.

Responding to another question, Williams said it takes more than a month for ISS crew members to accommodate fully to Earth's gravity after spending an
extended time in the microgravity environment of space.

"We go through about a 45-day rehabilitation program when we get back, and you're pretty much back to normal after about a six-month stay," she said. "However,
really being able to work out -- like being able to run the way you did before you left -- is probably going to be about a one day-for-one day time, so
probably about six months."

to listen to the contact between scouts at AJ2007 and astronaut Suni Williams, KD5PLB, at NA1SS. [MP3, 9:43]

Philip Adams, VK3JNI, organized the event, which attracted a crowd of about 200 onlookers inside and outside AJ2007's VI3JAM ham radio shack, while another
150 inside a tent watched the proceedings on a large video screen. An on-site FM radio station broadcast the event for the other 13,000 Scouts at the Jamboree.

Earth station for the AJ2007 contact was Bill Lynd, VK4KHZ. A Verizon Conferencing teleconference link provided two-way audio between the Jamboree site
in Elmore and VK4KHZ. ARISS-Australia Coordinator Tony Hutchison, VK5ZAI, the Wireless Institute of Australia and Amateur Radio Victoria assisted.

"Thank you so much for inviting me," Williams said as the ISS went out of range. "It was great to talk to all you guys, and I hope you have a wonderful
Jamboree." AJ2007 is celebrating the 100th anniversary of Scouting. It concludes January 13.

New York Elementary Schoolers Get Glimpse of Life in Space

The possibility of a human space flight to Mars has been the focus of teacher Andrea Catena's fifth grade science pupils at Sherman Elementary School in
Henrietta, New York. The youngsters expanded their knowledge of life in space when they spoke via ham radio January 8 with Suni Williams. ARISS arranged
the direct VHF contact between W2SKY at the school and NA1SS. Responding to one question, Williams explained that it takes more than a day to get ready
for a spacewalk from the ISS.

"Part of the reason is that we breathe pure oxygen, so we don't want to get 'the bends' when we go out into space, so, we have to start 'pre-breathing'
the oxygen the day before" Williams told the youngsters. "And then, to get all the tools together it takes a good four or five hours."

Williams, who joined the Expedition 14 space station crew in December, said the most exciting part of her mission so far was her first spacewalk. "Actually
coming out the door and seeing the world in your face for the first time, it was absolutely exhilarating!" she recounted.

In preparation for the contact, the Sherman Elementary students had researched the history of the ISS and learned a bit about the work of the station crew.
They also studied satellite and radio communication in space.

Williams, 41, said she first thought about becoming a member of the NASA Astronaut Corps until "later in life" after she'd become a test pilot.

to listen to the contact between Sherman Elementary School students and astronaut Suni Williams, KD5PLB, at NA1SS. [MP3, 9:44]

to see a video of the contact between Sherman Elementary School students and astronaut Suni Williams, KD5PLB.

"But I always thought I wanted to do that," Williams continued, "so one thing I'd say to you guys is, if there's any thoughts that you'd like to become
an astronaut, keep that in the back of your mind, pursue your dreams and whatever other career you might want to have, and eventually it might just happen."
She said many professions are represented among the members of the Astronaut Corps.

Members of the Rochester Amateur Radio Association (
set up the necessary Earth station equipment at the school to make the QSO possible. "We had an excellent ARISS experience at Emma Sherman Elementary School
yesterday," said RARA Education Committee Chairman Pete Fournia, W2SKY, who loaned his call sign for the occasion. "The school took full advantage of this
opportunity making it a very memorable experience for the entire school and a very gratifying experience for the teams that participated," he said.

The youngsters squeezed 16 questions into the nearly 10-minute ISS pass. The ham radio event attracted generous media attention from newspapers and television

is an international educational outreach with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.

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Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 23:04:59


table with 8 columns and 2 rows
Station of Origin
Place of Origin
Time filed
Message Receipt Or Delivery Information
Operator and Station __________________________
Sent To ____________________________________
Delivered To ________________________________
Date __________________ Time _______________
table end

Telephone Number
ARL ONE Everyone safe here. Please don’t worry.
ARL TWO Coming home as soon as possible.
ARL THREE Am in _______________________________________________ hospital. Receiving excellent care and recovering fine.
ARL FOUR Only slight property damage here. Do not be concerned about disaster reports.
ARL FIVE Am moving to new location. Send no further mail or communications. Will inform you of new address when relocated.
ARL SIX Will contact you as soon as possible.
ARL SIXTY FOUR Arrived safety at ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

table with 4 columns and 1 rows
table end

table with 8 columns and 3 rows
Station of Origin
Place of Origin
Time Filed
This Radio Message Was Received At
Amateur Station ______________ Phone ______________
Name __________________________________________
Street Address ___________________________________
City and State ___________________________________
table end

Telephone Number

table with 11 columns and 5 rows

table end

table with 2 columns and 2 rows
From Date Time
To Date Time
This message was handled free of charge by a licensed Amateur Radio
Operator whose address is shown in the box at right above. As such
messages are handled solely for the pleasure of operating. No com-
pensation can be accepted by a “Ham” operator. A return message may
be filed with the “Ham” delivering this message to you. Further infor-
mation on Amateur Radio may be obtained from A.R.R.L. Headquarters
225 Main Street, Newington, CT 06111
The American Radio Relay League, Inc., is the national membership society of licensed radio amateurs and the publishers of QST Magazine. One of its functions
is promotion of the public service communications among amateur operators to that end. The League has organized the National Traffic System for daily nationwide
message handling.
table end

FSD-244 (1/04)
Text Box: TO
Text Box: TO

Post 294 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Wednesday, 04-Jun-2008 23:07:21

Broadband Over Powerline (BPL) Signal Leakage Analysis Using NEC
Modeling with Experimental Verification
Steve Cerwin
Institute Scientist
Southwest Research Institute
San Antonio, TX 78238
This paper describes a theoretical and experimental study conducted to assess the ability
of transmission line structures modeled after power lines to contain radio frequency
energy as a guided wave. Proponents of the Broadband-over-Power-Line (BPL) method
of distributing high-speed Internet data have targeted the spectrum from 2 MHz (just
above the AM broadcast band) to 80 MHz (just below the FM broadcast band) for
delivery of wideband data signals to residential and rural neighborhoods using the
overhead power lines as radio frequency transmission lines. This block of spectrum,
while specifically excluding the AM and FM broadcast bands, encompasses the entire HF
and low band VHF spectrum serving all HF over-the-horizon communications, many
VHF land mobile services, and TV channels 2-5. With the exception of strong urban TV
signals, the nature of these types of communications is mostly characterized as weak-
signal work and the interference to these services by unwanted leakage of the wideband
data signals from the power lines would seriously degrade their operation or make them
entirely unusable. The study used the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) to model
the radiation patterns and leakage levels of two-wire transmission lines representing
simplified versions of the power line in various geometries. Selected results were verified
experimentally through construction of a 1/60th scale model. At radio frequencies,
transmission lines modeled after power lines were seen to radiate severely because they
are spaced too far apart and have too many characteristics that destroy balanced
operation. Many line geometries were predicted to radiate as much or more power than
that delivered to loads placed directly across the line. The use of these structures to
distribute wideband data signals in frequency bands used for weak-signal radio
communications is technically flawed because of their inability to contain the radio
frequency energy as a guided wave.
Broadband Over Powerline (BPL) Signal Leakage Analysis Using NEC
Modeling with Experimental Verification
list of 1 items
1. Introduction
list end
This article describes a theoretical and experimental study conducted to assess the
potential signal leakage of the Broadband-over-Power-Line (BPL) method of distributing
high-speed Internet data. Proponents of BPL have targeted the spectrum from 2 MHz
(just above the AM broadcast band) to 80 MHz (just below the FM broadcast band) for
delivery of wideband data signals to residential neighborhoods using the overhead power
lines as radio frequency transmission lines. This block of spectrum, while excluding the
AM and FM broadcast bands, encompasses the entire HF and low band VHF spectrum
serving all HF over-the horizon communications, many VHF land mobile services, and
TV channels 2-5. With the exception of strong urban TV signals, the nature of these types
of communications is mostly characterized as weak-signal work and the interference to
these services by unwanted leakage of the wideband data signals from the power lines
would seriously degrade their operation or make them entirely unusable. The line spacing
used in overhead power lines is much larger that that normally considered for use as an
RF transmission line and the power lines contain many features inconsistent with good
transmission line operation. This study was undertaken in an effort to quantify the signal
leakage potential of transmission lines constructed in this manner.
The study used the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) to model the radiation
patterns and leakage levels of two-wire transmission lines representing simplified
versions of the power line in various geometries. Variables considered included
frequency, line spacing, the effects of impedance matching, the inclusion of multiple
loads, the effect of the earth, and the effect of unequal wire lengths that occur in curved
or bent lines. All models assumed the power lines were configured for balanced two-
wire operation to achieve the maximum amount of radiation suppression possible. NEC
also was used to predict how much RF energy compared to that delivered to a simulated
BPL subscriber would be coupled to a receiver connected to a resonant dipole antenna
erected parallel to and 30 ft. away from the line models. This spacing is representative of
what might be encountered in a typical residential neighborhood. Selected results from
the simulations were verified experimentally by constructing a 1/60th scale model of a
transmission line and measuring the leakage levels with laboratory equipment.
At radio frequencies, transmission lines modeled after power lines were seen to radiate
severely because they are spaced too far apart and have too many characteristics that
destroy balanced operation. The NEC models showed very poor radiation suppression
under all realistic conditions, resulting in moderate to severe signal leakage. Many line
geometries were predicted to radiate as much or more power than that delivered to loads
placed directly across the line. The study showed that attempting to use transmission line
structures modeled after the power lines at radio frequencies is technically flawed
because of the inability to contain the radio frequency energy as a guided wave.
list of 1 items
2. NEC Models
list end
Several ways can be imagined to configure the overhead power lines for conducting radio
frequency signals. These include driving a single wire against ground or an adjacent
grounded wire, or driving two wires against each other in a balanced mode. This study
considered only the balanced configuration, as this is the only mode recognized as being
capable of significant external field cancellation. The NEC models used in the study are
depicted in Figure 1. The basic structure is that of a two-conductor parallel wire
transmission line with a dipole antenna placed nearby. Configurations that were modeled
included (a) straight lines; (b)“L” shaped lines; (c) “U” shaped lines and (d) lines with
multiple loads. Both free-space and real-ground models were evaluated.
A voltage source with balanced drive impedances representing the BPL service provider
was placed across the line as a source, and one or more loads representing BPL
subscribers were placed elsewhere along the line. A 50-ohm load placed in the center of
the adjacent dipole simulated a receiver connected to the dipole. To perform the analyses,
the radiation patterns were recorded and the amount of power delivered to the various
loads was computed over frequency and geometry. Variables included the line spacing
and length, frequency, source and termination matching, ground effects, and unequal wire
lengths that occur in curved geometries. This is a simplified version of the reality of BPL
in that the actual power line continues in both directions from the models shown here, has
many “T” connections and other attachments, and contains live loads that consume power
at 60 Hz but present variable impedances at RF that could unbalance the line. The models
therefore could underreport signal leakage.
Text Box: (a)
Text Box: (b)
Text Box: (c)
Text Box: (d)
list of 1 items
3. Power Line Impedance
list end
A call to the local power company revealed that a typical 3-wire residential power line
might use ½-inch diameter conductors and a line spacing of 4 feet between wires. Line
spacing of either 4 or 8 ft. are possible depending on which pair of wires are used to
make the line. A graph of line impedance using ½-inch conductors for spacings from 10-
inches to 100-inches is shown in Figure 2.
The plot for line impedance versus
spacing was created using the
familiar equation
Z = 276 log (2S/d),
where Z = impedance,
S = spacing, and
D = wire diameter.
The impedance is about 440 ohms
at 10-inch spacing and gradually
increases to around 715 ohms at
96-inches (8-ft.). When simulations
were run for different line spacing,
the appropriate source and load
terminations were used to simulate matched conditions.
list of 1 items
4. Interpreting Simulation Results
list end
lation. This load can be
considered as the modem used by the BPL subscriber. Loads 2 and 3 are symmetrical
impedances inserted in series on either side of the source. Each was set to half the line
impedance and represent the BPL service provider. Thus in this case the line was
perfectly balanced and terminated on both ends in exactly its characteristic impedance.
Load 4 is the 50-ohm load placed in the center of the adjacent dipole antenna. When the
program is run, it reports the power delivered to each load, the total applied power, the
total load power, and the load loss.
The difference between the total applied power and the power absorbed in all load
impedances is the amount of power radiated from the line. This information can be
obtained from the Total Load Loss report. The Total Load Loss figure is given
mathematically by
Load Loss = 10 log (Total Power / (Total Power – Load Power)).
The convention used by this program is to express Load Loss in dB as a positive number
with higher numbers reflecting more power lost in loads connected to an antenna. While
an antenna designer seeks to minimize load loss so as to maximize radiation efficiency,
the transmission line designer seeks just the opposite. A perfectly designed antenna
would radiate all of the applied power and dissipate none whereas a perfectly designed
transmission line would deliver all of the power to the loads and radiate none. The Load
Loss figure gives the same data in either case but for transmission line analysis it is more
appropriate to take the inverse of the ratio (negate the dB value) and call it leakage
radiation. In the above example, the Total Load Loss was 32.03dB, meaning that the total
signal power escaping the line was down only 32.03dB from the source power. Leakage
Radiation thus was –32.03dB referenced total applied power.
The power in Load 4 represents the amount of power delivered to a receiver connected to
the nearby dipole antenna. In most of the analyses it was normalized to the line load
power to simulate how much power is received by a nearby antenna compared to how
much is delivered to a BPL subscriber. The data for the different plots were generated by
performing multiple runs of the program while varying geometry and frequency between
runs. In the single example at 2 MHz shown above, the receiver power was 0.1797
microwatts for a subscriber power of 1.585 milliwatts. Expressed in dB, the power
intercepted by a receiver system 30 feet away is down about 40dB from that delivered to
the subscriber at this frequency. This coupling varies significantly over frequency and for
different line conditions and geometries. Section 11 discusses factors that influence
resulting interference levels in terms of predicted coupling values.
The program will also calculate the external radiation pattern of the structure for each
geometry and frequency. For each pattern, it will report the “slice max gain” which is the
maximum antenna gain expressed in dBi (dB relative to an isotropic radiator). Thus the
total radiated power integrated over all directions, the gain of the structure in the
direction of maximum radiation, and the amount of power delivered to a nearby antenna
in a given geometry can be found.
list of 1 items
7. Matched vs. Unmatched Operation
list end
e SWR and line radiation.
list of 1 items
8. Predicted Signal Levels Coupled to a Nearby Antenna
list of 1 items nesting level 1
a. Frequency Effects
list end nesting level 1
list end
The signal level coupled into nearby antennas depends on the antenna type, frequency
and position of the antenna. The frequency dependencies of line leakage have already
been explored; this section adds the frequency dependence of the nearby receive antenna.
For simplicity, we will assume a resonant dipole for the receive antenna cut for the
frequency of operation, erected parallel to and 30-ft. away from the line near one end. For
the transmission line, we will initially consider a “perfect” 500-ft. long line with 4-ft.
spacing, driven and terminated in its characteristic impedance of 630 ohms.
The capture area of a half-wave dipole antenna is roughly an ellipse that is ¾-
wavelenghts long by ¼-wavelength wide. Thus the amount of power a resonant dipole
will collect from a passing radio wave scales with wavelength-squared, or as the inverse
square of frequency (this is the mechanism responsible for the 20log(f) term in a link
equation). What this means for BPL is that the inverse frequency dependence of the
receive antenna tends to compensate for the frequency dependent line leakage. Therefore
the signal injected into the receive antenna tends to remain more constant over the 20-80
MHz BPL band and interference potential remains high even at low frequencies because
of the increased capture area of the receive antenna. Nearfield effects and mutual
coupling are additional factors that influence the amount of power leaked from the line
into the nearby antenna. At the low frequency end, they cannot be ignored because the
spacing is close compared to a wavelength. At the high frequency end, the receive
antenna exhibits more farfield-like behavior for the fixed standoff distance.
NEC takes all into account automatically through the method-of-moments calculation
process, so all that is necessary to perform a frequency sweep of leakage radiation into a
nearby dipole antenna is to set the
antenna to the correct length for each
frequency. This is found using the
familiar relationship
Lfeet = 468/fMHz.
Figure 10 shows the results of NEC
simulations for 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80
MHz for a dipole positioned near one
end of the line. The signal power
coupled into the dipole load (Load 4 in
Figure 3) was calculated and then
normalized to the power level delivered
to the line load (Load 1 in Figure 3). The
spread of signal strengths over the entire band has been compressed to only 12 dB
because of the frequency dependent capture area of the receive dipole. From 20-80 MHz,
the coupling is virtually flat with frequency.
list of 1 items
b. Coupling to a Nearby Dipole for a Straight, Perfectly Balanced, and Impedance Matched Line in Free Space
list end
This simulation with experimental validation examines leakage characteristics of a
perfect line with 4-ft. spacing at 10MHz. At this frequency, the line spacing is .04
wavelengths – less than half of the commonly accepted cutoff for spacing. Therefore
good suppression of radiation is expected. It is the intent of this section to establish how
well a straight power line under ideal conditions might act as an RF transmission line to
set a lower limit on leakage.
Figure 11 shows the NEC predicted
coupling at 10 MHz to a dipole
antenna erected 30-ft. away from and
parallel to a 500-ft. long line. For
each successive simulation point on
the graph the dipole position was
moved along the line in ¼-
wavelength increments at a constant
30-ft. stand-off distance. Maximum
coupling was observed to occur
when the dipole was centered over
either the source or load end of the
line (they were virtually equal in
response). At these positions, the
signal level coupled into a receiver connected to the dipole was down approximately
35dB from that delivered to the load. The coupling was predicted to drop sharply in
amplitude as the dipole moved 100-ft or so from either end towards the interior. Cyclic
undulations from interference effects were noted near the center of the line where the
coupled signal dipped to levels as much as 40 dB weaker than at the ends. As the position
of the dipole continued beyond the end of the line, the coupled signal dropped at about
the same rate as towards the interior, but without the interference effects.
This model depicts perfect line conditions. There is only one impedance matched source
and load with nothing between them but perfectly balanced straight transmission line.
This is important because the sharp drop in coupling in the center of the line turns out to
be impossible to achieve under more realistic settings.
Figure 14 shows the
theoretical coupling
levels and three
measurement runs.
Within 10-15% of the
line ends, the measured
coupling levels agreed
very closely with the
predicted values,
validating the
simulations. The
transformer center tap
was left open for the
run labeled Bench 1 and
grounded for the runs
labeled Bench 2 and
Over Ground.
It was not possible to achieve the lowered coupling levels predicted for the interior part
of the line. At least two explanations are possible. One is that the balun transformer used
to drive the line did not have sufficient longitudinal balance to achieve a high degree of
field cancellation, even though it was rated and specified for use at this frequency.
Another is that reflections of the higher radiation present on the line ends within the room
dominated the measurements (an anechoic chamber was not available for the
measurements). Although coupled signal levels as low as those shown in the Theoretical
plot are mathematically possible in the interior of a long simple line, they could not be
achieved in the lab.
The actual line geometry on the street will be far more complex than a simple straight
line with a single matched source on one end and a matched load on the other. To be
practical, BPL must deliver signal to multiple subscribers, and the power line must
additionally provide all of the normal power related functions for multiple residences. As
shown in the next sections, more realistic geometries and unavoidable imbalances and
impedance mismatches increase the predicted leakage dramatically, making the low
leakage values associated with a simple straight line unavailable.
list of 1 items
9. The Effect of Multiple Loads
list end
currents flowing in opposite directions on the line caused a null.
list of 1 items
10. The Effects of Unequal Conductor Lengths in the Line
list end
The studies in this section show that the radiation suppression ability of a two-wire
transmission line is particularly sensitive to unequal conductor lengths in the line. This
occurs unavoidably when a line parallel to the ground makes a “flat” bend or curves
around an arc. The wire on the outside of the arc has to travel farther than the inside wire,
resulting in unequal wire lengths. For circular arcs the difference in the wire lengths is
Delta Length = 2 * PI * Wire Spacing * Fraction of a full circle described by the arc.
With the 4-ft. spacing considered in these analyses, a 90-degree arc results in a difference
in line length of just over 6-ft, and a 180-degree arc produces a line length delta of over
12-ft. Power lines make turns in piecewise-linear fashion, making straight runs between
supports positioned around a curved path. This always results in greater differences in the
wire lengths. Using the same examples, a 90-degree square corner produces a delta L of
twice the spacing (8-ft.), and a 180-turn consisting of two square corners produces a delta
L of four times the line spacing (16-ft.). This amount of wire length difference is of no
consequence at the power line design frequency of 60Hz, but it has profound implications
at radio frequencies. The fact that the delta-L may be a small percentage of the overall
line length does not help because it is the magnitude of the length mismatch compared to
the fixed RF wavelength at a given frequency that matters.
Three examples of transmission lines that bend around corners are presented below: two
embodiments of an “L” shaped line and a “U” shaped line that steps around a semicircle.
The effects of multiple loads and mismatched source impedance also are included.
Whereas the previous examples of a perfectly matched and balanced straight line defined
the low end of line leakage, these examples tend to show how bad leakage can get. The
combined effects of unequal wire lengths and impedance mismatches were observed to
destroy the ability of these structures to act as transmission lines very rapidly as a
function of frequency.
The L geometry depicted in the model is not always seen on the street. In some
installations the lines intersect at different elevations on a power pole and the individual
wires are spliced with jumpers. Therefore this model may not apply directly everywhere.
But the L geometry nonetheless serves as a convenient model to generate and show the
effects of wire length mismatch. Other common sources of unequal conductor lengths
that occur on the streets are uneven amounts of sag in the wires between supports and
unequal lengths of wire used in splices or connecting hardware.
with those of an antenna.
part of the line by 20dB.
st lost to radiation.
list of 1 items
11. Factors Affecting Interference Levels in Nearby Receiver Systems
list end
The factors affecting interference levels to receivers with antennas nearby a BPL
equipped power line are complex and require consideration of:
list of 8 items
�� Line geometry
�� Relative location of the receive antenna
�� Power line environment
�� Standing wave ratio
�� BPL drive level
�� BPL spectral distribution
�� Receiver operating frequency
�� Effective receiver bandwidth
list end
Some parameters are unknown or unknowable, making actual interference projections on
the street impossible unless untenable assumptions are made. This section will discuss the
factors that affect interference levels.
list of 1 items
a. Line geometry.
list end
Several line geometries have been explored and documented. Clearly line geometry can
have large effects on leakage and line geometries that result in unequal wire lengths in
the transmission line have a particularly negative effect on external field cancellation.
list of 1 items
b. Relative location of the receive antenna.
list end
Antenna orientation, standoff distance, and location relative to line discontinuities such as
line ends and turns strongly affect coupling. At the higher frequencies large changes in
coupling can occur over small changes in position due to short wavelengths and
interference effects. The calculated coupling levels presented in earlier sections assumed
a simple dipole antenna at a 30-ft. standoff distance parallel to a section of the line.
Antennas closer will receive more signal, antennas farther away will receive less.
list of 1 items
c. Power line environment.
list end
Largely unexplored in this study but of potentially high significance are intended or
incidental loads connected to the wires that are asymmetric with respect to ground.
Asymmetric loading will cause a current imbalance between the two wires. Because
external field cancellation in a two-wire transmission line relies exclusively on equal and
opposite contributions of the fields surrounding each wire, such imbalances will cause
leakage to increase rapidly. Particularly troublesome are lines that use a grounded neutral
wire and hot wires that see different live loads. Isolating these effects with clamp-on
chokes is possible but may prove troublesome because the ferrite material used to make
the isolators can saturate or change permeability with high 60Hz currents. If ferrite
chokes are in fact used, the nonlinear effects resulting from 60Hz current effects could
generate harmonics and intermodulation products, scattering energy above and below the
limits of the band.
Unlike coaxial cable, open wire transmission lines have no shielding effectiveness and
are sensitive to their surroundings out to several wire spacings. Nearby wires, attaching
hardware, parasitic capacitances, trees, and variable ground conditions can also upset line
balance. Because these variables are unknown and highly variable, their effects are
difficult to predict. However, their inescapable presence in the real world will certainly
have an adverse effect on line balance with a corresponding increase in radiation.
list of 1 items
d. Standing wave ratio.
list end
Impedance mismatches have been shown to increase SWR and line radiation. The
requirements to overcome high noise levels and deliver power to multiple loads suggests
BPL source impedance must be set significantly lower than the line impedance, creating a
mismatch. Multiple loads placed along a constant impedance line create impedance
discontinuities, also generating unavoidable standing waves. Power line components such
as insulators, splices, and transformers create additional impedance discontinuities
leading to more reflections. These factors suggest that BPL operation most probably will
be operated under high SWR conditions. The only sources of impedance mismatch
modeled in this study were low source impedance and the presence of multiple loads.
list of 1 items
e. BPL drive level.
list end
This parameter has not been made public. It may be fixed or adaptive in the manner of
cellular telephones. A level of one milliwatt (0dBm) is commonly used for telephone
modems and is the standard for many other communications systems so it may serve as a
point of reference. This is speculation as the level could be lower or much higher if high
noise levels present on the line or high radiation losses must be overcome. Power lines
are inherently noisy from insulator arcing and loose hardware connections. Additional
noise will result from external signal ingress since the leaky transmission line represented
by power lines is just as leaky for inbound signals as outbound. Whether BPL operation
can overcome ingress without increasing drive levels is unknown.
list of 1 items
f. BPL spectral distribution.
list end
This parameter is critical and can significantly impact the interference potential of BPL.
If the BPL signal contains a clock, bit rate, or data carrier that favors a particular
frequency band, then obviously that band will radiate more than others. But modern data
transfer systems tend to use spreading methods so as to use every cycle of bandwidth in
the allotted band. Minimum power density at any given frequency occurs if the BPL
signal is uniformly distributed over the whole 2-80MHz band. However, maintaining
uniform frequency distribution in the presence of frequency dependent line losses may
prove difficult.
list of 1 items
g. Receiver operating frequency.
list end
The frequency effects of line leakage have been explored and indicate line leakage
increases with frequency. But whereas leakage radiation from the line increases with
frequency, the capture area of a nearby resonant receive antenna decreases. This effect
was seen to largely compensate for the frequency dependencies of the line, significantly
normalizing interference potential over frequency for most line geometries. But some
imbalance mechanisms such as unequal conductor lengths were observed to significantly
accelerate line radiation with frequency, so flat frequency response may not always exist.
list of 1 items
h. Effective receiver bandwidth.
list end
If the BPL signal is uniformly distributed over frequency, the amount of power delivered
to a nearby receiver system is set by the acceptance bandwidth of the receiver. The total
amount of signal available in a given band is then the total amount of power available
multiplied by the ratio of the bandwidths. Thus a television receiver on Ch 5 with 6MHz
of bandwidth will receive more BPL signal power than a 10kHz wide AM receiver in the
HF broadcast band, which in turn will receive more signal than a 3kHz wide SSB HF
communications receiver. The coupling levels previously identified to a nearby resonant
dipole antenna can be converted to signal strength in a receiver by application of the
bandwidth ratio expressed in dB. For a TV receiver the factor is –11.1dB, for an AM
receiver the factor is –38.9dB, and for an SSB receiver the factor is –44.1dB. These
factors are valid only if the source energy is truly white over the 2-80MHz band.
list of 1 items
12. Power Lines As Radio Frequency Transmission Lines
list end
This study has shown that transmission lines modeled after power line geometries have
poor characteristics from the standpoint of signal containment and the ability to
efficiently deliver power to connected loads over the proposed frequency band. The
following observations were made during the course of the study:
list of 7 items
a. In a two-wire transmission line, radiation is suppressed by a delicate balance in the external superposition of fields from each of the two conductors
of the line. External cancellation of equal and opposite fields relies on the signals on the two wires being of opposite sign, equal in amplitude, and
physically close together in terms of wavelength.
b. High levels of radiation suppression can be achieved only if the wires are very close together in terms of wavelength and carry carefully balanced signals.
The wire spacing used in overhead power lines is inappropriately large for use at radio frequencies.
c. As line spacing increases and external cancellation degrades, radiation escapes in multi-lobed patterns similar to those of long wire antennas.
d. Line radiation has been shown to increase very rapidly with an imbalance in current distribution, unequal impedance to ground, or unequal lengths in
the wires comprising the line.
e. For a long two-wire transmission line with a source and one or more loads, there will be significantly more radiation from the ends (even if properly
impedance matched) than from the interior part of the line. It does not matter whether the source is on one end or the interior of the line.
f. Line radiation has been shown to increase if standing waves are formed on the line. Splices, T-connections, open ends, and multiple source and load connections
all constitute impedance reflections leading to the formation of standing waves.
g. Line radiation has been shown to increase dramatically if the lengths of the two wires defining the line are not exactly the same length. A two-wire
line that curves or bends in-plane will necessarily have unequal wire lengths and leak significantly more radiation than a perfectly straight line. Another
cause of unequal wire length is an unequal amount of sag in the wires between the supports. This effect quickly accelerates line radiation with frequency.

list end
NEC transmission line models patterned after overhead power lines have been shown to
radiate severely under anything less than perfect conditions over the proposed radio
frequency band. For use at radio frequencies, transmission lines modeled after power
lines are spaced too far apart and have too many characteristics that destroy balanced
operation. Using these structures to distribute wideband data signals is technically flawed
because of their inability to contain the radio frequency energy as a guided wave.

Post 295 of 367

Account disabled
877 posts
Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 12:41:39

Amateur Radio—A Powerful
Voice in Education
ARRL members have contributed more than $205,000
to fund the Amateur Radio Education & Technology
Program to inspire a new generation of radio amateurs.

he Education & Technology Program
was born in 2000 as means
to use Amateur Radio to meet two
of America’s challenges: (1) to improve
the educational experience by enticing
students to greater participation in
science, math, language arts and social
studies, and (2) to create a skilled technological
workforce for the future. Of
course, another goal of the program is to
ensure the growth of Amateur Radio by
introducing the service and its traditions
to a new generation.
The goal is to have 300 schools participating
in the program by 2006. This
is a $1,000,000 multiphase program
based on partnerships between educators
and radio amateurs as mentors in classrooms,
enrichment programs and afterschool
activities. Major contributions
totaling nearly $140,000 in 2000 and 2001
from a few extraordinary individuals also
helped make this dream a reality: The
Brandenburg Life Foundation; Kay
Craigie, WT3P; Carter Craigie, N3AO;
Walter Craigie; Jim Dicso, K2SZ; Bob
Heil, K9EID (of Heil Sound); Robert
Lees, W3ZQN; Robert Schuetz, W2BDG,
and seed grants from the ARRL Foundation
and the Gryphon Fund. In 2002,
nearly 3500 ARRL members have contributed
more than $205,000 to the program,
bringing the total funding to $345,000.
How Does the Program Work?
The Amateur Radio Education & Technology
Program is composed of a powerful
partnership of schools, educators and
ham mentors who bring Amateur Radio
to life in middle schools in a variety of
educational scenarios. This is done at no
cost to the teachers.
The ARRL designed the six vital components:

Outreach to the educational commu
nity. This involves introducing teachers to
the Amateur Radio Education & Technology
Program through educational conferences
such as those sponsored by the
National Science Teachers Association
(NSTA), National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics (NCTM) and the International
Technology Education Association
(ITEA). Outreach also involves local volunteers
presenting information at local,
state and regional educational conferences.

The Classroom Bookshelf, a resource library, includes 18 selected ARRL publications to assist teachers in providing information to their students. It includes
technical manuals, educational materials, licensing manuals and a novel about Amateur Radio adventures for young people. To encourage the formation of
a partnership between the schools and a local Amateur Radio club, we ask a local clubs to purchase the classroom bookshelf for the schools. The books are
discounted so the school receives over $300 worth of materials for a flat cost to the club of $200.

The On-Line Sourcebook is a Web site with information and ideas valuable to teachers and others interested in working
with youth. On the Web site, teachers will
find educational materials and activities,
ideas for recruiting youth, information on
grants, scholarships, awards and certificates.
They will also find information on
registering their school to talk to the
astronauts on the International Space Station.
The information is organized and presented
on the ARRLWeb (
ead and
teacher), so teachers and others who work
with young people can access it at no cost.

Progress Grants, with a limit of $500 are made available to schools already offering Amateur Radio to their students. The purpose of the Progress Grant
is to give financial assistance to teachers for upkeep and maintenance of their school station, upgrading software or for purchasing various supplies and
consumables that often become out-of-pocket expenses for teachers.

The Radio Lab Handbook is a practical handbook for classroom teachers that acts as a guide for bringing Amateur Radio and/or shortwave listening into their
students’ experience. In an easily updateable format, the Radio Lab Handbook includes information, guidelines, resources and a middle school level curriculum
with text, lesson plans and activities. It also includes information on safety, suggestions for laying out a school station and suggested adaptations for
students with physical disabilities. This handbook was developed by a group of teachers from around the US.

With the Stations In Schools component the ARRL is not just talking the talk, but walking the walk. As part of the Education & Technology Program, each
Pilot School receives a complete Amateur Radio station, including transceiver, power supply, antenna, coax and connectors—at no cost to the school.
52 December 2002

Amateur Radio Education & Technology Program in Full Swing
Iowa Street School
Fallbrook, California
Teacher: Phil Leonelli, WF6L
The ARRL Amateur Radio Education &
Technology Program has literally opened up a
“new world” for my students and me. Iowa
Street School’s selection as a pilot school has
not only allowed us to achieve our goal of
starting a ham radio club but exceed it! We
have received a tremendous amount of support
from our school population (including our
Fallbrook Union Elementary School District
Office that had our two 36 foot masts installed),
the Fallbrook Amateur Radio Club
and the Palomar Amateur Radio Club. The
“Earth” station that was sent from the ARRL
really excited our students. They love to “show
off” what they know about our new antennas.
Iowa Street School provides a ham
radio enrichment program for home
school students.
DeGolyer Elementary School, Dallas, Texas, ARRL PHOTO
Teacher: Sanlyn Kent, KD5LXO
At DeGolyer we had a “ham” burger cookout to
kick off the second phase of our program. We now
have over 30 licensed hams (two teachers, three
parents and the rest students) and our goal this year
is to explore all the different ways we can use and
enjoy ham radio. Among our plans, a DX overnight in
the school gym, a trip to the IMAX theater to see the
movie Space Station, hopefully a contact with the
ISS, a tour of Channel 4 given by the weather man
(who is also a new ham), and a session to design
and print everyone’s individual QSL cards. Most of
our students have ICOM handhelds with 2-meter
antennas installed on their roof, and we are in the
process of getting our own repeater so we can have
our own net twice a week without bothering the old
hams. Also we plan to help out the experienced hams on some of the marathons this
year. Oh, and the students are dying to start organizing our own fox hunts.
Central Square Middle School
Central Square, New York
Teacher: Jim Kuhl, N2STK
Students at Central Square Middle
School (CSMS) in Central Square,
New York (packet station N2STK)
recently exchanged call signs in a
QSO with Martin, XE2ML, in Durango,
Mexico using the digipeater aboard
the International Space Station. The
distance between the two stations is
approximately 2095 miles! Mike and
Amanda of CSMS (see photo) think
that’s pretty good range for VHF.
Franklin Elementary School
Kirkland, Washington
Teacher: Dave Condon, KI7YP
Last year, we licensed over 30
students here at Franklin Elementary
School. Many of our graduates have
moved on to Rose Hill Junior High School,
which also has an Amateur Radio station,
including packet radio. This year we have
75, 4th graders under study. Thanks to
AA7UJ’s donated repeater, we now have
our own repeater which will provide
Seattle wide coverage for kids to use and
will offer an open autopatch as well.
The AA7UJ site will be a kids’ radio site.
DeGolyer student and Amateur
Radio club member Nick,
KD5OJB, at the microphone of
the newly equipped K5DES.
Central Square Middle School
students worked the digipeater station
on the International Space Station.

Richwood High School
Monroe, Louisiana
Teacher: Don Wheeler, KD5MWL
As a promoter of unique science
projects, it was a great thrill and honor
to become a part of the Amateur Radio
Education & Technology Program
family. Our equipment arrived only a
few weeks before school ended; however,
it did not stop the enthusiasm of
the students. After a quick lesson on
etiquette, a few students made their
first 2-meter contact. What a thrill it
was for all of us. This project has my
utmost recommendation as a science
tool. The program will positively touch
many students in the years to come.
The latest activity for Richwood
High School hams was participating in
the SET exercises in Monroe, Louisiana
this fall. As part of the school’s
radio club activities, students have
become regular participants in the
SKYWARN network in Monroe.
SKYWARN is an important part of
Amateur Radio at Richwood High
School. This year students
participated in SET exercises.
Franklin Elementary School has 75 fourth graders studying for their Technician licenses.
C-4 Columbus North High School, Columbus, Indiana
Teacher: Mike Riley, N9LTT
The Amateur Radio program is in full swing here at C-4. Since we
got a late start with this I am only offering it to the seniors in my electronics
class this year. Next year we plan to expand it to all students
in electronics as well as some of the technology and communication
Currently I have six seniors who are helping me set up the station
and studying the material to get their licenses. All six are learning
Morse code and really enjoy it. I talked with our assistant principal,
(who, by the way is interested in getting his ticket also) and he has
offered to pay to have a 60-foot tower installed to put our antennas
on. Wow!
This is a great opportunity for students here and I thank the ARRL
and all the sponsors of the Amateur Radio Education & Technology
Program for donating the equipment. We are putting it to good use.
C-4 Columbus North High School students assemble
the antenna system they received as a result of being
selected a program Pilot School.
Once selected, schools were offered a
series of equipment packages consisting of
a transceiver, power supply, antennas, coax
and even connectors. The schools were
encouraged to choose the equipment package
they feel would best help them meet
their program objectives.
Where Do We Stand?
As mentioned above, there are 18 Pilot
Schools and another 8 schools that have
received Progress Grants, giving a total of
26 Amateur Radio Education & Technology
Program schools. The first group of
seven Pilot Schools received their equipment
in January 2002. The second group
of 11 Pilot Schools received their equipment
in May, just before the end of the
school year. Progress Grants were distributed
at the same time, giving all the
schools their materials in time to prepare
for the 2002-2003 school year.
Where are the Amateur Radio
Education & Technology Program
As you can see from the sidebars, the
schools are well distributed throughout the
country. These schools have already received
a technical library, the draft curriculum
and a complete Amateur Radio station.
They are now providing instruction in
wireless communication to their students.
Schools are using one of three delivery
systems for the program: as a full curriculum,
an in-school enrichment program or
an after-school enrichment program. The
schools are as diverse as the areas of the
country in which they are located. They
represent the full spectrum of social economic
levels and cultures. Elementary,
middle and high schools are participating
in the project. Some are public, some are
private, some are in cities, some in the suburbs
and others, like Stenhekin School in
Washington State, are in remote areas with
no roads. The common thread that binds
them together is the commitment to use
Amateur Radio as an educational resource
in their schools.
Some schools have been using Amateur
Radio as an educational tool for years. For
these schools the program offers assistance
in the form of Progress Grants. These
grants were used to upgrade equipment,
maintain the schools existing equipment,
purchase license manuals and other wireless
communication publications, as well
as to purchase coax and antennas.
How Do I Approach a School about
Offering Amateur Radio?
Starting an Amateur Radio class or
club at a school is usually not a top-down
decision. It usually begins with a teacher
within the school deciding to share his or
her hobby with students. To succeed in
convincing a school to implement an Amateur
Radio program, find a local teacher
and excite them about Amateur Radio.
Share the joy—it’s contagious!
Remember that the teachers do not have
to be hams. Non-licensed teachers can offer
Amateur Radio as an enrichment program.
These enrichment programs can be
offered during the school day by individual
teachers or as an after-school program.
This requires licensed volunteers from the
community coming into the school several
times per week to teach the class. A
teacher within the school usually sponsors
the program and supervises the volunteers.
This is where a club can play a key role.
You need your best members, your most
articulate speakers, to make Amateur
Radio come alive for the students.
What’s Next?
Applications for new Amateur Radio
Education & Technology Program schools
for the initial phase of 2003 funding were
submitted to the selection committee on
November 1. The committee will make their
selections and the schools will be notified
in December, and by January there will be
additional Pilot Schools to join the group.
They will receive their equipment and be
encouraged to join the activities already
underway at the other Amateur Radio Education
& Technology Program schools.
All participating schools will be testing
the curriculum during the 2002-2003
school year. Through this process, teachers
will be participating in the curriculum
development by reviewing the text,
lesson plans, activities and projects, making
recommendation for change, deleting
items and adding others. The final curriculum
will be ready for distribution for
the 2003-2004 school year to all participating
schools and will also be posted on
the ARRL Amateur Radio Education &
Technology Program Web site www.
The ARRL would like to expand the
program up to a total of 100 schools for
the 2003-2004 school year. Mary Hobart,
K1MMH, ARRL Chief Development Officer,
has been working tirelessly, seeking
ARRL member donations and
foun-dation grants to fund this expansion.
With additional funding, it is hoped to
expand the Amateur Radio Education &
Technology Program to 300 schools nationwide
by the year 2006.
Still in its infancy, this program is a
bold step forward with its goal of improving
the quality of education by providing
an educationally sound curriculum focused
on wireless communications, emphasizing
integration of technology,
math, science, geography, writing, speaking
and social responsibility within a global
The Amateur Radio Education &
Technology Program will build a firm
foundation for the future of Amateur Radio.
By inspiring the next generation and
helping to improve all aspects of education,
Amateur Radio is making a significant
and lasting impact.
Jerry Hill, KH6HU, came out of retirement
from the Hawaii school system to
help launch the Amateur Radio Education
& Technology Program. He can be
reached at For information
on how your school can become
involved in The Big Project, go to

54 December 2002

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Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 12:44:29

Digital Voice Update
Doug Smith, KF6DX, ARRL Digital Voice Working Group
July 9, 2003
Experimentation with digital voice in Amateur Radio continues to develop along
at least two fronts: Thales' SkyWave, a proprietary system that uses a sound card and a
PC; and stand-alone systems that use the AMBE-2020 voice codec.
The Thales software is still in its alpha testing phases but progress has been made
on distribution arrangements. Tentative agreement has been reached to make copies
available to Digital Voice Working Group members for beta testing. The distribution
would possibly include source code for the user interface. The modem and voice codec
are proprietary and source code would not be available. Thales and QEX published an
article with some details of the system early this year.1
Plans are being discussed to release the software in September 2003. Licensing
and intellectual-property issues remain.
Our friends at AOR Japan have generated a document that details the protocols
and formats used in their ARD9800 digital voice system. That document has been passed
to Dennis Silage, K3DS, at Temple University, where a team of students is pursuing a
compatible system. Each team is trying to maintain mutual compatibility and also
backward compatibility with the original AMBE-based system of member Charles Brain,
G4GUO. The specification is attached as an Appendix.
The AMBE-2020 and Thales systems cannot intercommunicate and no
nonproprietary digital voice-coding scheme has been uncovered by our Group. The
future of digital voice may lie mainly in multimedia modes-- that is, in simultaneous
voice, data and video. The Group will be interested to see the reports of the ad hoc
ARRL committee assigned to study high-speed HF data modes and that of the High-
Speed Multimedia Working Group.
Regulatory issues regarding simultaneous digital voice, data and video on HF
have not been adequately addressed. Regulations in countries such as Japan, the UK and
the USA differ by a wide margin and in many cases, they are ambiguous or speak nothing
to the issue. Digital voice per se is unaffected by that; but without simultaneous data,
video or file-transfer capabilities, further development will be held back in my view.
Doug Smith, KF6DX
Cédric Demeure and Pierre-André Laurent, "International Digital Audio Broadcasting Standards: Voice Coding and Amateur Radio Applications," QEX, Jan/Feb
Appendix: ARD9800 Protocol
De AOR Japan:
Digital Voice Format
1-1 General Description
The voice waveform is sampled at 8 kbps and processed through an AMBE vocoder.
It compresses the voice data stream into 72 bits for every 20-msec symbol. This is
equivalent to a 3600 bps rate. At that rate, 2400 bps is plain voice information and 1200
bps is parity information for error correction as FEC. This format is determined by the
AMBE vocoder chip.
The 72 bits feed the OFDM data frame. In this OFDM scheme, voice information is
carried by 36 orthogonal tones. Each carrier is modulated by DQPSK. The OFDM
packet structure is very simple. Before the voice packet, it has a three-tone header. This
preamble makes it possible to capture the correct symbol timing and to compensate for
any frequency offset caused by SSB tuning.
After a one-second header burst, we have a 72-bit reference vector symbol. Each
carrier is modulated by DPSK; so the receiver must have the initial phase information as
a reference. Followed by the reference comes a 4-symbol voice packet start marker.
Receivers detect the initial timing of each voice packet by matching unique 4x72 bits
pseudo-noise (PN) codes. When the unit detects PTT has been pushed, the MODEM
generates 72-bit voice packets from vocoder.
After the MODEM detects that PTT has been released, it must send an 8-symbol
closing code. The receiver can terminate voice packet decoding by detecting this end
marker. This is also a unique PN code but it is just an inverted copy of the start marker
In each 20-msec frame, a 4-msec guard interval is inserted that protects against
degradation from multi-path fading. The guard interval is just added to the start of each
16-msec voice frame.
Reference Vector
Fig 1 Voice Packet Start marker End marker

3 tones Header 72bits Voice symbols

Fig 2 OFDM symbol Copy

Guard interval
OFDM signal
1-2 AMBE(Advanced Multi-Band Excitation)
AMBE was developed by DVSI. If you want to implement this protocol into your
system, you need to use the AMBE chip supplied by DVSI or you have to make a license
agreement with DVSI. DVSI have not released detailed information about their AMBE
There are many possible types of output format from the AMBE chip. In this
protocol, a 3600-bps data frame has to be selected. This includes 2400 bps plain voice
data and 1200 bps parity data. Error control is a part of AMBE. For the AMBE2020 chip,
the parameters you have to set are as follow:
Fig 3 AMBE2020 parameters

table with 3 columns and 8 rows
Frame head marker
00000000000000002 ********------------- ------------*------------Lo -----------------------*CN
(Depends on your system) Power control: normal operation st Frame is used former dataI Disable
$1030 Ra
te information 1 2400/1200
$4000 Bl
ock Coding
$0000 Ra
te information 2
$0000 Ra
te information 3 Block Code
$0048 R
ate Information 4
AMBE compresses 8-kbps-sa
mpled digital voice into a 72 bits/20 msec data stream.
table end

The parity data are included in 72-bit frame. The OFDM modulator has to synchronize its
symbol timing with the 20-msec voice frame of AMBE chip.
1-3 Three Tones Header
HF communication has been done by SSB in ham radio for a long time now. With
analog voice, mistuning causes incorrect pitch in a receiver; but a little bit is acceptable.
In the OFDM scheme, error rate is very sensitive to frequency offset. Without automatic
compensation, it would be impossible to make digital communications by OFDM through
an HF channel.
An OFDM receiver has to be locked to the symbol timing of the transmitter.
Synchronization by detection of the convolution peak of the guard interval is possible;
but it is too weak to get the correct phase. On the other hand, autocorrelation of the
header provides fast lockup.
For that reason, the digital voice packet has a three-tone preamble. The original idea
was the G4GUO modem. From a compensation point of view, a single tone is enough to
send as preamble; but it is not enough for frequency-selective fading. Even if a receiver
were unable to detect one of three tones, it can detect and compensate the signal using the
other two tones. Consider frequencies as follow:
Tone 1 62.5Hz x 8 = 500 Hz
Tone 2 62.5Hz x 16 = 1000 Hz
Tone 3 62.5Hz x 24 = 1500 Hz
In this OFDM mode, carrier spacing is 62.5 Hz so that header can also be generated by
the same signal processing as another OFDM voice frame. This means the three tones are
also orthogonal (mutually exclusive).
The header frame has the 20-msec symbol structure shown in Fig 2. The phase
of each tone is inverted every 20-msec symbol. This is equivalent to a 1,0,1,0… data
stream modulated by BPSK on each tone. Modulated tones are added as in Fig 4's
Fig 4 Three-tone header waveform

1-4 OFDM carriers and IFFT
This OFDM symbol has to be synchronized with 20-msec frame of the vocoder. The
digital voice sampling rate is 8 kHz. OFDM modulation is managed by a 128-point
inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). That means that 128 samples of voice data are feed
to IFFT processing. A 4-msec guard interval is inserted into each OFDM symbol. Basic
parameters of the IFFT are as follow:
8 kHz = 125 usec. digital voice sampling rate
125 usec x 128 = 16 msec IFFT output
125 usec x 32= 4 msec guard interval
125 usec x 160= 20 msec total OFDM symbol
8 kHz /128 = 62.5 Hz carrier spacing
The output signal has to be real so that 64 carriers can be used for this modem.
An HF radio can send signals from around 300 Hz to 2.6 kHz. Only 36 carriers are
selected for this modem.
Hz x 5 = 312.5 Hz lowest carrier
Hz x (5+35) = 2,500 Hz highest carrier
1-5 OFDM modulation
36 carriers are modulated by the differential QPSK. At first, each 72-bit AMBE
frame is formatted into 36 symbols/2-bits pair.
Fig 5 Formatting 36 symbols
MSB 72bits AMBE frame LSB

table with 10 columns and 2 rows
A71 A72
table end

36symbols for 36 carriers

A1 A3 A5
A71 U axis (Real part)
A2 A4 A6
A72 V axis (Imaginary part)

table with 11 columns and 2 rows
Each symbol is Gray coded.
Fig 6 Gray code A2n-1 (U) A2 n (V)
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
Gray code
Uj Vj
0 0
0 1
1 1
1 0
table end

Symbols are modulated by the differential QPSK.
Fig 7 DQPSK modulation

table with 5 columns and 3 rows
Uj Vj
0 0
0 1
1 1
1 0
Phase Change
table end

Im Im

Last Symbol Current Symbol

Fig 8 IFFT

1-6 Reference Vector
In this OFDM scheme, each carrier is modulated by differential QPSK so that
receiver must know the last phase position to calculate the current phase change. Just
after the three-tone header, the receiver cannot have the most-recent phase information of
the transmitter. So each OFDM packet has the reference vector at the end of header. It
would be acceptable to set any vector as the reference; but for convenience, an example is
shown as follows:
1-7 Start Marker Code
The OFDM signal is pseudo-random colored noise so it is hard to identify the signal
as OFDM or just noise at the receiver end. After the reference vector, four symbols are
inserted into each OFDM voice packet. 4x72 bits are a unique PN code. They are
modulated by the normal 36 tones of OFDM instead of the 72-bit AMBE voice frame.
Fig 8 Start Marker Code

table with 11 columns and 4 rows
table end

1-8 End Marker Code
To close each OFDM voice packet, the end marker code is added at the end of each
voice frame. Eight symbols are inserted into the voice packet after the modem detects
PTT is released. The code is a unique PN code but it is just an inverted copy of the start
maker code.
Fig 9 Start Marker Code

table with 11 columns and 8 rows
table end

Annex A Crest Factor
This is not a part of the digital voice format but you have to pay attention to the
peak-to-average (crest factor) of OFDM transmissions. OFDM has a flat spectrum so that
it must generate a very high crest factor. This may cause serious problems for the final
amplifier of transmitter.
Crest-factor management is recommended in your system. There are a lot of
ways to fix this problem. The easiest way is just to clip peaks over a certain level. In
many cases, this would work well.
This standard has not described the absolute phase of header burst tones, but it is
very important to decide initial phase in BPSK modulation. These phases strongly affect
the crest factor of the header burst signal.
Annex B Compatibility
This digital voice coding is based on Charles Brain, G4GUO's work. He is a
pioneer of practical OFDM voice modems in HF radio.
Unfortunately, I have never had a chance to test compatibility between G4GUO's
modem and mine. One thing I would like to note is that his modem board used the
AMBE1000 vocoder. It also uses a 3600-bps rate, but I am not sure whether it is the same
format as the AMBE2020 or not, because DVSI has not released detailed information the

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Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 15:03:40

ARRL Teachers Institute Off to a Great Start
Mark Spencer, WA8SME, Director of the ARRL Teachers Institute in Wireless Technology, leads the first of six four-day sessions to be held in 2008.
These participants at the Teachers Institute in Tampa, Florida work together to learn robotics, just one of many topics taught at the Institute.
These Teachers Institute participants try their hand at making a satellite QSL.

The first of six
Teachers Institutes
in 2008 -- hosted by the Museum of Science & Technology in Tampa, Florida -- wrapped up April 10. The 11 participating teachers came away from the experience
with a multitude of ideas to improve their classroom instruction. According to Mark Spencer, WA8SME, Director of the ARRL Teachers Institute on Wireless
Technology, the four-day institute "focuses on the science of radio, bringing space technology into the classroom, microcontroller basics and basic robotics
with emphasis not only on the basic concepts, but also teaching strategies to bring those concepts into the classroom."

Spencer said the Teachers Institute curriculum is an ever-evolving process; this year, a radio telescope project was added that can be used to demonstrate
the fundamentals of radio astronomy. The "Soldering 101" unit was enhanced with the addition of a 24-hour clock kit that the teachers construct and learn
how to solder in the process. Finally, a BOT Instructor's Board was added to enhance the teacher's ability to instruct basic robotics. Spencer said he
designed and developed the BOT board to "tie all the different pillars of the Teachers Institute into one umbrella activity that teachers can use to pull
the school year together. The board also can be used to instruct the individual components of robotics, as well as instruct TV remote technology." Spencer
said he added an ATV component with the board: "There is a lot of stuff going on with this particular resource."

The Teachers Institute isn't all inside classroom work. The teachers participate in a fox-hunt activity, take part in ham satellite QSOs and observe the
collection of satellite imagery transmitted by NOAA satellites -- just as they can do in their classrooms.

Here are a few of the comments from the first 2008 Teachers Institute participants that summarize their experience:

"One of the other teachers in our Academy of Engineering and Design Technology class has applied to attend the Teachers Institute in Dayton this summer.
She is excited about the class after hearing of it and seeing my show-and-tell session."

"We are working on robots now in my class and will be well entrenched by the end of this school year. Next year promises to be fun and exciting for the
students. The Teachers Institute was a great experience, and the personal tutelage was responsible for making it so."

"Wonderful doesn't begin to describe it. I knew the basics of radio communications and transmission through electromagnetic waves, but I now understand
it better than I ever have. The robot was very cool -- it reinvigorated my love of programming. It only took me four attempts to run the maze perfectly!
I also made many contacts that I will use to help throughout my teaching career!"

"The instructor is great, absolutely great -- proof that if you do what you love, you'll love what you do!"

"Thanks again for the wonderful experience. I am looking forward to implementing what I learned in the classroom. Please let me know if you will be offering
any follow up institutes."

The remaining Institutes for 2008 are just about filled to capacity, Spencer said. "Though the application deadline is May 15, the available seats filled
up fast. If you are a teacher, or know of a teacher who could benefit from the experience, don't wait to submit an application for the few remaining seats.
If you can't make it this year, perhaps next year. We are adding two additional instructors in anticipation of expanding the program in the future."

Five more Teachers Institutes are scheduled for 2008: June 16-19 in Rocklin, California at the Parallax Facility; June 25-28 in Tucson, Arizona at Pueblo
Magnet High School; July 14-17 in Dayton, Ohio at P&R Communications, and July 28-31 and August 4-7 in Newington, Connecticut at ARRL Headquarters. Enrollment
in these four-day expenses paid sessions is limited to 12 participants each. Application deadline is May 15, 2008. Applicants must be an active teacher
at elementary, middle or high school level, or hold a leadership position in an enrichment or after-school program; an Amateur Radio license is not required.
For more information, please visit the
Teachers Institute Web site.

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Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 15:05:35

School Club Roundup 2006
Lew Malchick, N2RQ

this year. Junior
KØZ (KØKID) student members with borrowed equipment before receiving their ARRL
Big Project grant.
our club had a blast. We had more operators and
enthusiasm than ever before. It was great to hear
so many new schools on the air. And working an
Italian DX station was amazing. — K5LBJ
We’ve gotten something into the Trenton Times
about four times over the past six years or so.
We have to have a different point of interest. This
year, it was to highlight digital VoIP ability in
Amateur Radio. — Steve, KB2RMS
and electricity experiments. We also made
some CW contacts. This greatly increased the
students and over 25 teachers that participated.
Kids in the Amateur Radio elective class made
their first contact. It was great to watch the kids as
they overcame the “stage-fright” nerves to make
sense of pride and accomplishment. — Steven,
on several bands, plus lots of great schools and
other folks. See everyone next time. — Charles,
Wow, what an exciting contest. Just one “CQ
SCR” and the pileup was a mile deep! — Dave
Timoshik, WA6AYI, for W6YRA
Another fine SCR! More kids participated.
We worked more hours, made 50 percent more
kids came to the shack and 25 got on the microphone.
It really gave our club a shot in the arm.

Charlie, AB4SK, for K4WBM
This is our first contest. — Wade, KØMHP, for

Michele, W1MKY
This was our first time operating in the SCR.
The kids had a blast giving out the South Dakota
multiplier. We are the only school ham club
in SD! Next year we will be in the thick of it.

David, for KBØUQH
PSK31 on 20 meters has turned out to be our
clubs in this mode, and several DX countries, as
well. The brightest part of the entire weeklong
experience was introducing our hobby to more
than 200 students at Barnhart School in Arcadia,
California. — David, W6ØQK, for KI6CKZ
first time on in the Roundup. The students really
enjoyed it. We will be back for the next Roundup.
There are 15 students in the club; 12 participated
K4DMS operated. While there are more points
for a PSK31 QSO, the students thought it was too
phone. Thanks to everyone for the QSOs, and to
the school administration and the sponsors, too.

Edwin, K3IXD, for K4DMS
From September 2006 QST © ARRL
2006 School Club Roundup ScoresCall Sign Score Rank QSOs States Can Prov Countries Clubs Schools Hours Operators Club Name SchoolElementary SchoolsW4KBR
91962 1 351 46 4 6 13 36 19 19 St Aloysius RC St Aloysius ElementaryW3NCS 33578 2 163 34 6 18 4 28 15 3 North Clarion School ARC North Clarion County ESAA3TH
31374 3 148 37 2 18 1 26 23 20 Clarion Area Tech Students (CATS) Clarion Area ESKB3BRT 25347 4 118 28 5 18 6 30 21 21 Cowanesque Valley School ARC Westfield
Area Elementary

SchoolKI4LPW 16416 5 90 26 1 6 4 26 21 16 Powell GT Magnet Elementary School ARS Powell GT Magnet Elementary

SchoolKØZ 3570 6 51 24 1 0 0 9 12 16 Clarence Cannon HRC Clarence Cannon Elementary

SchoolKB2RMS 3192 7 38 15 0 7 1 12 11 10 Chapin School Radio Club Chapin SchoolW9BHB 2052 8 26 15 1 3 1 11 10 2 Boulder Hill Elementary School Radio Club
Boulder Hill Elementary SchoolWA2YCJ 1444 9 19 15 0 1 0 12 12 1 Mawbey Street SchoolK2RUK 901 10 17 12 1 3 6 5 10 3 Odgensburg Amateur Radio Club St. Marguerite

AcademyJunior High/Middle SchoolsK7BZN 84552 1 312 45 3 17 8 38 22 14 Sacajawea Middle School HRC Sacajawea Middle SchoolK4WBM 69167 2 241 41 5 12 7 43
24 25 William Byrd MS ARC William Byrd Middle SchoolK4DMS 60198 3 224 43 5 7 7 37 21 16 DuBose Middle School Radio Club DuBose Middle SchoolK5OMS 36432
4 176 34 2 16 5 29 14 4 Olle Middle School ARC Olle Middle SchoolKG4EDK 12070 5 65 26 0 12 2 20 11 10 Coloma Junior High SchoolKC5KBO 10560 6 80 27 1 2
1 20 11 10 Westbrook Intermediate Hamsters Westbrook Intermediate SchoolAD8B 10560 6 64 31 1 1 1 26 15 38 Zion ARC Zion Lutheran SchoolKE5EJK 9975 8 75
28 2 4 2 19 14 5 Lampasas Middle School Youth ARC Lampasas Middle SchoolW7ERY 8034 9 73 19 1 2 3 15 21 34 Wildcat Hams Maple Grove Middle SchoolKI6CKZ
5626 10 61 22 1 3 1 6 18 23 Barnhart Middle School Amateur Radio Club Barnhart SchoolKC2ILA 3478 11 37 10 0 12 1 14 11 15 Central Square Middle School
ARC Central Square Middle SchoolWH6BDR 3060 12 34 20 0 0 0 14 20 19 Chelsea Middle SchoolN1IFP 1925 13 25 15 0 0 1 12 6 31 Messalonskee Middle School Messalonskee
Middle SchoolKB1KLE 520 14 13 7 0 2 3 5 6 3 New Testament Knights ARC New Testament Christian

SchoolNT5HS 486 15 9 9 0 0 0 9 2 4 North Texas Homeschoolers ARCKBØUQH 377 16 13 9 0 0 0 4 5 8 Hot Springs School Radio Club Hot Springs Middle SchoolKC8KOH
372 17 12 7 1 1 1 4 4 6 Ritchie Co Middle School ARC Ritchie Co Middle SchoolDX Junior High/Middle SchoolsWP4AOH 21691 1 118 20 1 26 1 12 22 2 CMM Cupey
Maria MontessoriHigh SchoolsK5LBJ 125375 1 423 45 4 5 8 45 24 10 LBJ High School Amateur Radio Club LBJ High SchoolWI5ND 117600 2 400 46 4 4 5 46 22 10
Wagoner Windtalkers Wagoner High SchoolWB4HS 86618 3 322 45 6 17 8 37 24 18 WBHS Amateur Radio Club William Byrd High SchoolK9SOU 31416 4 154 31 4 10 2
31 16 11 Bloomington HS South ARC Bloomington HS SouthKCØENB 31008 5 152 28 2 4 5 32 14 6 Russell High School Radio Club Russel High SchoolK1BBS 27636
6 188 33 3 15 3 18 14 35 Burr And Burton ARC Burr And Burton AcademyN3THS 24759 7 189 13 2 25 13 13 20 78 Amateur Radio Club of Trinity-ARCoT Trinity High
SchoolN4LZJ 20750 8 114 39 2 4 3 23 15 9 Colonial Forge HS Ham Radio Club Colonial Forge HSW2CXN 16485 9 105 30 0 13 2 22 13 4 Brooklyn Technical High
School ARC and Society Brooklyn Technical High SchoolKB1NAY 16402 10 109 24 2 16 1 19 24 10 Chelmsford HS ARC Chelmsford High SchoolKB3BKW 10976 11 112
17 4 16 3 11 8 7 Belle Vernon HS ARC Belle Vernon Area High SchoolK3NHC 6032 12 58 20 0 0 2 16 6 8 North Hills Amateur Radio & Electronics Club (AREC)
North Hills High SchoolKG4RSK 4982 13 41 16 0 6 1 14 14 5 Commonwealth Governor’s School Riverbend High SchoolK7EFA 3290 14 34 19 1 2 1 14 16 150 Yellowstone
Radio Club Billings Christian SchoolKC2AIF 2170 15 35 10 1 10 3 7 18 2 Pioneer HS ARC Pioneer High SchoolW8SWD 920 16 20 8 0 2 3 6 11 5 Milford High School
Communications Club Milford High SchoolKC2OUQ 672 17 15 10 0 3 2 5 5 6 Walt Whitman High School ARC Walt Whitman HSKB1AMG 224 18 7 5 0 0 1 5 5 1 Bulldog
ARC Lawrence High SchoolDX High SchoolsMXØPSL 396 1 18 3 0 9 0 2 5 3 Priory LSST Amateur Radio Club The Priory LSST SchoolColleges/UniversitiesW7ASU 273240
1 572 46 6 23 10 73 23 5 Amateur Radio Society at Arizona State University Arizona State UniversityW6YRA 188365 2 505 49 6 7 3 61 17 2 UCLA ARC University
of California,

Los AngelesK5LSU 140010 3 290 44 5 22 9 54 24 5 Amateur Radio Society at Louisiana State University Louisiana State UniversityND1U 64496 4 227 42 6 8 3
34 24 5 Amateur Radio Club of Notre Dame University of Notre DameWD5AGO 27945 5 115 34 1 2 3 40 12 3 Tulsa Community College ARC Tulsa Community CollegeK4TTC
25724 6 109 32 1 2 3 39 14 8 Amateur Radio Club-Hohenwald Tennessee Technology Center-

HohenwaldW4BUC 3900 7 39 26 0 2 1 14 10 3 University Amateur Radio Club Eastern Tennessee State

UniversityW2DSC 3430 8 35 20 1 0 1 15 1 1 New York University Amateur Radio Society New York UniversityW8EDU 3030 9 30 16 1 0 2 16 5 1 Case Western Reserve
University Club Station Case Western Reserve

UniversityNØUNL 1020 10 34 14 1 0 0 3 3 1 UNL Amateur Radio Club University of NebraskaDX Colleges/UniversitiesON4HTI 20520 1 188 16 2 34 9 4 20 3 STARCom
Oostend Polytechnic UniversityClubs (Non-School)

K3FBI 13132 1 98 28 2 5 2 19 6 1 FBI ARAWB2MIC 990 2 18 11 0 0 2 8 3 1 Wage Peace! Radio GroupW7ASC 96 3 4 4 0 0 0 4 4 1 Center for Amateur Radio LearningIndividualsAF1T
1404 1 18 13 0 0 0 13 2 1W4YCF 1215 2 15 9 0 0 1 14 9 1NIØCK 1168 3 16 11 0 0 1 12 10 1W1MKY 828 4 12 9 0 0 0 12 2 1KA2NRR 767 5 13 9 0 0 0 10 6 1WO8L
704 6 11 9 0 0 0 11 3 1W7CH 490 7 10 8 1 0 0 8 3 1KC7KML 468 8 9 7 0 0 0 9 7 1N2RQ 36 9 3 2 0 0 0 2 1 1WN7Y 24 10 2 2 0 0 0 2 1 1DX IndividualsVE3CRU 3168
1 24 16 0 1 0 23 8 1

From September 2006 QST © ARRL

Post 299 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 15:44:03

2006 ARRL January VHF Sweepstakes Results

Jan Carman, K5MA
however, was generally poor. Flat conditions
2006 Overall
The W8RU Limited Multiop: Ron,W8RU, getting some quality air time with future hams
Julia (left) and Caroline.
Top 10 ScoresSingle Operator,
Low PowerK2DRH 174,894WA3GFZ 106,470N1DPM 106,268AF1T 91,001K1TR 87,859K8GUN 80,357W2MMD (N2NRD, op)
60,528WB2SIH 49,551K3EGE 48,868K9MU 47,806Single Operator,
High PowerK1TEO 429,840K1RZ 293,607K3TUF 249,318WA3NUF 174,240W3SZ 172,840K1JT 168,063K3DNE 140,956WA3DRC 105,462K8TQK 102,466WZ1V 97,440QRP PortableKA1LMR
45,504K6MI 36,427W9SZ 4,875KI7JA 3,040W6DWI 2,106WB2AMU 1,577N8XA 1,156KG6TGI 736KQ6EE 728KØNR 544Limited MultioperatorW3SO 276,210K3YTL 98,084K2AXX 71,412N8ZM
49,206W9RVG 45,582KB1DFB 41,760WN8R 36,192W1QK 31,565W3HZU 29,768KG9BV 25,728MultioperatorK3EAR 804,357N3NGE 504,597W2FU 368,373N2PA 245,632K5QE 187,210K8EB
155,354K3EOD 102,580WA3ZKR 71,796KW1AM 58,800K4LTX 50,350RoverW6XD (+N6NB)
1,180,674K6VCR (+KG6TOA)
1,096,647N6MU 1,070,700N3IQ 334,645N6TEB (+KE6HPZ)
264,972N6DN 232,170K1DS 134,394N1XKT 82,089W3ZZ (+K8ISK)
78,960N3FTI 68,839
From July 2006 QST © ARRL
Affiliated Club Competition
Score Entries
Unlimited Category
Mt Airy VHF Radio Club 2,564,104 56
Medium Category
South Mountain Contest Club 1,146,265 3
Potomac Valley Radio Club 1,057,447 31
North East Weak Signal Group 954,261 19
Rochester VHF Group 775,651 24
Downey ARC 274,365 3
Society of Midwest Contesters 247,853 10
Contest Club Ontario 223,984 15
Badger Contesters 208,348 19
Michigan VHF-UHF Society 203,697 8
Western States Weak Signal 182,577 16
Northern Lights Radio Society 178,616 26
Pacific Northwest VHF Society 156,060 22
Yankee Clipper Contest Club 147,786 8
Murgas ARC 123,180 3
Chippewa Valley VHF Contesters 103,833 12
Northern California Contest 62,122 11
Mad River Radio Club 53,149 4
Six Meter Club of Chicago 29,865 11
Tennessee Contest Group 22,911 7
Florida Contest Group 22,678 3
Carolina DX Assn 20,592 3
Bergen ARA 18,856 5
West Park Radiops 4,832 3
Bears of Manchester 3,513 4
Mobile Sixers Radio Club 2,608 4
Minnesota Wireless Assn 341 3
Local Category
North Texas Microwave Society 163,531 10
Roadrunners Microwave Group 148,212 5
Eastern Panhandle ARC 131,475 5
Delaware Valley VHF Society 60,029 5
Eastern Connecticut ARA 44,201 3
Peconic Amateur Radio Club 13,703 3
Dauberville DX Assn 11,689 3
Medina 2 Meter Group 9,693 4
Raritan Bay Radio Amateurs 7,779 6
10-70 Repeater Assn 3,920 7
Meriden ARC 3,742 3
Ventura County Amateur Radio 2,320 3
East Coast DX Assn 898 3
ever seen.” There were some good moments
The National Scene
Single Operator
From July 2006 QST © ARRL

Bob, KØNR, hiking the trail to the summit
of Mt Herman (DM79mb) for a Single-Op
portable effort.
goes to Phil, WA3NUF, with 174k points,

Since he lives in an antenna-restricted area
of town, Ron, KL1PL, operated as a mobile
from a hill above Anchorage — that’s
devotion for mid-winter in KL7-land.
while N8ZM took the fourth spot with 49k

Regional Scores
Table lists call signs, score and class (A = Single Op Low, B = Single Op High, Q = Single Op Portable, L = Limited Multi, M = Multi Multi, R = Rover).

table with 11 columns and 38 rows
Northeast Regio
Southeast Regio
Central Regio
Midwest Regio
West Coast Regio
(New England, Hudson and
(Delta, Roanoke and
(Central and Great Lakes
(Dakota, Midwest, Rocky
(Pacific, Northwestern and
Atlantic Divisions; Maritime
Southeastern Divisions
Divisions; Ontario Section
Mountain and West Gulf
Southwestern Divisions
and Quebec Sections
Divisions; Manitoba and
Alberta, British Columbia and
Saskatchewan Sections
NWT Sections
WA3GFZ 106,470
K2DRH 174,894
NØKP 42,032
KC6ZWT 21,816
N1DPM 106,268
K9MU 47,806
NØVZJ 24,375
W7GLF 12,628
AF1T 91,001
N9DG 43,279
WB5ZDP 15,336
KG6DHQ 9,331
K1TR 87,859
K4TO 41,418
NM5M 12,578
NU6S 6,300
W2MMD (N2NRD, op)
WA1MKE 26,404
W6ZI 8,370
KN6VR 6,142
K1TEO 429,840
K8TQK 102,466
K9MK 49,113
KG6IYN 39,760
K1RZ 293,607
VE3AX 91,959
W5LUA 33,361
N7EPD 30,743
K3TUF 249,318
K8MD 77,694
W3XO 28,645
K6TSK 19,380
WA3NUF 174,240
WA8RJF 56,880
K5VH 27,132
K7YO 19,195
W3SZ 172,840
KB8U 56,826
K5LLL 25,670
WA6KLK 14,280
KA1LMR 45,504
W9SZ 4,875
KØNR 544
K6MI 36,427
WB2AMU 1,577
N8XA 1,156
KI7JA 3,040
N3TEP 160
W6DWI 2,106
KC2JRQ 108
KG6TGI 736
N1ZGY 45
KQ6EE 728
W3SO 276,210
N8ZM 49,206
K5ETX 3,795
W6SN 8,439
K3YTL 98,084
W9RVG 45,582
WØETV 1,595
K6UCI 6,375
K2AXX 71,412
WN8R 36,192
NØUNL 1,098
K7XC 2,697
KB1DFB 41,760
KG9BV 25,728
N1SZ 4
VE7HPS 217
W1QK 31,565
N9TF 13,986
K3EAR 804,357
K8EB 155,354
K5QE 187,210
N6KN 26,509
N3NGE 504,597
N8KOL 44,304
KBØHH 25,192
W6YX 7,260
W2FU 368,373
N2BJ 27,141
W5LCC 3,132
KG6ONE 3,600
N2PA 245,632
WC8VOA 3,105
KQ6NO 1,984
K3EOD 102,580
AB8LB 189
N3IQ 334,645
VE3OIL 34,272
N5AC (+W5TX) 45,804
W6XD (+N6NB) 1,180,674
K1DS 134,394
WB8BZK 19,796
N1XKT 82,089
K9JK 10,582
W3ZZ (+K8ISK) 78,960
VE3VZ 7,163
ND2X (+NX1N) 32,472
N6MU 1,070,700
N3FTI 68,839
KD5SHM 26,334
W5TV (+AE5P) 22,100
N6DN 232,170
table end

Regional Highlights
K4QI, at the top with 78k points from his
From July 2006 QST © ARRL
West Coast
Division Leaders
Single Operator Low Power
Atlantic WA3GFZ 106,470
Central K2DRH 174,894
Dakota NØKP 42,032
Delta KD4HIK 11,895
Great Lakes K4TO 41,418
Hudson WB2SIH 49,551
Midwest NØLL 6,820
New England N1DPM 106,268
Northwestern W7GLF 12,628
Pacific KC6ZWT 21,816
Roanoke K8GUN 80,357
Rocky Mountain WVØH 4,836
Southeastern W4LIA 9,802
Southwestern KG6DHQ 9,331
West Gulf WB5ZDP 15,336
Canada VA3KA 15,840
Single Operator High Power
Atlantic K1RZ 293,607
Central K9EA 55,836
Dakota WØGHZ 19,432
Delta K5WBX 3,784
Great Lakes K8TQK 102,466
Hudson N2GHR 43,344
Midwest KMØT 5,265
New England K1TEO 429,840
Northwestern N7EPD 30,743
Pacific WA6KLK 14,280
Roanoke K4QI 78,657
Southeastern W4WA 77,965
Southwestern KG6IYN 39,760
West Gulf K9MK 49,113
Canada VE3AX 91,959
Limited Multioperator
Atlantic W3SO 276,210
Central W9RVG 45,582
Delta KØXXX 1,470
Great Lakes N8ZM 49,206
Hudson K2BAR 16,698
Midwest WØETV 1,595
New England KB1DFB 41,760
Pacific W6SN 8,439
Roanoke KG4LEV 14,535
Rocky Mountain N1SZ 4
Southeastern N4DXY 8,344
Southwestern K6UCI 6,375
West Gulf K5ETX 3,795
Canada VE2DC 1,952
Atlantic K3EAR 804,357
Central N2BJ 27,141
Delta AG4V 21,988
Great Lakes K8EB 155,354
Hudson N2GCZ 16,170
New England KW1AM 58,800
Pacific W6YX 7,260
Roanoke K4LTX 50,350
Southwestern N6KN 26,509
West Gulf K5QE 187,210
Single Operator Portable
Atlantic N3TEP 160
Central W9SZ 4,875
Great Lakes N8XA 1,156
Hudson WB2AMU 1,577
Midwest NUØC 36
New England KA1LMR 45,504
Northwestern KI7JA 3,040
Pacific K6MI 36,427
Roanoke KZ1AMY 1
Rocky Mountain KØNR 544
Southwestern W6DWI 2,106
Canada VE7VIE 18
Atlantic N3IQ 334,645
Central WB8BZK 19,796
Dakota KCØIYT 10,080
Delta N4FLM 22,320
Hudson KJ1K 2,162
New England W1AUV 13,630
Northwestern K3UHF 43,152
Pacific W6XD (+N6NB) 1,180,674
Roanoke W4TXS 14,357
Southeastern AF4OD 44,840
Southwestern N6TEB (+KE6HPZ) 264,972
West Gulf N5AC (+W5TX) 45,804
Canada VE3OIL 34,272
The Western Piedmont Amateur Radio Club
(Morganton,North Carolina) and the Marion
(NC) Amateur Radio Association joined
forces to enter as KG4LEV from Walker Top
Affiliated Club Competition
million points from 56 members in the Unlimited category. This score is more than twice the score they posted last year, the year of the huge snowstorm
in the central and northeastern parts of the country; however, their total score in 2004 from 56 members exceeded 2.8 million points, so 2006 was not their
best year!
North Texas Microwave Society with 163k
Clubs are Critical to Success

I would like to get in touch with...

Cliff Cheng, KI6CM

From July 2006 QST © ARRL

Post 300 of 367

Account disabled
285 posts
Thursday, 05-Jun-2008 15:45:32

San Diego Area Youngsters Enjoy Contact with NA1SS Aboard the International Space Station

Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR and John Phillips, KE5DRY

Flight Engineer John Phillips, KE5DRY (right), responded to questions from pupils at Coronado Village Elementary School May 24. At the left is Expedition
11 Crew Commander Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR. [NASA photo]

NEWINGTON, CT, Jun 3, 2005--During a May 24
contact with the International Space Station, students in Mrs Singleton's class at Coronado Village Elementary School near San Diego asked Expedition 11
flight engineer John Phillips, KE5DRY, about his view of Earth from orbit and the end of the world.

"When the sun collapses into itself and becomes a black hole, will it have enough gravity to suck in the other planets?" one student wanted to know. Phillips
replied, reassuringly, "Our sun in not big enough to become a black hole…" Asked about his view of Earth, he told the students, "Earth is very, very beautiful.
In the daytime you see the blue of the ocean, the white snow and tan deserts, and in the night you can see lights and lightning. Just the other day I flew
over Coronado and saw the beach and the big hotels…"

One student asked if the space station's living quarters looked like an apartment. Phillips replied, "It's sort of like an apartment. We have a kitchen,
a bathroom and two tiny bedrooms." In view of the fact that ISS astronauts are in space for months at a time, Adam Phillips, the astronaut's nephew, asked,
appropriately, how Phillips kept in touch with his family. "I can send and receive e-mail," he replied. "I have weekly video conferences with my wife and
two children, and I can even make phone calls some of the time. In fact I'm going to call my brother Nathan and your family one of these days."

Roberto Vittori, Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR, and John Phillips, KE5DRY

The ISS Expedition 11 crew and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori (top left) inspect the interior of their Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft. Expedition
11 is commanded by cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR (center), with NASA astronaut John Phillips, KE5DRY (right), serving as flight engineer. ESA photo.

Click here
to listen to the ARISS QSO between NA1SS and students at Coronado Village Elementary School in California: [8:07]. ARRL and ARISS thank MCI for making this
audio clip possible.

One envious student asked how to become an astronaut. "Well," Phillips replied, "you start by doing well in school and then going to college and start a
career as a scientist, engineer, pilot or a medical doctor."

The last question belonged to Mrs Singleton, who was filling in for an absent student. She asked Phillips whether he dreams in space. "I haven't remembered
any dreams in space yet," he replied, "but that's normal for me because I hardly ever remember them on Earth, either."

ARISS is an international educational outreach with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.

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